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-"^^ 



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t♦?^> 





t .:' ^; 



**^. 



'd»--£^ 



GAZETTEER 

OF 

UPPER BURMA 

AND THE 

SHAN STATES. 






IN FIVE VOLUMES. 



COMPILED FROM OFFICIAL PAPERS BY 

J. GEORGE SCOTT, 

BARRISTER-AT-LAW, CLE, M.R.A.S, F.R.G.S« 
ASSISTED BY 

J. P. HARDIMAN, I.C.S. 



PART II.-VOL. III. 



RANGOON: 

PRINTBD BY THB SUPBRINTBNOBNT, GOVERNMBNT PRINTING, BURMA. 

I 90 I. f 

[PART II, VOLS. », tt & \\\,-WVSl.-. ^*.\^A«-.\^'\ 






717244 



^B Ralang 

^H RalAn or Ralawn 

^H Rapum 

^H Ratanapura 

^H Rawa 

^H Rawkwa 

^H Rawtu or Maika 

^H Rawva 

^H Rawvan 

^H Raw-ywa 

^H Reshen 

^^1 Rimpi 

^H Rimpe 

^H Rosshi or Warrshi 

^H Ruby Mines 

^H Ruibu 

^M Rumklao 

^H Rumshe 

^H Rutong 

^H Sa-ba-dwin 
^H Sa-ba-hmyaw 
^H Sa-ban 
^H Sa-ba-saw 
^H Sa-ba-thin 
^H Sabba-gyi-gyat 
^M Sa-hb 
^H Sa-b^gu 
^H Sa-bi-na-go 
^H Sa-be-j'vama 
^H Sa-byan 
^H Sa-byaw 
^H Sadankong 
^H Sa-daung 


I 

Page. 
I 

... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 

2 

... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 

... 32 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 

... ib. 

::. i 

... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib, 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
• •• 34 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... lb. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib, 

••• 35 
.,, ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... Jb. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... 36 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 


CONTENTS. 

VOLUME III. 

Page. 
Sagaing ... 36 
... 64 

ih 


Sa-le-ywe ... 83 ^^H 
Sa-li ... ib. ^^^H 
Sa-lim ... ib. ^^^^| 
Sa-lin ... ib. ^^^H 

... 84 ^H 

Salin ... ib. ^^^H 
Sa-lin chaung ... 86 ^^^^| 
Sa-lin-daung 89 ^^^^| 


6-; 


Saga Tingsa ... 76 
SagAnwa or Sagong ... ib. 
Sa-gu ... ib. 


Sagun ... ib. 
Sa-gwe ... ib. 
Sa-gyan . ... ib. 
Sa-gyet . ... ib. 
Sagyilain or Limkai ... J',' 
Sa-gyin ... ib. 
Sa-gyin North ... ib. 
Sa-gyin South ... ib. 
Sa-gyin Sfin-baing ... ib. 
Sa-gyin-wa ... ib. 
Sa-gyu ... ib. 
Sai Ilein ... ib. 
Saileng ... 78 
Saing-byin North ... ib. 
Saing-byin South ... ib. 
Saing-dfe ... ib. 
Saing-du .,. ib. 
Saing-gaung ,,. ib. 

... it>. 

Sainggdn ... ib. 
Saing-in ... ib. 
Saing-kin ... 79 
Saing-la-ya or Saing-ya ib. 
Saing Naing ... ib. 
Sainfln ... ib. 
Saiyan .,, ib. 
Sa-ka ... ib. 


Sa-lin-gan ... ib. ^^^H 
Sa-lin-g.i-thu .v. rb. ^^^H 
Sa-lin-gdn ... ib. ^^^H 
Sa-lin-gyi ... ib. ^^^| 


Sallavati ,,. ib. ^^^H 
Sa-lun ... ^^^H 
Salween ... ib. ^^^H 
Sama ... 103 ^^^^| 
S.ima or Suma ... ib. ^^^H 
S.vme-gan-gAn ... rb. ^^^| 
S.vmeik ... ib. ^^^H 
Sa-mcik-kdn ... ib. ^^^| 

7 ... ^^M 

Sa-mi ... 104 ^^^H 
Sa-mi-dun-gyi ... ib. ^^^H 
Sa-mi-dun-ng6 ... ib. ^^^H 
Sam Ka ... ib. ^^^H 
Sam Pu ... 108 ^^^H 
Sam Pum (San-pAn)',,, ib. ^^^| 
Sa-mun ib. ^^^H 
Samyaul ... 109 ^^^H 
San-da 4,. ib. ^^M 
San-da-la-zu ... ib. ^^^M 
San-dan „. ib. ^^^H 
Sa-da-pu-ri .... ib. ^^^| 
Sanga ... ib. ^^H 
Sang Hon ... ib. ^^^H 
Sanguar ... ib. ^^^| 
San-paing ... ib. ^^^H 
San-yaung ... no ^^H 
San-ywa ... ib. ^^H 
San-ywe ... ib. ^^H 
San-zw& ... ib. ^^^H 
Sao Pawn ... jb. ^^^H 
Sao Pawn or Kawng Hpa ib. ^^^| 
Sao Pong ,., it>. ^^H 

l^-p^d\ .., ib. ^^m 

.Sarak or Harak ... ib. ^^^1 
Safaw .,, ft, ^^^H 
Sarawkong .,, j^ ^^^H 
1 Sarengchet ,,', n^] ^^^M 
1 Sassakyet or Sachakyet ib! ^H 
Satawn ,,, j^, ^^^H 




Sa-kan ... ib. 
Sa-kan-gyi .. ib. 
Sa-kan-ma ... ib. 
Sak.-ip ... ib. 
Sakat ... ib. 
Sakaw ... ib. 
Sa-kaw ... 80 
Sa-koi ... ib. 
Salazang ... 82 
Sa-Ie ... ib. 
- _. _ \u 


^H Sa-daw 


^ Sa-do 


^ Sa-d6n 


^H Sa-d6n-gw& 
^H Sa-dwin 
■ Saga 


Sa-le-ga-!e or Sa-re Nam* 

ngaw. 
Sa- e-kyun ... 83 
Sa-le-myin ... ib, 
Salen . . ib. 
Sa-le-ywa ... ib. 
Sa-le-ywe ... ib. 




^1 Sa-ga-daung 

^^^^ Sa-ga-^a-le 
^^^K Sa-ga-m 
^^^H Sagaing 



n ^ 




^ CONTENTS. 




^^^™ 


^^" 




Page 


Pag,. 1 




Page. 


Satha-gfin 


... in 


Seksekyo e/iaHN^ 


"9 


Shaw-byu-bin 


... 137 


Sa-thein 


... 113 


Sektu 


ib. 


Shaw-gan 


... ib. 


Sa-ti-hsu 


... ib, 


Sekurr 


120 


Shawlan 


... ib. 


Sat- kin 


... ib. 


Si Lan 


ib. 


Sha-zi-gyet 


... ib. 


Satkyo 


... ib. 


Se-min-daw 


121 


Shi 


... ib. 


Sa-t6n 


... ib. 


Si Mun 


ib. 


Shein-ma-ga 


... ib. 


Sat6n 


... ib. 


Sen-gan 


ib. 




... 138 


Satpya-gyin 


... ib. 


Sengleng 


ib. 


Sheipe 


... ib. 


Sat-tein 


... ib. 


Seng Turn 


ib. 


Shempi 


... ib. 


Sat-the 


... ib. 


Se-o-bo 


ib. 


Sherrwe 


... ib. 


Sat-tha-wa 


... 113 


Sepi 


ib. 


Shielmong 


... ib. 


Sat-thwa 


... ib. 


Set-ka-ba 


ib. 


Shillam 


... «29 


Sauaung 


... ib. 


SitOn Hung 


ib. 


Shilong 


... ib. 


Sauk-taw-wa 


... ib. 


Set-taw 


132 


Shimpi 


... ib. 




... ib. 

... ib. 


Si U 
Se-wa 


ib. 
ib. 


Shimu 
Shim)aul 


... ib. 
... ib. 


Saungte 


Saungiya 


... ib. 


Si-ywa 


ib. 


Shimyawl 


... ib. 


Saw 

Sa-wa-di 

Sawlfin 


... ib. 
... ib. 
... 11 + 




ib. 


Shi-nan 

Shin-daw-kfln 

Shingai 


... ib. 
... ib. 
... 130 




Si-ywa chaung 


123 
ib. 


Saw-mft 


... 115 


Sha-bin 


ib. 


Shingop or Senmakor... ib. 


Sawthi 
Sa-ye 


... ib. 
... ib. 




ib. 
ib. 


Shin-hia 
Shinkwon 


... ib. 
... ib. 


Sha-bin-gaing 
Sha-bin-hla 


Sa-ye- wa 


... ib. 


ib. 


Shin-ma-gan 


... ib. 


Sa->'in-gdn 


... ib. 


Sha-bin-ye 


ib. 


Shinshi 


... ib. 


Sea-ak or Seyat 


... ib. 


Sha-daw 


ib. 


Shirawkong 


... ib. 


Se-bin-gyj 

Se-bin-2u 

Sft-daw 


... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 




ib. 
ib. 
ib. 


Shirklai 
Shirshi 
Shit-ywa chaung 


... ib. 
... I3« 
... ib. 


... 


... 






... ib. 
... Ii6 




ib. 
124 


Sh6n-shi 
Shopun 


... ib. 
... ib. 


Se-do 


Sha-du 


S&En 


... ib. 


Sha-g6n 


ib. 


Shumshum 


... ib. 




... ib. 
... ib. 


Sha-la 

Shalaokran (Shatokran' 


ib. 
ib. 


Shunkla 
Shurbum 


ih 


Se-gyi 


... lU. 

... ib. 


S6-gyi 


... ib. 


Sha Man T6n or Lower 




Shurgnen 


... ib. 




... ib. 


Man Tfln 


ib. 


Shurkwa 


... 132 


Sft-hi 


... ib. 


Sha-mcin 


ih. 


Shwe-ban 


... ib. 




... 117 
... ib. 

... ib. 


Sha-mo Htai 

Sha-myo ... 

Shan Daw 


ib. 

ib. 

125 


Shwe-baung 

Shwe-be 

Shwe-bo 


... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 




Seik-che 


Seik-kwa 
Seik-pyu 


... ib. 
... ib. 


Shan-di 
Shan-gaing 


ib. 
ib. 




... 146 

.. ib. 






Scikpyu 


••. ib. 


Shan-ga-le-kyun 


ib. 





... 147 


Seik-tha 


... ib. 


Shan-gaw 


ib. 




... 149 






... ib. 


Shang Man Tfln or Up- 




Shwe-b6n-tha 


... ib. 






... 118 

... ib. 


per Man Ttx\ 
Shan-myaung-yo 


ib. 
ib. 




ib. 


Seik-tha-su 




ih 




lU. 


Seik-that 


... ib. 


Shan-naw 


ib. 


Shwe-da 


... ib. 


Seik-thin-bo 


... ib. 


Shan-pa-aing 


126 





... ib. 


Sein-ban-gan 


... ib- 


Shan-seik 


ib. 


Shwe-da-gan 


... ib. 


Sein-ban-gAn 


... ib. 


Shan-su 


ib. 


Shwe-daung 


... ib. 


Sein-dAn 


... ib. 


Shan-tOn 


ib. 





... ib. 


Sein-gan 


... ib. 


Shan-ywa 


ib. 


Shwe-daung-gyun 


... 150 


Sein-gdn 


... ib. 


Shauk-pin 


ib. 


Shwe-d6n 


... ib. 


Sein-nan 


... ib. 




ib. 


Shwe-dwin 


... ib. 


Seintong or Seing 


Ton I ig 


S hauk-pin-chaung 


ib. 


Shwe-ga 


... ib. 


Seintong 


... ib. 




ib. 


Shwe-ge 


ib 




. • - lU. 


Sein-zeik-gan 


... ib. 


Shaw'byu 


ib. 


Shwe-ge-byan 


... ib. 


Seit-kun 
Seit-tha 
Se-kan 


... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 






Shwe-gdn-daing 
Shwe-gu 


... ib. 


• •• 


'ib' 
ib. 


... ib! 


• •• 

Shaw-byu-bin 


... X54 





CONTENTS. 



Shwe*gu 



Shwe-gu-ga-le 
Shwe-giin-dAlt 
Shwe-gyaung 



Shwe-gyel-yet 

Shwe-gyin 

Shwe-hle 

Shwe-in 

Shwe-ka-daw 

Shwe-kon-daing 

Shwc-ku-anaiik 

Shwe-ku A-«hc 

Shwe-kyi-na 

Shwe-kyu 

Shwe-lan 

Shwe-le 

Shwe-Ie-gyin 

Shwe-li 



Shwe-lin-iwe 

Shwe-lun 

Shwe-m6k-taw 

ShwC'inyaung 

Shwe-myo 

Shwe-nyaung-bin 

Shwe-pan 

Shwe-pan-gyin or 

yna-kadin 
Shwe-pauk-pin 



Page. 

.. >54 

•. 15S 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 156 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

,. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. JS7 

., ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. lb. 

.. ib. 

.. ib, 

.. 159 

,. ib. 

,. ib. 

.. t6o 

,. ib. 

,. ib. 

,. ib. 



A- 



Shwe-pu (Shwe-pye).. 
Shwe-pyi 



She- 



Shwe-pyi-nga-ywa 
Shwe-pyi Nyi-naung 
Shwe si-swfe 
Shwe-ta-gyi 
Shwe-tan-dit 
Shwelaung 

daung 
Shwe-tha-min chauiig 
Shvve-yin-hmyaw 
Shwc-yin-ma 
Shwe-za-yan 

Shwe-zaye 

Shwe-*et-taw 

Shwe-zi-g6n 

Shwumpe 

Shwungzan or Lunoi . 

Si-ba 

Si-daing-gan 

Si-di 

Si-d6k->ta-ya 



ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
162 
ib. 
lb. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
163 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
164 
ib. 

i65 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 



Si-dAk-ta>ya 

Si-gaung 

Sr-gyaung 

Si-gyi 

Si-he 

Si-het 

Si-kan-ga-le 

Si-kan-gyi 

Si-kaw 



Si-iaimg 
■Si-ma 



Si-maw 

Si-mi-gauk 

Sim«;ing 

Si-na-daung 

Sin-aingor ThAn-daung 

Sin-aung-gon 

Sin-baung-w& 

Sin-bo 



Sinbdn 
Sin-but 
Sin-byu 



Sin-byu-ffdn 

Sin-byu-gyi 

Sin-byu-gyun 

Sin-cfian 

Sin-che-ya 

Sin-daing 

Sin-dalng-gan 

Sin-d.i-lu 

Sin-dat 

Sin-daw-thi 

Sin-dfc 



Sin-do 

Sin-e-the 

Sin-ga 



Sin-gaing 



Siri'gaung 



Sin-gaung Kyauk-taw 
SingVcaling Hkamti ... 
Singman ... 
Singngin or Saingkin... 
Singii or Nga-sin-gu... 
Sin-gu 

Sing-tit ... 

"^^^^^~ ••• 

Sin-gyati 

Sin-gyo ... 

Singyun ... 



Page. 
.. 166 

.. ib. 
.. ib. 

.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
,. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. 167 
.. ib. 
,. ib. 
.. ib- 
., ib. 
.. 168 
.. ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

170 

171 
172 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

173 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

•74 

ib. 
176 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib, 
ib, 
ib. 

«77 
ib. 

lb. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 



Sin-ka 
Sin-kan 

Sin-kat 



n-kin 

nkwa 

n-lan 

n-lan-gyaung 

n-lu-afng 

ntum ga-Ie 

nlum Gyi 

n-ma-yfe 

n-min 

n-mye 

n-naing 

n-ni-daung 

n-o 

n-6n in 

n-p6k 

n-she ehaung 

n-shin 

n-sit 

n-ta-ga 

n-the 



Sin-the or Mi-2a-li 

Sin-the-gdn 

Sin-the-wa 

Sin-u-ga-le 

Sin-yan 

Sin-yauk-gyi 

Sin-yu 

Sin-ywa 



Sin-ywa-ga-le 

Sin-ywa-gyi 

Sin-ywe-gdn 

Sin-zi 

Sin-zein 

Sin-zot 

Sin-zwA 



Sin-zwi-but 
Si'tha 



Si-tha-myi 
Si-thaung 
Si-thi 

Si-thi-ywa North 
Si-thi-ywa South 
Sit-hlym 
Sit-in-gyaung 
Sit-kd-bia 



Pagi. 

... 178 

... >b. 

... ib. 

... 179 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib 

... ib. 

... ib, 

... ib. 

... 180 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... iSi 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 182 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

..4 ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 183 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... 1S4 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

. •• ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 
... 185 

... ib. 

... ib. 



^^^^^^B 


W CONTENTS. ^^H^B 


■ 


H 


Page. 


Page. 




P'^f- ^1 


^H Sjt'kdn 


... 185 


Sut-bflk-taung .. 194 


Ta Hsang U 


... 201 ^^H 


^^m Sit-pin 


... ib. 


Su-yin ... ib. 


Ta-bseo-ssu or Mai 


Hungaos ^^| 


^H Sitsai 


... ib. 


Swe-gyi ... ib. 
Swft-l^ .. ib. 


Ta Hsup Pai 


^1 


^H Sit-ta-lin 


... ib. 


Ta Hsup Teng 


^M 


^H Sit-tha 


... ib. 




Ta-Hswi-targ 


^B 


^^H 


... ib. 


TabakWia ... ib. 


T.iifa or FJafTa 


... 303 ^H 


^H Si-ywa 


... ib. 


Tabak Khu ... ib. 


Taik Sfe 


^H 




... ib. 


Ta-bautc-k6n ... ib. 


Tailum 


^M 


^M 


... ib. 


Ta-bauktaw ... ib. 


Taing 


^M 


^^B Si-zAn 


... 186 


Ta-bauk-taw Taung-zu ib. 


Taing-byauk 


^M 


^H So-bya 


... ib. 


Ta-baung ... ib. 


Ta K.ai 


^M 


^H So-dwin 


... ib. 


Ta-bayin or Di-b&-yin ib. 


Ta Kaw 


^M 


^^B Soma or Sama 


... ib. 


Ta-be ... 196 


Ta Kawng 


... 204 ^^H 


^H Somhrang 


... ib. 


Ta-b^ ... ib. 


Ta-kin-wa 


^M 


^^H SAn-baw-aing 


... ib. 


Ta-bin-gan ... ib. 


Tak Lek 


^M 


^H Songheng 


... ib. 


Ta-bin-gan North ., ib. 





^B 


^^H Songkwa 


... ib. 


Ta-bin-gaung ... 197 


Tak Lei 


^M 


^H Son-gdn 


... .87 


Ta-b6n ... ib. 


Tak Let 


^H 


^^H '^^~~~ 


... ib. 


Ta-bAn-d.iw ... ib. 


Tak Nai 


^M 


^^^^1 


... ib. 


T'l.Kn.a^aw in 


Ta Kiit 




^^B Songtho 


'.'. ib. 


Tabya ... ib. 


Ta-Iaing 


^H Son-gyaung 


... ib. 


Ta-byi-chaung ... ib. 


Ta-!aing-de 


^M 


^H Son-gyin 

^^M Son Mu 


... ib. 


Ta-byin . . ib. 


T.i-laing-gfln 


^M 


... ib. 


Ta-byin-gaing ... ib. 


T.i-laing-ng5k 


^M 


^^B Son-myo 


... 189 


Ta-byin-gw^ ... ib. 


Ta-laing-yat 


^M 


^^M Son Saw 


... ib. 


Ta-da ... ib. 


Tawlaw-gyi 


^M 


^^B Son-ywa 


... ib. 


Ta-daing ... 198 


Ta-li 


... 307 ^M 


^H Sok-ti 


... ib. 


. ib. 


Ta-tin-gAn 


^M 


^H SouTighai or Taunghwe ib. 


... ib. 


Ta-lin-gyi 


^M 


^^B Southern 


... ipo 


Ta'daing-shc (North) ib. 


Tali Uma or Shantum> ^^| 


^^B Sowpdn 


... lb. 


... ib. 


kong 


^m 


^H Stibwel or Funshi 


... ib. 


T i-dalng-she (South) ib. 


TaLo 


^M 


^B SubbAk-kdn 


... ib. 


Ta-da-kyi ... ib. 


Ta-16k-myo 


... an8 ^B 


^H SubAkkAn 


... ib. 


Ta-da-u ... ib. 


Ta Lii 


... ^^1 


^^H Su-byu-g6n 


... ib. 


_ _ — 


Talzaji 


^M 


... 199 


^H Su-dat 
^H Su-daung-byi 


... ib. 
... ib. 


■ h 


Ta-raa-bin 


^1 


... ib. 




^^m Su-daw 


... 191 


Ta-daw-gyauk ... ib. 


Ta-ma-daw 


^B 


^^H Su-ga-a-lc-ywa 


... ib. 


... lb. 


Ta-ma-gauk 


^B 


^^B Sv-ga-kin-ywa 


... ib. 


Ta-daw-su ... ib. 




^B 




^H Su-ga Myauk-ywa 


... ib. 


Ta-daw-zu ... ib. 


Ta-nia-gAn 


^B 


^H Su-gauk-gyi 


... ib. 


Ta-ga-ma ... ib. 


Ta-ma-gyi 


... 309 ^^1 


^^B Su-gauk*net 


... A). 


Ta-gaung ... ib. 


Ta-ma-ka 


^B 


^^B Su-gauk-ng& 


... ib. 


ih 


Ta-ma-16n 


^B 




^^P Su*ll-gan 
^H Su-li-gon 


... ib. 
... ib. 




Ta-man-th6 
Ta-ma-yauk 


^B 
^B 


... ib. 


^^^^1 


ib 


Ta-g6n ... ib. 
Ta-gun-daing ... ib. 


Ta-m6 

Ta-m6 ywa-thit 


^B 
^B 


^H 


... ib. 


^^H .^. 


... ib. 


... ib. 


Tarn Hso 


^B 


^H Su-li-g6n 


... 193 


:i. 


Tamja 


^B 




^^H Sumpaungmata 


... ib. 


Ta-gyi ... ib. 
Tatiat ... ib. 


Ta-mo 


^B 


^^H SU'HIU 


... ib. 


Ta-mftk-so 


••. nh ^^^M 


^H Sung Long 


... ib. 


Ta Hawm ... ib. 


Ta Mong Haw 


... 310 ^H 


^H Sung Ramang 


... ib. 


Ta Hkai ... aoi 


Ta Mong Kai 


^B 


^H Sun-kyet 
^^1 Sun-lun 


... 103 
... lb. 


iVi 


TamS6 
Tamu 


^B 
^B 


Ta Hkam ... ib. 


^^^^K 


... ib. 
... ib. 


Ta-H6 ... ib. 
Ta-ho-na ... ib. 


Ta Muk Hso 

Tan-aung 


... »ii ^H 


^^B Sun-nan 


^^B Sun-thaik 


... ib. 


Ta Hpa Lawng or Hpa 


Ta-naung-aing 


H 


^H Sun-thaJk Myauk-su ... ib. 


Leng ... ib. 


Ta-naung-bin 


^B 


^^m Supma 


... 194 


Ta Hs^g ... ib. 


Ta-naung-bin«u 


^^M 



CONTENTS. 



Ta-naung-daing 
Ta-naung-gfln 



Ta-naung-ka-la 

Ta-naun-gfln 

Tasnating-An 

Ta-naung-pa-ga 

Ta-nau ng-thfln-bin 

Ta-naung-wiin 



Tan-bin-chaung 

Tan-bin-gan 

Tan-bin-gan south 

Ta-bin-g6n 

Tan-chauk-pin 

Tan-daw 



Tan-daw-gyi 
Ta-ne 



Ta-nc-gyi-gfin 

Ta-ne-ng6 

Ta-nct-ngd 

Tan-ga-kan 

Tan.gaw 

Tan-gfe-daw 

Tang Hso 
Tan-gi-daw 

Tangpu 

Tang Shang Keo 
Tan-g^'a 
Tang Van 

Tan-gyaung 
Tan-gyi 



Tan-li-gyin 

Tanngai 

Tan-ngfi-daw 

Tan-sfc-bin 

Tan-ta-bin 



Tan-tha 
Tan-yin 



Page. 

... 312 

... ib. 

... ib. 

«. ib. 

... ib. 

.. ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 
ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

.. 213 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 214 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... ib, 

... 315 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 316 

... ib. 

... 317 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

•.. ib. 

... ib. 

... 218 

... ib. 

... 319 

». ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

<•• ib. 



Page. 
Tan-yiii ... 319 

Tao ... ib. 

Tao Hsi Keng ... ib. 

Ta Ong Mu ... 220 

Ta Pa ... ib. 

Ta Pa L.ii ... 221 

Ta-paw ... ib. 

Ta Paw Kii Ta ... ib. 

Ta Pawk ... ib. 

la Pfe ... 323 

Taping ... ib. 

T.I Ping ... 323 

T.iplnghso ... ib. 

Ta Pom ... ib. 

Ta-pdn ... 334 

Ta-p6n-daw ... ib. 

Ta P.ven ... ib. 

Taring or Malankon ... ib. 
Tare ... ib. 

Taro valley ... ib. 

Tarfln ... ib. 

Ta-saing ... 335 

Ta Sang .. ib. 

Ta Sa Ngi ... ib. 

Tashi VVaipaw or Lwai 

Paw Tingsa 
Ta Taw Maw 
Ta Tawn 
Tat-chaung 
Tat-g6n 
Tat-gyi-gAn 
Ta Ti 
Tat-kfin 
Tat-kya 

Tat-kyi ',., 

Tatong ... 

Tat-su' 
Tat-te 
Tat-thit 
Tat-twin 
Ta Tiing Ang 
Tat-ywa 
Tauk-shabin 
Tauk-shi-gan 
Tauk-s6k 
Tauk-te 
Taung-.a-ch6k 
Taung-a-she-bet 
Taung-auk 
faung-b.i 
Taung-baing ... 

Taung-ba-Iu 

Taung-ban 

Taung-baw 



Taung-bi 

Taung-bin-gan 

Taiing-bo 



Taung-baw Alt'-ywa 
Taung-baw Le-ywa 
Taung-bct 



ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

326 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
327 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
228 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
229 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 



Page. 
.. 229 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 



Taung-bo-gyi 
Taung-bo-gyi South . . . 
Taung-b6n 
Taung-byan North and 

South 
Taung-byauk 
Taung-byin ... 



T,iung-byin-ngfi 

Taung-byo 

Taung-byfin 

Taung-by6n-ng& a-n.iuk 

Taung-by0n-ng4a-shi ... 

Taung-byu 

Taung-cne 

Taung-det 

Taung-di-tha-hmat ... 

Taung-dwin-gyaung ... 

Taung-dwin-gyi 



Taung-dwin myoma 
Taung-gaing 



Taung-gan 



Taung-gin 
Taung-gon 



Taung-gwin 
Taung-gya 
Taung-gyan 
Taung-gya ung 

Taung-gyaw 
Taung-gyi 



Taunggyi 

Taung-gyi 

Taung-gvo 

Taung-hk.iung-bwa 

Taung-I.i 

Taung-hia 

Taung-in 

Taung-kin-san 

Taung-kwin 

Taung-kya 

Taung-la-iin 

Taung-i& 



tb. 
ib. 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
3.11 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

T 

tb. 

IS. 

334 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
tb. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

a3S 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

'fj, 
1' 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

a>. 

ib. 



I 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Taung-l6n 

Taung-myin 

Taung-nauk 
Taung-nga-kul 
Tautig-ngfin 
Taung-ngu-zu 

Taung-ni 
Taung-nyo 

Taung-pa-Ii 
Taung-pu-lu 
Taung-sa-ye (North) 
Taung-sa-ye (South) , 
Taung-she 
Taung-she (Easl) 
Taung-she (West) 
Taung-ta-ldn 
Taung-tha 



Taung-lha-man 

Taung-thwrin 
Taung-u 



Taung-win 



Taung-ya-seik 

Taung-ya-si 

Taiing-yanng 

Taung-yin 

Taung-yo 

Taung-yo-za-I6k 

Taung-ywa 



Taung-za-laung 
Taung-zin 



Taung-zin North 
Taung-/in South 
Taung-zit 
Taiing-zAn 
Taung-zu 



Taung-zu-ga-le 

Taw 

Ta-wa 



Tawan 
Ta-wan-tze 
Taw Bfe 
Taw-bo 
Taw-b6n 



Pagt. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

., ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 340 

.. ib. 

.. lb. I 

241 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

. ib. ! 

,. ib. ; 

,. ib. I 

. ib. 

. 242 

.. ib. 

. ib.l 

.. ib. 

. ib., 

. ib.) 

. ib. 

. 243 

. ib.l 



Taw-bu 

Taw-bya 
'I'aw-dan 
Taw-dwin 



Tawi 

Taw-ga-lufi 

Taw-gyaung 

Taw-£r^'in 

Taw Hsang 

Ta-win-myaw 

Tawk or Troc 

Tawka 

Tawka-shai 

Taw-Ian 

Tawlang 

Taw lawk 

T.iw-ma 



Tawng Bat 
Tawng Hio 
Tawng Hkam 
Tawng Lawng 
Tawng Let 
Tawng Ma 
ib. I Tawng Ni 
ib. I Tawng Peng 
Tawng Talong 
Tawng Tek 
Taw Nio 
Taw-.sein 
Taw-tha 
Taw-we-ga n 
Tawyan 
Taw-yan-gAn 
Taw-yaung 
Taw-ywa 



ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
244 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

245 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
346 

ib. 



Taw-za-ie 
Taw-zun 
Ta-ya 

Twa-yaw-daw 
I Ta-ya-g.ning 
Ta-yaw-gAn 
Ta-ywin-bo 
Ta-ywin-daing 
Ta-zan 
Ta-zauk 
Ta-zaung 
Ta-zft 

Ta-zin 

Ta-zo 

Ta-zOn 

Ta-zu 

Tft 

Tc-bin 



Page. 

... 246 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... 247 

... ib 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 248 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 349 

... ib. 

... ib. 

:::T 

... ib. 

... 262 

.. 263 

... ib. 

... 264 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 265 

... ib. 

... ib 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 2fi6 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 267 

... ib. 

... ib. 



Tft-bin-gan 
Tft-daw 

Tft-daw-ya 
Tfe-gAn 

Tft-gyi 



T^-in 
Tein-ban 
Tein-bya 
Tein-gan 

Teingaror Tei 

Tein-gin 

Tein-g6n 



nga 



Teingram or Tingram. 

Tein-hun ,, 

Tein-nfe 

Tein-nyein 

Teinsa 

Tein-tha 

Tein-thaw 

Te-myin 

Teng Long 

Tengpdn 

Teng Yat 

Tenshi 

Tep Hsai 

Terong .. 

Tet-kaung 

Te-tun 

Tcun Pye 

Te-zu 



Tha-ban-gj'O 
Tha-beik-kyin 



Tha-beik-le 

Tha-beik-tan 

Tha-bui-kftn 

Tha-but-pin 

Tha-but-su 

'1 ha-b3'e-biii 



Tha-bye-d6n 

Tha-bye-gyin 

Tha-bye-hia 



Tha-bye-6k 

Tha-bye-wa 

Th a-b'ye-wa 

Tha-byun-g6n 

Tha-de 

Tha-di-g6n 

Tha-din 

Thado-dan 



Page. 
... 267 

... ib. 
... ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
... ib. 
.. ib. 
,.. ib. 
.. 268 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
. ib. 
. 269 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 

ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 
, ib. 
, ib. 
, ib. 
. 370 
. ib. 
, ib. 
, ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
271 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
37a 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

V3 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 



CONTENTS. 



Tha-dan 

Tha-dut 

Tha-gaung 

Tha-ga-ya 

Tha-ga-ya 

Tha-gyin 

Thaik-chaung 

Tha-kut-ta-ne 

Tha-kut-taw 

Tlia-kyin 

Tha-la-Iin 

Tha-le 

Tha-lfc-g6n 

Tha-lin 

Tha-lAn-thwe 

Tha-Iun-byu 

Tha-ma-daw 

Tha-maing-^i 

Tha-ma (Ing)-kan 

Tha-ma-kan 

Tha-man 

Tha-man-da-lin 

Tha-man-gan 

I'ha-tnan-gyan 
Tha-man-ta-bo 
Thamba-ya 
Tha-min-be 

rha-min-bdk 

Tha-min-dwin 

Tha-min-gan 

Tha-min-gyan 

Tha-min-gyauk 

Tha-min-that 

Tha-m6n-gaing 

Tha Mya 

Tha-mya-ba 

Tha-nat-pin-zin 

Tha-nai-yin 

Than-bauk 

Than-ba-ya 



T han-ba-ya-gyin 

Than-bin 

Than-bo 



Than-bya-aing 
Than-daung 
Tha-ngfe-daw 
Than-gyaung 



Than-lwin-gAn 
Than-ma-daw 



Than- the 

Than-u-daw 

Than-yit 



.. 273 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 274 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

,. ib. 

.. ib. 

>. ib. 

.. ib. 

•• 375 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

,. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 276 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib- 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

•• 277 

., ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 278 

.. ib 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

•• 279 

.. ib. 

.- ib, 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 



Than-zin-gAn 
Tha- pan 



Tha-pan-bin 
Tha-pan-daung 



Tha-pan-gaing 

Thapan-gyauk 

Tha-ie-ywa 

Tha-tfln 

Thaung-byaung 

Thaung-lhut 

Tha-wa-ti 

Tha-ke-ba 

Thaw-ta-pan 

Iha-wun 

Tha-ya-gfln 



Tha-ya-ka 

Thaya-pi 

Tha-yauk-myaung 

Tha-yaung 

Tha-ya-wa-di 



Tha-yet 
Tha-yet-bya 
I ha-yel-chin 
Tha-yet-gan 



Tha-yet-gfln 
Tha-yet-gfin (Ya-ydn 
Tha-yet- gwa 
Tha-je-tha 
Tha-yet-kaing 
Tha-yct-kan 



Tha-yet-kan (North) 
Tha-yet-kan (SouthJ 
Tha-yel-kaung 
Tha-yct-k6n 



Tha-yet-kyin 
Tha-yei-pin 



Tha-yet-pu 

Tha-yel-ta 

Tha-yet-ta-bin 

Tha-yet-tan 

Tha-yet-tow 



Thay^zet 



Page. 

... 380 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 281 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... tb. 

... ib. 

... 2»3 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib, 

.. ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 283 

... ib. 

... ib. 
•yinjib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 284 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 285 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 886 



Tha-zi 



Tha-iin 

Tha-zo 

Th6-bAn A-nauk 

Th6-bfln Ashe 

The-byu-gyaung 

The-byu-wa 

The-daw 



The-gan 
Th^-gaw 
The-gdn 
Th6-gfin 
Thi-gyun 

Thfe-in 

Thein-baw 

Thein-daw 



Thein-ga-bo 
Thein-gdn 



Thein-lin 

Thein-Ifln 
[Thein-ni 
Thein-ywa 



Theke-gyin 

Thck-kfe-gyin 

The-saung 

Thet-kan-chaing 

Thet-kan-g6n 

Thel-kfe-daw 

Thet-kfe-gfln 

'Ihet-ke-gyin 



Thet-kfe-gyin 

Thet-ra 

Thet-pan 

Thet-pe 

Thetta 

Thet-ya-gauk 

Thet-ywa 

Thi-baw 

Thi-bin-gaing 

Thi-din-bin 

Thi-ddn 



Pagt. 

... 286 

... ib. 

,.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

., ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

,.. ib. 

... 287 

.. ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 388 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

.. ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 389 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ago 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 



ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

ib. 



^E^ viii 

^^v Thi-gdn 
^H Thi-gyauk 


Pagt. 

... 3^2 

... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 

... 293 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
. . ib. 
... ib. 
-,. ib. 
... ib. 
... 294 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 

..• 295. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
.- ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... 296 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
.. 297 
)... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... 298 
... ib. 
... ib- 
... ib. 
... ib. 


CONTENTS. 

Tl ... 208 
Ti-daw-mo ... ib. 
Ti-gAn ... ib. 
Ti-gyaing ... ib. 

... 299 

Til ... ib. 
Tili ... 300 
Ti-lin ... ib. 

■■ ... 301 
Ti-lin-ng6 ... ib. 
Tilum ... 302 
Tima ... ib. 
Timmaw or Tamaw ... ib. 
Tinam ... ib. 
Tin-bet ... ib, 
Tin-du ... 303 
Tin-gat ... ib. 
Tin-gAk-pin ... ib. 
Tingring ... ib. 
Tingrong ... ib. 
Tingsin ... ib. 
Tingya ... ib. 
Tin-gyaung ... ib. 
Tin-gyi-gan ... ib. 
Tin Hsa ... ib. 
Tin-tat ... ib. 
Tipui ... 304 
TiRi ... ib. 
Tit-chan-be ... ib. 
TiyAn or Tiya ... ib. 
Ti-«aung ... ib. 
Tizerl ... ib. 
Tizert or Twilai ... ib. 
TIangyawl r Tlang- 

kwcl ... ib. 
Tlao or Kla ... 305 
Tlorrtaung or Twetten ib. 
TAk-hlaung ... ib. 
Toklaing or Mwitun ... ib. 
TAk-su ... ib. 
Tok-ta-tAk ... ib. 
TAn ... ib. 


Ton hong 


Pagt. ^H 
... 308 ^H 

.•' 304 ^M 

... tb. ^H 

... ib. ^H 
... ib. ^H 

>ang] tb. ^^1 

... tb. ^^H 
... ib. ^H 

... ib. ^B 

^H 
^H 

^B 
^B 
^H 

H 

... lb. ^H 

^H 
^H 
^H 

... ib. ^^1 
... ib. ^H 

^H 

^H 
^H 
^H 
^M 
^H 
^H 
^H 
315 ^1 

^1 
^H 
^H 
^H 
^H 
^H 

^H 

^H 
^M 
^B 
^H 


TAn-kauk 

TAn-ma-tet 

Ton nam 

Ton pe 

Ton p6k 

T6n-wa 

TAn-ywa 

TowlAn 

Trinmaw or Loimaw 

Tsinghsang(Sing Hi 

Tsun-kang (Sun-kar 

Tu-gyaung 

Tuku 

Tu-maung 

Tu-Naw 

Tun-bin 

Tun-dAn 

Tung Hlwung 

Tung Sha 

Tung Sing 

Tungtuung 

Tun Hso 

Tuntui 

Tun-ywa 

Tunzan 


^^B Thi-gyaung 
^H Thi-gyit 
^B Thi-kwcl 
^H Thi-la-g6n 
^H Thi-la-ywa 

^H Thimban-gAn 
^^1 Thimbaw-gOn 
^H Thimbaw-gyun 
^^1 Thimbaw-in 
^^B Thin-ban-gyin 
^^B Thin-baung 
^^B Thin-baung-gan 
^H Thin-bAn 
^^1 1 hin-byun 
^^m Thin-daw 
^^1 Thin-dein 
^^1 Thin-ga-dAn 


^^B Thin-g.in-but 
^H Thi-ngd-daw 
^^B Thin-maung 
^^H Thin-nut 
^^H Thin-ta-paw 
^^1 I'hin-taya 
^H Thin-thi 
^H Thi-ta-ya 
^H Thit-cho 
^H Thit-&btn 
^H Thi-gyi-daw 
^^B Thit-kauk-seik 
^H Thit-kaung-di 
^^1 Thit-kAk-kwin 
^^H Thit-kyi-daw 
^^m Thic-kyi-tning 
^^M Thit-myo-dan 
^^B Thit-nyi-naung 
^^m Thit-pin-gyi 
^^H Thit-pin-shi 
^^M Thit-sein-bin 
^^m Thit-sein-gyi 
^H Thit-si-bin-nia 
^H 1 hit-sAn 
^H Ihit-tat 
^H Thit-taung 
^V Thit-taw-bya (South] 
^^K _ rhit-yalk 
^H^ Thit-yaung 
^B Thit-yAn 
^^R ThAn-aing 
^^M ThAn-daung 
^^M Th6n-daung-aing 
^^M ThAn-cin 
^^M ThAn-lan-byi 
^^B Thun-ze 
^H ThAn-ze-be 
^H Thwe-net 


Tupauyan 

Twaylam 

Twe-di 

Twelmu 

Twet-ni 

Tweyat 

Twin 


Twin-byu 
Twin-g5'i 

Twin-lat 
Twin-ma North 
T<vin-ma South 
Twin-ngfc 

Twin-ywa 

Twitum 

Tzerrt 

U 
U-daung 

U-da-ya 

U-dein 

U-di 

Udigiri-rata 

U-gyi 

U-hnauk 

U-lauk 

Umadyet 

U Mang 


... 3°" 

TAn-ban ... ib. 
TAn-baw ... ib. 
Tfln-bo ... ib. 
... ib. 

ih 


Tfln-din ... ib. 
TAn-gan ... ib. 
Tong-long ... ib. 
T6ng-na ... ib. 
TAn-gAn ... 307 
Tongshiel ... ib. 
Tong Ta ... ib. 


Tong Un ... ib. 
TAn-gyi ... ib. 

TAn-hAn ... 308 
TAn-hAn or TtnkhAn ... ib. 




U-yin-ga-le 

U-yin-ma 

V-yu 

Vanglai 

Vangva 

V^nhna 

Vatiklang 

Vanyim 

Vokla 

Vomkwa 

Vyeng Lan 

Wa-ba 

Wabaung 

Wabaw or Wabawlon- 

fcat 
Wabawgap , 

Wa-bin 



Wa-bo 

Wa-b6-chaung 

Wa-bo-gyaung 

Wabong (Pumkatong) 

Wa-bo-ye 

Wa-chct 

Wachongtumbang 

Wa-chu-ue 

Wa-dat 

Wa-daw-ma 

Wa-din 

Waga 

Wagaka 

Wa-gan 

Wa-gin-gdn 

Wa-gyi-aing 

Wa-gyi-daw 

Wa Hkep 

Wailekwa or Kwung- 

'yin 
Waing-cho 
-maw 



• 325 
.. ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. 326 
. ib. 

b. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

• 327 
. ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 
, ib. 

ib. 

3a8 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
ib. 
lb. 
ib. 

329 

ib. 
[b. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

lb. 
ib. 

ib. 
Ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
«b. 
33 « 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 



Walaw (A) 
Walavv (B) 
Walla wun 
Wa Mu 
VVamungatong or Ma- 

mung-atong 
Wang Ma Haw 
Win Hkam 
Wan Hkam 
Wan Hkat 
Wan Hok 



Win Hsai 
Wan Hsen Kiau 
wan Hseo 
VVankataung or Wun- 

kataung 
Wan Kawng-p e n g 

tawng 
Wan Kwai 
Wan Kye 
Win Law 
Wan Lek 

Wan Lem 

Wan Maw 

Wan Mong 

Wan Nam Yi 

Win Pa Hkan 

Wan Pa l.6n 

Wan Pa Sang 

Wan Pen ., 

Wan Ping 

Wan Pung 

Wan Pyu 

Wan Siri Pum 

Wan Ta 

Wan T5p 

Wantu 
VVa-Tiwi-g6n 

Wan Van Hkam 

Wan Yin 

Wa-pyu-daung 

Warn 

Warabfin 

Waradut 

Waror or Waraw 

Warraw or Wurakran 

Washa 

Wasik 

Wa Stales 

Watan 

Wa Taw 

Water 

Wa-th* 

Wa-thi 

Wa-tu 

Wa-ya 



Wa-yan 



Pagt. 

■■ 33« 

. ib. 

; %' 

. ib. 
. ib. 
. ib. 

• 333 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. 334 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. lb. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

■ 335 
. lb. 

ib. 
, ib. 

ib. 

, ib. 

336 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

337 
ib. 
lb, 
ib. 

338 

340 
ib. 

3.44 
lb. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

'S. 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

ib. 



\Va-yin-d6tt 

Wa-yin-gyaing 

Wa-yin-gyi 

Wa-yo 

W.i-yi5n 

Wa-yfin-gfln 



Wa-y6n-tha 

Wa-zi-ywa 

Wft-baung 

We-daung 

Wedu Uma 

W6-gyi 

We-gyi 

Wfe-gyi 



Wfe-gyi Sin-ywa 

We-nm-ga-ma 

Wekka-bu 

Wekka-daw 

Wekka-the 

Wek-kt 

Wekk6k 

Wdakong 

Wc-laung 

We-lun-wun Nga-dat- 



vf^m 



Wfe-ma 

We-ma 

Wemaw or Hwemaw 

Wet-bo 

Wet-chaung 

Wet-chin-gan 

Wet-chok 

Wet-chu-in 

Wet-gaung 

We-tha-g6n 

Wet-in 

Wet-ki 

Wet-kya 



Wet-kyauk 

VVet-kv6n 

Wet-lu 

Wel-ma-sut 

Wet-mi 

Wet-po 

Wet-pok 

Wet-pyu-ye 

Wet-sa-le 

Wet-iaik 

Wet-thet (North) 

Wet-thet (South) 

Wet-to 



Wet-tu 

VVetui 
Wet-wm 
Wol-win East 



IX 

Pag: 

...:u8 

10. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 

■ m 

lb. 

.. ib. 

,. ib. 

,. ib. 

. ib. 

.. ib. 

,. ib. 

. ib. 

:t. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

. 350 

: 'S. 

ib. 
. ib. 

. ib. 

ib. 

. ib. 

. ib. 

• 35« 
, ib. 

. ib. 

. %. 

, Ib. 

, ib. 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

'S. 

ib. 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

ib 
ib' 
ib' 
ib" 
ib" 
ib' 



CONTENTS. 



Wet-win North 
Wet-win South 
Wet-ye 

Wing Hk* 
Wing Hsa 
Wing Kang 
Wing Kao 
Wing I.eng 
Win-gyan 
Win-I6n 
Win-u-yin 
Win-wa 



Ping 



Wo LSnjj 
Worabum 
Wu Chawng 

Pang 

Wulang or Wabang 
Wun-bo 
Wun-bo-g6n 
Wun-bye 
Wun-byi 
Wun-d6n 
Wun-dwin 



Wun-gyun 

Wunhalkum 

Wun-ka-the 

Wun-le 

Wun-lo 

Wun-tho 



Page. 
•• 354 
•• 355 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 
.. ib. 

•■ 356 

., ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

... 3.S7 
.. ib. 
... ib. 
ib. 



Wying Nam 
Wying-Tang 

Ya-bin 

Ya-b6n 

Ya-byin 

Ya-daw 

Ya-gyi-byin 

Va-gyi-gftn 
Yaipi or Tinyawl 
Yaltu 
Ya-m^thin 



Ya-mfin-daung 

Yamtsin 

Yamwi or Zamul 

Yan-aung 

Yan-aung-myin 

Yan-byan 

Yan-da-bo 



ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
358 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

359 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
362 

ib. 

363 
ib. 

ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

364 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

375 
jb. 
ib. 

376 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 

377 
ib. 
ib. 



Yang-fang 
Van-gin-taung 



Yang-taw-hsan 

Yangfti or Yantui 

Yan-san 

Vanyaul 

Yan-ywa 

Ya-ta-na B6n-nit 

Ya-tha 



Yatlier or Yatirr 

Vat-sauk 

Yat-tha-pya 

Yaung-he 

Yaung-ma-nga 

Yaungte 

Yaw 

Yaw ehaung 

Yawban or Yoj>ang 

Yaw-dwin 

Yawhe 

Yawng HsOng 

Yawng Hwe 

Yawng Lawng 
Yawng L& 
Yawn Yoi 
Yaw-wa 

Ya-za-gyo(East) 
Ya-za-gyo (West) 
Ya-za-gyo 
Ye-aung 
Ye-aung ehaung 
Ye-baw-mi 
Ye-bin 
Ye-bdk 



Ye Bu-da-Iin 

Ye-byan-ga-le 

Ye-bvan-gyi 

Ye-byi 

Ye-byu a-li 

Ye-daing 

Ve-daw 

Ye-dein 

Ye-du 

Yft-dut 

Ye-dwet 



Ye-dwin 

Ye-dwin-gaung 

Ye-e 



Pt^t. 

■■ 377 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 378 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

• • 379 

.. ib. 

.. ib- 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 380 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

- 392 

•• 393 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 394 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 395 
ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

■• 396 
ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

,. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 



Yega 



Ye-gaung-to 

Ye-Rdn 

Ye-gyan-byin 

Ye-gyan-o 

Ye-gyaw 

Ye-gyi 



Yft-gyin 



Ye-la 

Ye-la Taung-ywa 

Ye-laung 

Ye-le 

Yfe-lun-gyaw (East) 

Yft-lun-gyaw (West) 

Ye-mfln-daung 

Ye-mye 

Ye-myet 

Ye-myet-in 
Ye-nan-gyaung 

Ye-na-tha 
Ye-na-u 
Yengan 
Ye-ngan 



Ye-ng& 

Ye-pa-to 

Ye-sha 

Ye-shan 

Ye-shin 



Yesin ehaung 

Ye-sAn 

Ye-thun-gyin 

Yet-kan^daw 

Yet-pa 

Ye-u 



Ye-u-gftn 

Ye-u-gyaw 

Ye-wa 

Ye-wun 

Ye-ya-man 

Ye-yin 

Ye-yin-gdn 

Ye-yin-myauksu 

Yey-m-taungtu 

Yh-yo 

Ye-za-gyo 



Pag». 

... 397 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 398 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

- 399 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... Ib. 

... ib. 

... 401 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 403 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... 404 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 407 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib 

... 408 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... «ib. 

... ib. 

... 409 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 



CONTENTS. 



Pagi. 
Y«-/a-gyo ... 409 

Vim Haw ... ib. 

Yin ... ib. 

Yin-ba ... ib. 

Yin-baung-daing or Yin- 

ma-daing ... 410 

Yin-bfln ... ib. 

Yin-byan ... ib. 

Vin-daw 



Yindwft 

YingLa 

Yin-gu-bin 

Yin-gvin 

Yin-W 

Yin-ma 



Yin-ma or Ye-bya 
Yin-ma-chaung 
Yin-ma-gan 
Yin-ma-g6n 

Yin-ma-gyin 

Yin-ma-zu 

Yin-thwin 

Yin-yaung 

Yin-yaw-bin 

Yin-ye 

Yin-yfe 

Yin-yft A-nauk 

Yin-yi A-she 

Yin-yein 

Yitsang 

Y6k-kya 

Yflkwa 

Y6n-bin 



Y6n'bin-gan 

Y6n-bin-gfln 

YAn-bin-gwet 

Yon-daw 

Yftn-do 

Yonmwel 

Yfinzin 

YAn-zin-gyi 

Yo-ya 

Yo-z6n 

Yu-wa 

Ywa-ba-lfl 

Ywa-bft 

Ywa-bo 

Ywa-bu-gyi 

Ywa-dan-she 



Ywa-daung 

Ywa-daw 
Ywa-gauk 



... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 4<i 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 41a 

... tb. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

- 413 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 414 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib, 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib, 

... 4.15 

•»• lb* 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 4J6 



Ywa-gfln 
Ywa-gyi 



Ywa-haung 

Ywa-!u 

Ywa-ma 



Ywa-ma A-nauk 

Ywa-mai-tha 

Ywa-mun 

Ywa-naung South 

Ywa-ngan 

Ya-ngft 



Ywa-ngfc.gan 

Ywa-pa-l& 

Ywa-she 



Ywa-shi 
Ywa-ta-maik 
Ywa-taung 
Ywa-tha 



Ywa-tha Pet-yin 
Ywa-tha PAn-ywa 
Ywa-tha-ya 

Ywa-thit 



Pagt 

... 416 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... 417 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib, 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib 
... ib. 
... 418 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... 419 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... 430 
... ib, 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... 431 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... 433 
... ib. 
... ib. 
... ib. 
,.. ib. 



Ywa-thit 



Ywathit-ga*Ie 
Ywa-thit-gfln 

Ywa-thit-gyi 
Ywa-thit-su 



Ywa-we 

Ywa-zi 

Ywa-iin-daw 

Ywe-kyu-bauk 

Vvrh-sii 

Ywe-2u 



Za-ga-bin 



Za-Viaw 

Za-ho 

Zai-;cun 

Za-lAk 

Za"lii-ban 

Za-na-b6k 

Zan-Iimwe 

Zaung-daw-gan 

Zaung-gyan-gdn 

Z a-w a- h n aw-gfln 

Zaw-gyi 

Z,i-y.vma 

Zaya-pura 

Za-yat-kdn 

Za-yat-ni 

Za-yit 

Ze-daik 

Ze-dan 



I Ze-daw 
1 Ze-d.i-ydn 

Ze-di-gOn 

Ze-gyaung 
I Ze-gyo 

Ze-gyo or Ze-kyo 
I Ze-haung 

Zeik-taung 
t Ze-theit 



Pagt. 

... 423 

,,. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

... ib. 

.. ib. 

,.. ib. 

■•• 433 

,.. ib. 

,.. ib. 

... ib. 

... tb. 

... ib. 

... ib 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 4n 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib, 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

-.. 425 

... lb. 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 436 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... 437 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 
...438 

... ib. 



idi 



CONtENtS. 



Ze-thtt 

Ze-yan or Saran 

Z*-yat 

Ze-ya-wa-di 

Z^zun 

Zl 

Zi-bauk 

Zi-bin-dwin 

Zi-biii'gan 

Zi-bin^dn 

Zi-bin-gwe 

Zi-bin-gyi 

Zi-bwin 

Zi-bya 

Zt-byu-bin 

Zi-byu-g6n 



Pag*. 
..438 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. 439 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

.. ib. 

,. ib. 

. ib. 

.. ib. 

,. ib. 

:.T 

,. ib. 
.. ib. 



Zi-byu-g6n 

Zi-byu-gyaung 
Zi-daw 



Zi-gan 



Pagi. 

... 430 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

». 431 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

.. ib. 

- 43a 



Zi-gdn 

Zi-gyaing 

Zi-gyo 

Zi-gyo-bin 

Zi-gyo-gdn 

Zi-gyun 



Zi-maw 
Ziti-bdn 
Zin-ga-Ie 

Zingkaling Hkam Ti 
Zin-sa-gyet 
Zl-6k 

Zi-pi-ni North 
South 



Zi-thaung 



Pagt, 

:;; t. 

... ib. 
... lb. 

.... ib. 
... ib. 

... 4?3 

... lb. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

... ib. 

:::^ 

... ibs 

.. ib. 

... ib. 



THE 



UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



RALANG.— A village of Chins of the Yahow tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies on a spur which runs from north-west to south-east to the junc- 
tion of the Tlao and Klairfin streams, and can be reached via Shunkia village 
and Yatlier. 

In i8<)4 the chief was Ko Tung. Ralang is subordinate to Vannul, and 
pays tribute to Falam. Water is available from a stream below the village. 

RALON or RAL.WVN.— A village of Chins of the Tash'5n tribe in the 
Central Chin Hills. It lies in a valley in the hills north of the Pao river, near 
its junction with the Nampathi river, and is reached via Minkin, Thikwel, 
1-yrnIiat, Yonmwel and Shinipi, distant thirty miles. 

In 1894 it had one hundred houses The name of the resident chief was 
Nawmon. Ral6n is a Kweshln village and pays tribute to both Haka and 
Falam. There is good camping-ground with plenty of water. 

R.'\PIJ.\1. — .\ K ichin village in Tract No. 3K, Myitkyina district, situated 
ill 26° 8' north latitude and 97° 52' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained thirteen houses; its population was unknown. The 
headman of the village has two others subordinate to him. The inhabitants 
are of the Lepai tribe. 

RAT.\NAPURA.— The classical name of Ava q. v. 

R.\WA. — A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. 

It lies on the souih bank of the Myittha river and can be reached from 
Lungno, sixteen miles, and from Gangaw i-id Thanbya. 

In 1894 it had thirty houses. Manglyen was its resident chief. The 
village is not stockaded. The water-supply is fair, but camping-grounds are 
indifferent. Rawa was partially disarmed in 1895. It was founded by rela- 
tions of Yatkwe of .Mka- 

RAWKW.'X, — .\ village of Chins of the Klang-klang tribe in the Southern 
Chin Hills. It lies three miles south-west of Tunzan, and is reached from 
Munlipi by a path leading west. 

In 1894 it had fifty houses. Sandwe and llron Hrun\ were its resident 
chiefs. 

The village is under Lawle of Klang-klang, The water-supply is bad and 
there is no good camping-ground. 

RAWTU or MAIKA.— A village of Chins of the Y6kwa tribe in the 
Southern Chin Hills. It lies three miles south-east of Sinkwa and can be 
reached from ilaka via Sinkwa, fifteen miles. 

In 1894 it had thirty-five houses. Yu-ya was its resident chief. 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER 



[ RAW— RIM 



The village is slightly stockaded. It pays tribute to both Yfilcwa and 
Yalta. Rawtu has good water-supply and camping-ground. K6kkle of 
H6kwa and Lyen Paung of Haka have most influence. 

RAWVA— A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It lies 
six miles south of Naring across the Boinu stream and can be reached from. 
Haka by crossing a spur, two miles, and the river. 

In 1894 it had forty bouses. Yotung and Da Sim were Its resident chiefs. 

It is slightly stockaded and has fair water-supply and camping-ground. 
Ra\wa is under the influence of Rawywa and Narim. It was partially dis- 
armed in 1895. 

RA WV.^N. — .\ village of Chins of the Y6kwa tribe in the Southern Chin 
Hills. It lies on the Kan- Haka mule-track, eight miles south-east of Y6kwa. 

In 1894 it had forty houses. Tantsin was its resident chief. 

The village is not stockaded. It is under the influence of Yroab6n of 
Y6kwa. The people are Chim-m&s and are called Torrs by the Lais. 

RAVV-YVVA.—.\ village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It 
lies eleven miles south of Naring, and can be reached from Haka by a path 
leading south to the village and crossing a stream. 

In 1S94 it had one hundred and eighty houses. Da Kum, Kwa Som and 
He Sin were its resident chiefs. 

The village had formerly much influence, and was disarmed and severely 
punished in 1894. Da Kum was imprisoned, but was afterwards released in 
1895 o" pa>Tnent of fifty guns. The village is stockaded. There is camping- 
ground with plenty of water below the village on the Satun road. 

RESHEN.— A village of Chins of the T.ish6n tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies on a spur running down to the Manipur river on its south bank, 
and is reached via Shunkia, eight miles from Falam post. 

la 1894 it had one hundred and sixty houses. Tun Mung was its resident 
chief. 

The village is subordinate and pays tribute to Falam. There is excellent 
camping-ground near a stream close to the village and on the east of it. 

RIMPI.— A village of Chins of the Haka tribe in the Southern Chin Hills. 
It lies twelve miles north-east of Haka and can be reached from Haka via 
Pai, twelve miles, and from Hanta, fourteen miles. 

In 1894 it had one hundred houses. HIaypaw and Munsum were its 
resident chiefs. 

Rinipi was originally a Tash6n village, but was burnt by the Falam chiefs 
and rebuilt under the protection of Lyen Mo of Haka. The village pays 
tribute to Lyen Mo and La Sin, and the Falam claims over the village have 
liecn disallowed. There is fair camping-ground and water-supply. 

RIMPE.— A village of Chins of the Haka tribe in the Southern Chin Hills 
It lies two miles north-east of Rimpi and can be reached from Haka by cross- 
ing the Tonvar, Nyavar and several other streams. 

In 1894 it had thirty houses. Kwatang was its resident chief. 

The village is an offshoot of Rimpi and pays tribute to Haka. 



^OS-RUB] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER, 



Boundaries. 



ROSSHI or WAKRSHI.— A village of Chins of the Yahow tribe in the 
Central Chin Hills. It lies on a hill-spur, half a mile from and south of a 
small stream, and can be reached from Shunkla, Yatlicr and Tlao. 

Ill 1894 it had twenty-eight houses. The name of the resident chief was 
Maung Kwe. 

Rosshi is a Yahow village subordinate to Vannul, and pays tribute to 
Falam. There is excellent camping-ground on the stream. Water is avail- 
able at the sixth mile in a hollow on the north of the road. There is prac- 
tically no stockade and the village is commanded from a track which crosses 
the headwaters of the stream, one mile distant. 

RUBY MINES. — Ruby Mines district consists of the subdivisions of 
Mogi')k and Tagaung, which are part of Burma proper, and of the Shan State 
of Momcit (Mang Mit), which is at present also administered as a subdivision, 
during the minority of the Saiel/wa. The area of the district thus composed 
is approximately live thousand four hundred and seventy-five square miles, 
and the population numbers about 60,000 persons. 

It is bounded on the north hy the Shweli river and by an undefined line 
leaving the Shweli river below Manmw6 %illage and strik- 
ing the Setkala c//^/K«^ between the village of Sipwa and 
Sagagon. This forms the boundary with Katha district. From the point 
where the Katha district boundary strikes the Setka!a chaung, the district 
marches with Bhamo district, the boundary being that laid down in General 
Department Notitication No. 207, dated the 23rd July 1S92, namely,— the 
Setkala chaung to its source, thence the watershed between the Shweli and 
Irrawaddy rivers as far as the peak marked 2,949, ^*st of Letkat ; thence 
a straight line to the point where the Mo-!\iaing stream crosses the Si-u- 
Sipein road ; thence this road to the Kaya stream opposite Si-u ; thence the 
Kaya stream up to its source on the Shweli watershed ; thence this water- 
shed, excluding the villages on the ridge and their lands, which belong 
to Bhamo district, as far as Loi Chaw peak ; thence the Sinma chaung 
till it tlows into the Mavvsi or Nam Hkam chaung. From this point the 
Nam Hkam chaung, till it falls into the Shweli river, forms the boundary, 
along with the area generally known as the Triangle, which under the Con- 
vention of 1S97 has been permanently leased to Burma by China. 

On the east from the point where the Nam Hkam chaung falls into the 
Shweli, that river that forms the boundary between Ruby Mines district and 
the Northern Shan State of North Hsen Wi to a point a little below the 
mouth of the Nam Wi. Thence the boundary follows the watershed between 
the Nam Wi and Shweli rivers and continues approximately along the 
Shweli watershed till the Taungbaing (Tawng Peng) border is reached. 
It then follows a succession of streams and ridges which have not been ac- 
curately determined to the source of the Nan chaung; thence down the Nan 
chaung to the mouth of the Nam I'hit ; thence up the Nam Phit to its source, 
and along a ridge to the source of the Nam Pb. 

The Nam P£: or Moby6 stream forms the southern boundary and separates 
the district from the Shan State of Mainglon (Mong Long), as far as the Maii- 
dalay border. The boundary line between Ruby Mines and Mandalay dis- 
tricts leaves the Nam P& or Madaya river between the Omfln and Kin streams 
and runs up the northern watershed of the Kinchaunga.nd along the northern 




THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[RUB 



watershed of the Nattaung ckaung to the source of the Chaunggyi stream 
thence down the Chaunggyi or Kyawl6 stream to its mouth. 

On the west the Irrawaddy river forms the boundary between Ruby Mines 
district and the districts of Shwebo and Katha. 

la Burmese times there was no division corresponding to the present dis- 
trict, and many experiments were tried before the district 

Administrative assumed its present shape. As its name jmplies, it owes 
history. j^ existence to the Ruby Mines, which previous to the 

Annexation were the subject of much fanciful romance, but little accurate 
knowledge. According to Burmese history, the stone-tract formerly belonged 
to the Shan State of Mong Mit (Momei'tj, but in 1607 A.D. was taken by 
the King of Ava in exchange for Tagaung and was subsequently adminis- 
tered dircct.from the capital. A strip of the Momeit State ran down be- 
tween the stone-tract and the river district, including the present military 
Station of Bcrnardw^tf and the villages of Kyauk-hl&bin and Wapyudaung on 
the Mogok-Thabeikkyin cart-road. The river district comprised a strip on 
both banks of the Irrawaddy, and Tagaung no longer belonged to Momeit, 
but a strip of that State ran down to the river at Twinngfe, and comprised 
that circle and the five villages of the Daungbfln circle. 

After the Annexation enquiries were set on foot as to the best route to the 
ruby mines, and with effect from the 2olh September 1886 the Ruby Mines 
district was formed, consisting of two subdivisions as under (Judicial Depart- 
ment Upper Burma Notifications Nos. 226 and 227, dated 
September 1886. ^ ^^^ ^^^j^ j^j^ ^g^^j ._ 

Subdivision. 



Kyan-hnyat 



Mog6k 






TovHsliip. 

(i) Kyan-hnyat. 
(2] Hmgamaw. 
(3J Mal6. 
(I) Mogfik. 
(a I Kath^. 
(3) Kyatpyin, 



The strip of the Momeit State between Mog6k and the river was taken over, 
and the Sagadaung circle was given to Momeit in exchange. On that date the 
first Civil Oflicer posted to the charge of the Ruby Mines district establi.shed 
a military base at Kyan-hnyat, and his first duty was to arrange for the military 
occupation of the mines and to discover his headquarters and the best way 
of reaching them. The headquarters of the new district were placed tempo- 
rarily at Kyan-hnyat. An expedition consisting of the 51st King's Own 
Yorkshire Light Infantry, the 43rd Gurkhas, a Mountain Battery and a com- 
pany of Sappers and Miners proceeded from Kyan-hnyat, through Sagadaung 
and the village that is now known as Bernard/«j(?, to MogAk. Some little 
resistance was offered in the neighbourhood of Mogok, but on the advance of 
the troops it collapsed and Mogfik was found practically deserted. The 
military station of Bernardw^o was established, with a view to its being 
developed into a sanitarium, and the district headquarters were fixed ait 
Mog6k, which is the centre of the ruby industry. 

On the 9th February i8S8all that part of Ruby Mines district which lay on 

F h 1888 ^^^ ^^^^ ^^"'^ °^ *^''^ Irrawaddy was transferred to Shwebo 

e ruary . jjgirict (General Department Notification No. 39, dated 

the 9th February 1888)1 and on the 29lh March 1888 the Kyan-hnyat and 

Hingamaw townships were transferred to Myadaung (Katha) district (General 



RUB] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER, 



5 



Department Notification No. ^4, dated the ^gtli March 1888). This reducrd 
the Ruby Mines district to the area of the present Mogok township and the 
tract between it and the river. 

On the I St October 1889 the portion of the Momeit State adjoining the 
Irrawaddy river, consisting of the Twinngfe and Daungb6n circles, was trans- 
ferred to Ruby Mines district and, together with the tract between the present 
Mogok township and the river, was formed into the Twinngci township 
(Foreign Department Notification No. 11, and General Department Notifi- 
cation No. 284, dated the ist October 1889). 

On the 22nd January 1891, by General Department Notification No. ig, 
the Ruby Mines district was constituted of the subdivision of Mogok, com- 
prising the two townships of Mogok and Twinngfe. 

Un the igth May 1S92 the Shan State uf Mong Mit (Momeil) was consti» 
tuted temporarily a subdivision of Ruby Mines district, consisting of the three 
townships of Mong Mit (Momeit), Mong Lang (Mo-hlaing), and the Kodaung 
(Political Department Notifications Nos. 5 and 6). 

On the lyth December 1892 the whole of the Kyan-linyat township and so 
much o! the Myadaung township as lay cast of the Irrawaddy were trans- 
ferred from Katha (formerly Myadaung) district to Ruby Mines district, with 
effect from the 1st January 1893 (General Department Notification No. 314), 
and the Ruby Mines district so formed was divided into two subdivisions, 
Mogok, consisting of the Mog6k township only, and Tagaung, consisting of 
the townships of Kyan-hnyal and Twinngfe (Genera! Department Nolili- 
cation No. 316). 

With effect from the 1st April 1894 the headquarters of the Kyan-hnyat 
township and of the Tagaung subdivision were moved from Kyan-hnyat to 
Tagaung (General Cepartment Notification No. 67, dated the igth March 
1894), and with effect from the ist July 1894 the portion of the Kyan hnyat 
township south o! the radaungg)a ckaung (including Kyan-hnyat) was trans- 
ferred to the Twinnge township and the northern part of the township was 
re-named the Tagaung township (General Department Notification No. 13(5, 
dated the 7th June 1894). 

Un the 15th October 1895 tht headquarters of the Twinnge township were 
moved to Thabeikkyin (General Department Notification No. 3 11, dated the 
8th October 1895), and on the 23rd June 1S97 l-l'^ Twinngfe township was 
rc-named the Thabeikkyin township (General Department Notilication 
No. 119). 

The district as at present constituted consists of the following subdivisions 
and townships : — 



Subdivision. 


Headquarters, 


Township. 


Headquarters. 


Mogek 
Tagaung 

Momeit 


Mog«k 
Tagaung 

Momeit ...< 


(l) Mog6k 

(1) Tagaung 

(2) Thabeikkyin 
(1) Mo-meit 

(a) .Mo-hlaing 

(3) Ko-daung 


Mog6k. 

Tagaung. 

Thabeikkyin. 

Momeit. 

Ma-ugdn. 

Mana. 



* 



J 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[RUB 



The subdivisions differ from one another largely in general character. 
MogAk consists entirely of hills, the highest rising to over 
Natural features. ^^^.^^ thousand feet, intersected by narrow valleys. The 
Tagaung subdivision comprises a narrow strip along the Irrawaddy river, 
subject in places to inundation, the ground rising rapidly inland to the hills, 
which run more or less parallel with the river. The highest range is behind 
Sabi^nago, where Shwe-u-daung rises to a height o( 9,231 feet. Behind 
Twinngfe there is a dip in the hills which gives access to the Momeit valley. 
This is of considerable extent, the rest of the Momeit subdivision consisting 
of hilly country similar to that about Mc^6k. 

The Shweli river flows through a rocky gorge from the neighbourhood of 
Nam Hkam to Myitson, and then winds in an alluvial valley to the Irrawaddv. 
The hills are dotted with villages of hill tribes, Kachins, Palaungs and Li-hsaws, 
whose principal form of subsistence is cutting taurtgyason the hill slopes and 
planting upland-paddy. A large portion of the district is uninhabited jungle, 
in some places putting up valuable timber. The hilly parts receive an ample 
rainfall. In the Tagaung and Momeit valleys the rainfall is only about half 
that of Mogok, but in most of the valleys of the district there are perennial 
streams which can be utilised for irrigation. At the lower elevations there 
are lai:ge tracts of t'ndaing jungle, and these arc arid and unproductive. 

Taung-me, north-west of Mogok, is the highest peak in the district, rising 

... to a height of seven thousand live hundred and fiftv-five 

Mountains. r . i- ^i • . 1 • » u i •' »i 

feet- rrom this central pornt one spur- branches m the 

direction of Bawpadan and another towards Mog6k. it is assorted that 

rubies and sapphires are found abundantly on these spurs. Other salient hills 

are Pingubaung, so called from the number of fir trees on its slopes, live 

miles east of Pinpyit, U-daung-taung, Salat-taung, Kye-ni-taung and 

Taungpyo, all situated near and surrounding the Mogok valley. To the south 

of Bawpadan are tAvo heights, the Bawpadan-taung and tlie Chinthe-taung. 

To the west of Kabaing is the Thabeik-taung. The Pingu-taung, close to 

Kyatpyin, was once worked for rubies on a large scale by the Burma Ruby 

Mines Company but has now been abandoned. 

The Nampan range, about eight miles from Shwe-nyaung-hin, joins to the 
Bouth with the Wa Wo range, which extends to Tantha in Mainglun State, 
and to the north is continued in the Shwe-u and Hnitmadaw ranges. 

The chief river of the district is the Irrawaddy, which 
separates it on the west from Shwebo and Katha dis- 
tricts. 
The Yeni chaung rises in a hill one and half miles north of Mogok, runs 
past the station and round Mogok South village and joins the Yebu chaung, 
which rises in Taung-m£. The combined streams flow through a steep rocky 
gorge into the Nam Pi; river, nearly opposite the village of Namseka. 

The Nam Pi: rises in Taungbaing (Tawng Peng), and flows past Nyaung- 
dauk. The Burmese call it the Moby& chaung after the place of that name 
in Momeik where tourmaline is found, that mineral being also found in the 
Nam P5. 

The Kin chaung rises in the Ye- we hills and passes by Kin village. It 
flows into Momeit past Sagadaung, the name of which village it afterwards 
bears as far as the Nam Mao or Shwcli river. 



Streams. 



UUB] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



7 



The U Daung stream rises in the hill of that name, flows past Kyaukgjn, 
where it receives an affluent, and joins the Irrajvaddy a little below Sabfenago 

The Nam Mao or Shvveli river enters the Momeik subdivision at its north- 
eastern corner from the Shan State of Mong Mau and flows through a rocky 
gorge to Myitsftn ; its direction is here south-easterly ; at Myits6n it changes 
its direction to due north, and the valley through which it flows becomes 
alluvial ; it follows this due northerly course until it comes within a few miles 
of the Irrawaddvi when it again makes an abrupt bend south-west to its 
mouth at Pyinliibin. 

The soil on the hill sides is a stif? red clay, and in the valleys is a rich 

^ . alluvial mould. Rocks crop up at intervals over the whole 

area. These are chiefly limestone, and become calcspar 

in the neighbourhood of Mogok and marble tow-ards the foot of tlie range 

westwards. At this point a fault occurs in the stratification and the marble 

is succeeded by sandstone along the Irrawaddy. 

The ruby is found in Mog6kp Kathe and Kyatpyin, The sapphire is found 
mostly at Rernardwytf and also at Gwebin and Ye-e. 

Minerals and Spinels are found at Mogftk, Kathd and Kyatpyin, gener- 
' ally mixed with rubies. Large quantities are also found 

in U Daung-myin, north of Mogok. The moonstone occurs in Kye-nitaung 
two miles east of Mogok, and is fairly common. Jasper and jarcon are 
usually found along with rubies and sapphires. Tourmaline appears in the 
Mobv^ chaung near Nyaungdauk. The mines were worked in Burmese 
times, hut were discontinued on account of the small profit. Lapis Lazuli is 
found ill Thapanbin chaung and in the grove near Payath6nsu, between 
Mog6k and Kyatpyin. Crystal is found in great abundance on the Salin- 
taung. Mica schist occurs throughout the whole district Gold is said to 
have been found in the Moby^ chaung and also in the VVapyutaung and Tha- 
heikkyin streams, and silver in the Shwe-u-taung, at the foot of which are some 
ancient mines. Garnets are very plentiful in the U Daung- taung near Sab£- 
nago, and are also met with in smaller quantities in Mog6k, Kyatpyin and 
Pyaunggaung. 

The statement below shows the approximate value of precious stones ex- 
tracted in the years named : — 



Year 



By the Ruby Mines 
Company under their 
extraordinary license. 



By n.itive miners 
under ordinary 

licenses. 



i8o4 ... 
I8<J5 ... 

1896 ... 

1897 ... 


Rs. 
I, .33.5 '5 
5.60.852 
6,87,536 
8,02,451 


Rs. 

8,00,460 
14,15,640 
12.31,620 

4.46.340 



In the time of one of the Kings of Burma, whose name is not gi\en, a large 
ruby was found, concerning which the following story is 

The Nga Mauk ^^rrent in the district. A villager of Kyauktaldn on the 

Chin Nga Mauk.' Maingl6n road found a very large ruby and in ignorance 

of its value broke it into three pieces. One piece was 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



{RUB 



stolen, the second, which weighed eighty-six ratties (a rattieis somewhat less 
weight than a carat), fell into the hands of a Palaung woman, and the third 
was taken to Calcutta for sale. The piece which the Palaung woman had 
was said to be so brilliant that she was able to spin cotton at night by ils light. 
Nevertheless she parted with the stone for some ngdpi and oil to a trader from 
the Chindwin. From his hands it came into the possesssion of one Nga Mauk 
Kyi, who presented it to King Bodaw Paya and was appointed a ^lyoza in 
reward. The King made enquiries as to where the stone came from and 
having traced it to the village where the Palaung woman lived ordered the 
whole of the inhabitants to be burnt on a stage. Hence the village was 
called Laungsin. The object of this cruelty is not obvious and is not ex- 
plained. However, the portion of the ruby which had been stolen also later 
came into the hands of the King and was called Sora Kothit, the first portion 
having been styled Nga Mauk Kyi, after the name of the giver. The weight 
of Sora Kathtt is not known, but it is said to have been as large as the 
other. Finally the King heard of the piece which had gone to Calcutta and 
succeeded in buying this. It was called Kalapyan, to commemorate its 
wanderings. 

In 1226 B.E. (1864 A.D.) Sothu<;yi\} Pyu presented KingMind6n with a 
sapphire weighing eight and a half tickals, which had been found in Pingu- 
taung and was valued at four thousand rupees. He was also presented with 
two rubies weighing twenty and sixteen ratties and valued at three thousand 
and five thousand rupees. These were, like the Sothu^yfs stone, found in 
Pingutaung. One U Dwe Gyi also presented him with a precious stone 
weighing one tickal and valued at four thousand rupees. In return he was 
rewarded with the office of Myoza of Maingldn, besides receiving other presents 
from the King. In 1236 B.E. (1874 A.D.) a ruby of sixteen ratties, valued 
at four thousand rupees, was found and sent to ihc Palace. 

Another famous stone was found in a held near the stream' cast of MogAk 
It was presented by Maung Po of Thapanbin village to Shwebo Min. This 
stone weighed twenty ratties and was named Nga Po, after the giver. 

There are various classes of forest in the district, dividi'd into zones ac- 
Forests : the teak cording to altitude, and all perfectly distinct from one 
zone. another. 

Round the foot of the ranges which cover about half the area of the district 
are forests of teak and in. The chief teak forests lie along the foot of the 
Sh\ve-u-taung from Sagadaung in Momeit to Twinng^ on the Irrawaddv, 
and again from Twin-ngfe southwards to Singu, where they join the Madaya 
forests. The area of this tract is roughly two hundred square miles. Much 
of the full-sized teak has been already worked out and numbers of trees 
girdled by former lessees are to be found in every direction The forests 
are, however, still valuable and their reservation has been carried out. 

Many of the cutch trees have been cut down, but there still remain a 
considerable number and these are being preserved with a view to the 
revival of the former large cutch-boiling industry. 

Teak becomes scarce inland above a height of two thousand feet, and at two 
thousand five hundred feet it disappears altogether and gives place to oak 
and chestnut, wliich are found up to an altitude of five thousand feet. Above 
this is found a type of evergreen forest peculiar to the higher mountains of 
this part of Burma. 



RUB] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



The oak and 
chestnut zone. 



The oak and chestnut zone blends very gradually into that of teak, and the 
taungya cultivations render the marking of the chang*' no 
easy matter. Many trees of the plains can however be 
traced up to a height of four thousand feet, mingled with 
the oaks and chestnuts. Such are Duohan^a Lagerstrxmia, Flos rcgiKx, 
Terminalia Belierica, Afallotui Philipinensis, Phillanthus etnblica, 
Caveya arhorea, Adannnihera pavonina, Cassia fistula, Cephalasiactrium 
pergracile, Phaenia sylvestris, Helicia erratica (Burmese daukyatgyi), 
Jtisminium {Burmese palaung-tke), Vitlx trifolicatum (Burmese kyaung- 
pa»), Carpinus viminica (Burmese pankyauk)^ Adina cordi folia (Burmese 
taswut), Lagcrstrcemia villosa (Burmese eauttghale), Michilia species 
(Burmese sn^iihyu), Cinamonaum (Burmese fhitkyabo), and others. 

The species particularly characteristic of the zone are Quercus Hel- 
feriann, Quercus Amherstia^ Quccus Lindleyana, Qwrcus Spictrf-t 
(B.ywefcAan), Quercus fenestrata, Quercus Brand isii {mi 6a) a.m\ Quercus 
Serrata {metlin). These are all small oaks and not of any great value. 
The list roughly indicates the succession of the species from the lower heights 
upwards. The chestnuts are the Castunea indica (Burmese thit-a), trtbuloid- 
es, cas'anicarpu (Burmese loasogdn) and Savanica. They are much used 
by the people as small timber, and some of them yield edible nuts. 

The companion species to the oaks and chestnuts are Schrna crenata 
(Burmese thitya-p\u') and Schima species {fhilya-ni), useful timber trees, 
Rhus semiclala, yasutinum, Sapiudus, Caltcarpa, Arboria and Artocurpus, 
Ficus mjrus and other Neoticacex. These are all very common. Nearly 
equally so are Milensa velutina and Grijfithii, Codiacum (Burmese Yepadon- 
ga-ie), Caslanopsis castanicarpa (Burmese ^''ow), Engelhadtea spicata, Elcen- 
carpus Griffithii, Michelia champaca, Hyptage modablala and Premnit 
integrifolia. Laurinex are well represented. The Machilius villosa, 
(Burmese hlega), one of the best timber trees found in the district, is common. 
Hiiicia erratica and other species, and Alseodapfnte graudis with its heavy 
clusters of fruit are a characteristic feature of the more exposed ridges. So 
is Terrtstrtemia yapoiiic/7 (Burmese taun^gafi). Salia tftrasperma (Bur- 
mesa Yent) an i Carpinus viminen fringe the streams. Rhcd^jdendron Moul- 
;««'Mff«jj> (Burmese Zalatpxu) forms thickets in most ravines. There is not 
much undergrowth in liic oak and chestnut forests. 

Sachorum and other coarse grasses make their appearance on old taungya. 
A species of olive, probably Olca terni/olin, is found occasionally on the 
skirts of the forest. Its fruit is apparently not edible. Groups of Pinus 
Kasya (Burmese tinyii) cover some of the steeper spurs, but the species is as a 
rule rare, owing to the manner in which the country has been burnt annually 
for many years, in the large open valleys, found at a height of from four 
thousand to six thousand feet, there occur high open groves of Quercus 
glau.a (Burmese metlin), at times almost pure, and Quercus semiserrata 
{metlin), Quercus Amiierstiana andQuercus Accuntiuata {roughly describ- 
ed as tlit-e l.ins^uh), Schima Crenata (Burm thityapyu). Prunus Puddum, 
Cephallo iaxus Manti {Kyauktin), oXdthododtndtonittes [R/ius arboreum 
(Burm. salatni)"], Litsoca Sebi/era {Ondon), and Oiea terni/olia. Pirus 
variolosa (Burmese t nit taw), crab-apple trees, hornbeams and willows are 
found along the streams. 

The undergrowth consists of light flowering shrubs, such as Melastoma 
malaba, thrica and Desmodium. In such valleys and around villages wild 



10 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[Rua 



raspberries, blackberries, strawberries and other familiar English plants 
are found, differing not very materially from the home species. hy, bar- 
berries, holly, primulas and violets continue the comparison. 

The transition from oak and chestnut forest to evergreen is usually sud- 
den, but where hill cultivation has been ca-ried on a band of very open forest 
composed of Bauht'tiia, variegata' nervosa and ferruginea, Kydia calicena, 
Rhus semilata (Burmese hngct p6k), Phyllanthus ncpalensis and cmblica, 
Cedrela montana (?), Albizsia stipulata (Burmese thitpyu), Lchek procera 
and oJoratisst'ma, Pythccolohium clxpeana, Hybiscus species Vemottias, 
subspontaneous Afacara»gas, Ervthrinas, &c., inter\-enes. On the skTtsof 
the evergreen forest are large prassv banks, with a few scattered trees of 
Phyllanthus, probably caused by jungle fires, but which mav be natural. 
Other blanks, where there has been hill cultivation, teem with large thistles, 
sesbaneas and bracken. 

These changes lead up to the true evergreen forest. It is of a peculiar type, 

said to be found nowhere else except in the Upper hJlI 

The evergreen forests of Tenasscrim. The growth is lofty, and dense 

gigantic climbers, such as Mucuna macrocarpa, abound 

and with Mellocandas (small bamboos), tree ferns, bananas, climbing rattans, 

patm.s and the like, give the forest a semi-tropical appearance. This effect is 

added to by the heavy undergrowth of actanthraceous and other herbaceous 

shrubs. The moist state of the air favours the growth of lichens, mosses, 

ferns, begonias and bulbaris orchitis and arums. At all times the forest is 

gloomy and, except for a short time in the dry season, dripping with moisture. 

The characteristic species, as far as tliey have been determined, are two 
kinds of oak, the Casfaneas Javonica, tun^urrut and Castant'carpa (all 
called thit-e, with specific names like thii-e gvt'n, thU-e-ni, in Burmese) : 
numerous species of the Lnurinex^ including Mathillus, Viliosa (Burmese 
hli'ga), Tetrantheras and Litsacos, Tvrnttremias, such as Camellia, Cauda- 
ta (Burmese letpet) Eurya Symplocinx (Burmese letpet), and Accuminata, 
acerlacirgicum and others: CofHa telrandera, Rhus species, Oleas, Prunus 
puddttm, Zysyphus glabrafa (Burmese sipyulhi), Karagcna langi-spina, 
Eicus pvriformis (Burmese j?//ra</o^) and other ficuses, some of immense 
height, their atrial roots being developed into gigantic stems. There are also 
Certhern odollam, Eugenias, numerous species of Srtiferos, Oralidnce and 
Euphorbiace.T, Vacrinium ardisioides, Ligustrum confusum and Cephallo- 
tnrus Mtinnii. The above, with numberless other genera and species grow- 
ing in varying proportion according to elevation and aspect also, though not 
very greatly affected by aspect, form a growth so lofty and compact that 
only the dimmest and most diffused light reaches down to the soil. The 
humus covering the soil is consequently very rich for Burma, and regener- 
ation is cxtretnely fast. On the highest points and steepest ridges, where other 
species are at a disadvantage, Rhododendron arboreum (Burmese salntni), 
and a small fan palm flourish almost alone. The soil both in the evergreen 
forest and lower down is composed of heavy ferruginous clay, traversed by 
bands of limestone and gneiss. The appearance of the evergreen forest, 
seen from a distance, is of an uniform dark green, so dark as to give the main 
watershed, which it covers completely, the name of Black mountain (Taung- 
\\\h). Inside the forest, in spite of the gloom, there is a great display of colour, 
owing to the v.ariegated foliage and rich flowering of a large number of the 
trees and especially of the undergrowth. (E. M. Buchanan.) 



ftud] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



It 



Forest 
tion. 



Tlir following statement shows the areas which have been reserved and 
those which are now in process of reservation. The re- 
scrva- serves in the neighbourhood of Mogok were taken up lo 
provide for the future wants of the town, as the forests 
%vere rapidly being cleared with the constantly increasing demand for timber 
and fuel. The reserved area in the Thabeikkyin township is in an unin- 
habited tract and is a continuation of the Madaya reserves of Mandalay district. 
The reserves in the Momeit State are extensive and rich in teak, but they 
were worked to excess before the .Annexation and will take some years to 
recover. Some of the areas are now being worked out by Messrs. L'arwood 
and Company of Rangoon. 

Reserved fo rests. 



Forest division. 


Township. 


Name of reserve. 


Area in 
acres. 


Remarks. 








Acres. 




Mandalay ... 


Thaboikkyin ... 


Upper Madaya ... 


42,880 






■ Mogfik 


Bernardwjo 


12,160 






do 


Kath* 


1,280 






do 


Ongaing 


5.320 






do 


MogAk 


960 






do 


Kyalpyin ... 


2,760 






Mo-hlaing 


Kunchaung 


43.520 






do 


Mainglha 


1,10,720 






do 


Nahan 


48,640 






do 


Nampaw 


56,320 






Tagaung 


Hintha 


44.160 


Constituted by noti- 


Ruby Mines ■ 








fication of' 22nd 










September 1898. 




Mo-hlaing 


OndAk 


64.640 


7 I n process of reser- 
i valion 




Momeit 


Paungkadaw 


30,080 


. 


Thabeikkyin ... 


K\aukgyi 


9,280 


In proc«-ss of reser- 
vation. Not i fi e d 
icth August i8<;8. 


■ 


do 


dnhmin 


17,280 


In process of reser- 
vation. Notified 
23rd July 1898. 




Mfing Mit 


Nannife extension 


I J, 520 


Constituted by noti- 
fication of 4th No- 
vember 1898. 



An experimental orchard was planted near Bernard/nio with English 
apples, pears, peaches, quinces and walnuts but, though the climate and soil 
are reported to be suitable, the experiment has not been a success. The 
orchard has suffered from lack of experienced supervision and has fre- 
quently been damaged by jungle fires. When trees have borne fruit, it has 
usually failed to ripen and eventually been spoilt by the rain. Most of the 
grafted trees seem to have reverted to the more vulgar stock. English 
vegetables have been more successful ; potatoes have been introduced and 
are grown by the Li-hshaws in considerable quantities, while the Commissariat 
garden at Beriiardwj>'i7 and several Chinese and European gardens near 
Mogok give a good supply of cabbages, peas, beans, celery, beet-root and 
ot her varieties. Straw-berries have also been grown with fair results, 



H^ 14 THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. i^uu 
^1 Mogdk Rainfall. 


^H Month. 


Ybar. 1 


1SS9. 


1S90. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893- 


1894. 


1895. 1896. 


1897. 


■^ 


^^B lanuary ... 
^H February ... 

^H March 

^^1 May 
^H June 

H Wy 

^H August 

^H September „ 

^H October ... 

^H November... 

^H December,.. 

H Total ... 

^H Momeit 
^H 1 agaung... 
^H Bemanlni/ff 


02 


... 


•14 


-... 


■05 ... 
•02 30 


1 

■17 

-'5 32 


••:,. ..-=■ 1 


•02 

117 


■■•85 


>4 
•03 


•25 


■07 -30 

■93 207 

1 


•15 
•10 


•49 


-II 
1-40 


•5« 


H9 

■87 


85 
482 


rZ 


•25 
13-33 


102 2-37 
»43 3*47 


•25 
429 


•49 
•84 


»-5> 

■35 


6-93 


306 
u-17 


S-67 
9-38 


277 

5-8fi 


12-58 
»5-24 


2-45 
jr6i 


5-84 
irai 


454, 1*33 
12-38! 1116 


186 
9'87 


7-43 
»|-54 


i3'23 
4073 

53-9<5 
33-23 


i5-<^5 
17-15 

32-20 

l8-24 


863 
15-46 

2409 


27-82 
1827 


U-06 
18-38 


3J05 
1225 


16-92 12-49 
13*59 23-96 


««-73 

>503 


1897 
23-21 


46-09 
2243 


32'44 
40-29 


35-30 
27-27 


30-5', 36-45 
24-801 1263 


2676 
20-60 


42-68 
11-43 

• 


77 «9 S«-44 
22-56 18-70 


37- '8 
JO 75 


6852 
27-16 


7273 
10-84 


62-57 
a I -84 


55-31 49-"8 
12-95 '6-'9 


4736 
2754 


5360 
16-33 


9975 
iro7 

110*82 
5"45 


6914 
1085 


4793 
"93 


95-68 
i6-8« 


83-57 
6-78 


84-41 
9-98 


68 26 65-27 

t2f)2 21-98 


7490 
•3-«3 


69-83 
19-17 


7999 
749 


5986 
5-04 


112-53 
23-21 


90-35 
9-07 


94-39 
10-16 


80 88| 87-25 
80s' 2-51 


88-03 

6-02 


»9-oo 


1 16-27 
i"43 


8748 
■69 


6490 
176 


»3574 
5-3S 


99-42 
1-46 


'0455 
3-53 


8893 89-76 
204 78 


94-05 
3-16 


••• 


11770 
•37 


88"17 6666li4ri2 

•54] 


10088 


10810 
•42 


9097 
3'59 


9054 
1-17 


97-21 
-60 


... 


117-97 


88-J7I 67-20 


I4»I2 


101 '02 


10852 9456 


9i-7l 


97'8i 


... 


... 


• •• 


57-89 


45*52 
10321 


467:. 
41-49 
77 53 


56-81 ' 41-98 

44 86 53 88 

103-91 84-85 


4981 
4452 
7773 


3634 
44-95 
69-74 


... 


^H At the censtifl of 1891 the district consisted of only the Mog6k and 
^H p . Twinngfe townships, and the Shan State of Momeit 
H I'opulation. (Mong Mit) was excluded from the regular rensu-s 
^B operations. The modifted enumeration that was undertaken was carried out 
^H in a perfunctory manner and the results were not considered worth com- 
^H pilii^g* (Census Report, Volume I, Appendix page xxxvii.) 
^H Of the twenty-six thousand one hundred and thirty-four persons enumcr- 
^H ated in the Mog/)k and Twinngt townships — . 

^H 11,581 were Burmese, j 4,047 were Palaungs. 
^H 7,582 were Shans, | i.ogy were Li-hsaws, 
^H and 361 were Chinese. 



RUB] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



15 



The balance comprised Europeans, Natives of India, and Karens belong- 
ing to the police. 

In the townships of Kyan-hnyat and Myadaung, subsequently transferred 
from Katha district, Burmese largely predominate, 7,473 being enumerated 
in the villages transferred out of a total of 7,928, of whom 243 only were 
entered as Shan. The total population of the present Mog6k and Tagaung 
subdivisions at the time of the census was thus — 

34,062 persons, of whom — 

i9,os4 were emercd as Burmese, 
7,825 as Shan, 
4,047 as Palaung. 
1,099 as Li-hsaw. 

The Palaungs and Li-h.saws live in the hills of the Mog6k township. The 
Shans live mostly in the MogAk township and in the parts about Twinngfe, 
which formerly belonged to the Momeit .State. 

The population of the Momeit State is roughly estimated at 30,000 per- 
sons, made up ef the following races : — 

Burmans ... ... ... -.. 7,000 

Shans ..• •.• ••• ... 7i*^'* 

Palaungs ... ... ... .. 7,000 

Kachins ... ... ... ... 9,000 

Except in the riverain tract Shan is the linffua franca of the district 
c. but many of the better educated Shans talk Burmese and 

the Shans of Mog6k, Kyatpyin and Kathfc are gradually 
adopting Burmese habits and dress and converse freely, even among them- 
selves, in Burmese. Even inter-marriage with Burmans is becoming fre- 
quent. The frequent pilgrimages of the wealthier Shans to religious shrines 
in Mandalay and Rangoon also tend to modify their national insularities. 
The outlying villages have, however, retained their own customs unimpaired. 

The Burmans live mostly in the Tagaung subdivision and in the larger. 

n villages in other parts of the district. A good number 

come up to the stone tract from Mandalay, Shwcbo 

and other districts for trading purposes. The Burmans in Shan villages 

have usually a large amount of Shan blood in their veins. 

Shan-Tayoks, commonly called Maingtha (and Tai-che by the Shans) 

eu r\.- come into the district in large numbers every year, They 

ahan-Lninese. a ,.• 1 .• l ,. ..1 . xi .. 

are a floating population, but they are constantly present 

and seem to come every year in increasing numbers. They take up coolie 
work of any description. In i8go it was estimated that the number did not 
fall far short of two thousand, and they have increased yearly since. They 
come chiefly from the Shan-Chinese States of Mong La, Mong Sa and Mting 
Tat. They are generally called after the second State by the Burmese, 
whence the name Maingtha^ no matter what State they came from. Their 
journey takes them fifteen days' steady marching. They are largely em- 
ployed on Government works, road-making, timber-sawing and the like, and 
arc also used by the Ruby Mines Company, and for digging work generally. 
They are inveterate gamblers and smugglers but otherwise are very useful 
visitors for they work better than any race in Burma. They are nominally 
Buddhis.s, but keep aloof from all religious ceremonies. Their language is 
Chinese, but most of them talk mangled Shan. Some of them write Shan, 
using the diamond-shaped lettering of Mong Mau. They frequently bring 



\6 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[RUB 



Wgje numbers of pack ponies with them, for hire on any work that may present 
itself. They use the well-known Chinese wooden saddle. Their usual time 
of arrival is the end of December and they leave again about the end of 
April. A good many have settled in Mog6k with their wives and families 
and work permanently in the ruby mines. 

The Palaungs live entirely in the hills and devote themselves to cultivation, 
p . Almost all those in the Mogok township have immigrated 

^ ■ from Taungbaing or Momeit, and they preserve their clan 

distinctions. There are still some powerful communities of them in Momeit, 
but a good many have been ousted by the Kachins. They are very hard 
working and parsimonious. They can all talk Shan but few, if any, can 
talk Burmese. Once every year the inhabitants of every Palaung villlage 
make a formal visit to the neighbouring villages and these visits are as 
formally returned. The origin of the custom is not known and it is peculiar 
to the Palaungs. 

The Li-hsaws or Yawyins. who occupy a few villages near ^erna.rdmyo and 
... a few more in the Momeit State, are apparently of Chinese 

origin, though they now form a distinct tribe with a lan- 
guage of their own. The dress of the men is like that of the Shan-Chinese 
invariably of blue cloth with a turban of the same material. The women's 
dress is the same as that of the men, with the addition of a red cuff 
on each sleeve. They are nominallv spirit-worshippers like the Kachins, but 
appear to have no religion at all in reality. They devote themselves to rice- 
cultivation and the rearing of pigs. They are very quiet and inoffensive and 
are the most peaceable tribe in the district. All are inveterate opium- 
smokers and verj' dirty in their persons. Their New Year ceremony includes 
a wash and a new suit of clothes. Their villages are all at above live thousand 
feet altitude. The women are very fair and, like their Palaung sisters, wear 
silver ornaments, though not in such profusion. The race is poor both in 
wordly goods and in physique. The Li-hsaw houses are not raised from the 
ground, and the whole live-stock live with the family. 

The Kachins live mostly in the Kodaung township of the Momeit sub- 

j^ .. division, but there are some also in the hills of the Mo-hlaing 

and Momeit townships. They are similar in manners and 

customs to the Kachins of Bhamo and Myitkyina districts, from which they 

have migrated. 

A few Panthays from Yiinnan have settled in Mogok, and others visit 

Panthavs **' P'"'"'^'P3^"y to obtain emplovment for their pack ponies 

and mules. Chinamen, Chetties and other Natives of 

India compete for the trade of the stone tract and fatten on high prices and 

the enormous rates of interest at which they lend out their money to the 

speculative miner or dealer in rubies. 

The only crop that is grown to any large extent is rice. On the hills blll- 
Agriculiure and P*^!^>' '^ fn^own in fatingvas, and in the valleys as great 
prices. ^ width as possible is terraced and irrigated for the wet 

varieties. In Momeit and Tagaung, where there are larger 
areas of level ground, the fields are more extensive. Sessamum, cotton, 
maize, millet, vegetables, plantains and tobacco are also grown. The follow- 
ing statement shows the average Mog6k prices for the articles named during 
the last ten years ;— 



^ 








1 


p 


^'■'^''" 


^ 


^ RUB J 




THE UPPER BURMA 


GAZETTEER." IJ 


^^^ 










■: o 


o 


o 


o o o o o o o 




^m 






•Xvp jad WB3 


N 


4 o 


o 


o 


O O O O O O 




a ■ 






Pi o 


6 


o 


o o 6 o e o 


^^^^H 




5 


•pamnsun 


*rt 


^ o 


o 


o 


M ^ »»• O o 




^^H 










c2 - 


" 


- 


o o o - •• •- •• 








»: o 


o 


o 


o o o o o o o 


^^^^B 




DA 


p^mns 


2 


< o 


o 


o 


O O O o o o 




^^H 




^ 






(2 " 


« 


n 


el n M M ts ri ei 










a.- O 


o 


O 


O O O O o o 


^H 
^B 
^H 

^H 
^B 

^H 

^B 
^B 
^B 

^B 

^B 

^ o 

CO 

u 
u 

Of 


•** 
•• 

S3 

e 

:^ 

a 

1 


< 


■qsea 
S}jD0[|nqii3no|j 


» 


■i o 


o 





OO 00 00 o o o o 

O O S3 r> v8 >8 « 


« 


lies 


00 


o 
•a 


o 

00 

in 


pa 

00 


lO lO VQ « <o >o vO 
0» Ot ^ "^ ro CO PO 
(0 to -4- ^ O to O 


■poo.ikajij 


fr» 


CO 

Eo 


00 

to 

o 


00 

«o 
o 


00 O O 3 O 
ro « « 2" ■* ^ "* 

o o o c o s 


<S 

a. 
O 

R 

a 
■< 
a 

u 
u 

a 

o 


1 




o 


(2 ° 


o 

o 


o 

o 


o o o o o o o 

<0 <0 O to >0 vo VQ 

o o o o o o o 


o 


•o 




o 




o 

o 


o O o o o o 
O n n M N r< N 


c2 ° 


o 


o 


O O d O 


•3349 


f 


o: « 
« 2 


00 


00 


00 O <0 CO 00 00 00 

M « M e* p« « 






A. 

5 








;s 


^ 


ir> Vi w) IT) tn >n fh 


1 


•jvSns 


<o 




o 
o 


o 

o 


■tt -^ „ o ■ CO to fo 

■>*■-»■ CO lO - « « 






o 








o 


« 


o ■* -•■ CO CO lo 


fl 










»: o 


3 


o 


O O « O CO O CO 






s 


{pajisnij) aajn 


w 


< •* 


00 


00 


- Ul O OO o O w 


H 






i 






^ "^ 


»o 


ur> 


O « t^ r^ xo O lO 


1 








: 


i 


I 










1 


- 


OO 

OD 


s 


5> 

i 


N «0 ■^ 1/5 to t^ OO . 

Oi pv o» (^ Oi CTt (^ 

•• M to ■+ U1 to 1^ 

^ ^ Ot CS ^ ^ Ot 

00 00 QO 00 00 00 00 


1 










3 




H 










^ 


w 



i8 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER, 



[RUB 



The only distinctive industry is mining for and tradinsf in precious stones. 
... A certain amount of cuttin^y and polishing is also carried 

on, but most of the stones arc sold in the rough. The 
best stones are sent to London and the lower qualities to Mandalay, Cal- 
cutta and Madras. 

Ruby Mines district for mining purposes has been divided into two " Stone 
The ruby industry, tracts" called respectively the " MogAk Stone Tract" 
and the " Mong Mit Stone Tract." The boundaries of 
the former, which practically coincides with the MogAk township, are defined 
in Revenue Department Notification No. 6, dated i8th November 1887 
{Burma Gazette, Part I, page 447), and include an area of about six hundred 
square miles. They are — 

North. — The Negya-tinyu-taungdan, thence a line running one mile 
north of Kwctnapa and In-g>'auk ; thence the Nambauk stream 
to its junction with the Sagadaung river ; thence the Hiiamadaw 
and Shwe-u-daung mountain range. 

West.— The Ondan stream, Natpandaung hill, and Wabo stream. 

South.- — The Madaya or Mobyii stream. 

East. — The Thia stream. 

The '' Mong Mit Stone Tract" as defined in Revenue Department Notifi- 
cation No. 82, dated 5th March 1S96 {Purma Gffscffe, Part I, page iio), 
comprises all the rest of the district. 

The " Mogok Stone Tract " has been leased to the Burma Ruby Mines 
Company, Limited, for fourteen years from the ist November 1896 on the 
terms set out in an indenture made between the Secretary of State for India 
and the Burma Ruby Mines, Limited, on the iqth February 1897. in continu- 
ation of a previous lease made in November 1889 for a term of s^ven years. 
Under this agreement the Company have the exclusive right to an extraordi- 
nary license in the Mngftk stone tract, and the right to all fees paid for ordi- 
nary licenses to mine by native methods in the same area. 

Rubies liave been found in five different locales, each of which has necessi- 
tated a different method of working. Authorities differ as to the probable 
origin ol the stone and agree that this is not yet satisfactorily determined. 

Mr. Barrington Brown, a Geological Surveyor who was deputed by the 

T-. , , t^ India Office to examine the mining areas in 1887, was of 

I he locale. . , . . ,, • r ^1 , , 

opinion that the matrix of the ruby was calc-spar occur- 
ring in beds in granular limestone. Mr. Lockhart, who was for two years 
Engineer-in-Chief to the Burma Ruby Mining Company, suggested that the 
calc-spar had formed round the rubies and that it was more probable from 
the appearance of the ruby-bearlng-clay (Burmese />}'on), which contains all 
the ingredients of an igneous rock such as granite, that '' in the earlier geolo- 
gical history of these regions such a rock overlay the strata as they are found 
today, but was entirely removed by subsequent disintegration, the hydn beds 
after admixture with clay be'ng composed of their debris. This theory 
would account for the filling of the caverns and other phenomena, while in 
other districts where .'■apphires and rubies are found it is reported thai 
such a rock is still in existence on the tops of the higher ranges." Which- 
ever theory is correct, the calc-spar locale is in ap; earancc the most perma- 
nent. The only method by which the rubies have been as yet extracted from 



RUB] 



THE UPPER UURMA GAZETTEER. 



10 



it is by blasting, and this involves serious injury to the stones. A quarf} 
near Mogfik was worked after this method for fifteen 3-ears prior to the 
Annexation with fair results, but since then blasting has been forbidden 
except under an extraordinary license, and this method has not been deve- 
toped by the lessees, as no economical way of extracting the stones without 
injury has yet been discovered, and the stones found in the experiments 
made were not so fine as to encourage further working. 

The other locates vary only in the position into which the rubies have 
been carried after being disintegrated from the original matrix. They are 
usually imbedded inacharactcrestic earth, called in Burmese '' ^_y(?«." This 
varies in composition, but consists generally of a btuish gray clayey material, 
containing gravel and sand together with rounded gneiss blocks. ' The ruby- 
producing material is composed of a yellowish sand containing coarse rounded 
gneiss shingle resting in the valleys on a substratum of yellowish brown clay.' 
— (Barrington Brown). The valleys contain one or two layers of this earth, 
varying in thickness from a few inches to six feet, and at a depth below the 
surface of about twenty feet. From the level disposition of the layers, Mr. 
Lockhart suggests that these valleys are " the beds of former lakes which 
having been gradually fdled up by detritus carried down and deposited in 
them by successive rains, have flowed through a gap in the surrounding hills 
and disappeared." 

On the sides of the hills and in fissures and caves in the granular limestone 
composing them similar deposits are found, but in the former ca«;e " the clay 
is usually of a yellowish brown colour and very close and stiff, so that it will 
not only stand vertically but can be under-cut and tunnelled into. The stra- 
tum is often as much as fifteen or twenty feet thick and is practically abed 
of very stiff clay filled with sand and boulders of rock. It contains also lumps 
of quartz, grains of felspar of several colours, nodules of oxidised iron pyrites, 
flakes of mica and graphite, rubies, sapphires, spinels, pieces of tourmaline 
and other minerals of more or less value. In the latter case, namely, in the 
deposits in fissures and caves in the limestone composing the hills, the bySn 
is of a far more sandy nature than in either the valley or hill-side deposits, 
and though there are generally fewer rubies, they are better as to size and 
quality. — (Lockhart)." 

The last locale for mention is the beds of existing streams, which carry 
down considerable quantities of the ruby-bearing deposit. 

To recapitulate, the five locales may be — 
(i) Calc-spar beds in limestone hills, 
(ii) Alluvia] deposits in valleys, 
(iii) Hjll-side deposits. 

(iv) Deposits in fissures and caves in limestone hilts, 
(v) Stream beds. 

The native methods for winning the rubies from these locales may be classi- 
fied briefly as — 

(i) Blasting, now obsolete, 
(ii) Twinlort, or pit workings, 
(iii) Myav), or water workings. 



ao THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[RUB 



(iv) Lu, or cave workings, 
(v) Dredging. 

In June i888 Mr. Barrington Brown thus described the first four methods^ 
(i.) " The principal place where a calc-spar bed in tiie timcslone has been 
Blasting worked for tlie contained rubies is on the north side of the 

Mogok valley, about three-quarters of a mile from the vil- 
lage. There some thirty miners were formerly engaged blasting the rock, 
breaking the stone thus procured m ith hammers, and chipping out the in- 
closed rubies. By this rough mode of procedure the rubies are more or less 
shattered, nevertheless some good stones were obtained. The miner whom 
I employed to procure specimens by blasting informed me that he and a com- 
panion working together formerly obtained rubies to the value of Rs. 200 a 
month. On one occasion he extracted one which he sold for Ks. 300. This 
man, assisted by another miner, worked for me for a period of ten days, pro- 
curing fourteen good sized rubies and numerous small ones. These were all 
more or less injured by the jarring of the rock by powder and hammer, so 
that their commercial value was greatly reduced. Ihe quarry is not an 
extensive one, being from six to seven feet wide, twenty feet high, and with 
a mean depth on the bed of twenty-two feet, so that very little of this valuable 
rock has hitherto been removed. The bed is about twenty feet wide and of 
a coarse white calc-spar variety only two feet in width: the centre of the 
spar, where the rubies are found, is of a semi-transparent variety. According 
to the miners, the portions of the rock where a grey mineral with iron 
pyrites is seen is the best for rubies. This mine had been worked for fifteen 
years up to the time of the British occupation, but not since, and was un- 
known to Europeans previous to the time of my visit to the Ruby Mines." 
(ii) Twinldns are square pits sunk in the alluvium through a stratum of loam 

Pit workings. *"*^ ^^^^ ^° *^^ ^^^^ ^"^ gravel layer which contains the ru- 
bies. They vary in size from two feet to nine feet square, 
and are worked by three men to the smaller and ten to the larger pits. 
After digging a few feet down, strong posts twelve feet in length are driven 
down in each corner of the square, and, in the case of a nine-foot pit, three 
more at equal distances along each side. Short slats are wedged across be- 
tween each post to keep them apart, and at every two feet or so light flat 
timbers are wedged across the pit, each way, into notches in the posts to hold 
them firmly apart and thus support the sides. The miners then proceed to dig 
out the clay with small short-handled, spud-like spades and fill it into small 
bamboo baskets, which are hoisted by balance poles to the surface. When 
some four or five feet have been sunk another set of cross-beams is put in and 
half-way between the two a double set of round poles in a similar manner, 
which are lashed to those above and below by twisted rattan canes. Wat- 
tling and dry grass or leaves, filled in at the back of the spaces between the 
posts, support the clay walls and prevent pieces from falling in. When tliey 
have excavated to Uie bottom of the first set of posts, they proceed to drive 
down a second set inside them, and when these have been driven through the 
ruby-bearing sand they continue to sink timber as before. Un finishing 
a pit and sending all the sand to bank, they take out all their timbering ma- 
terials for further use at an adjoining spot. Round pits at the present day 
are few in number and are mere trial pits to test the presence of the rubv 
sand: but as seen in ancient workings, especially in the Kyatpiu valleys and 



RUB] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



2i 




elsewhere, they were formerly extensively used for the extraction of the ruby 
earth. 

The balance or well-poles used both for hoisting the materials excavated 

and the water accumulating in the pit are made 
of strong bamboo poles each supported on a 
bamboo post, split at the top to receive it, where 
it is pinned through with a wooden peg. A 
largo basket fdled with stones is used as a balance 
weight at the short end or butt, and to the long 
end which overhangs the pit is attached a rope 
or thin pole, provided with a double wooden 
hook at the end lor the purpose of attaching it 
to the basket. Some pits have five of these 
balance poles, each worked by one inan, who 
lowers the basket to be lilled, hoists it and 
walking a few feet away empties the contents 
by a quick jerk without detaching the basket, 
then returns and lowers it to have a fresh filled 
basket attached. 

During the night the pit fills up to within eight feet of the surface with 
water, which has to be baled out each morning with bamboo baskets attach- 
ed to the balance poles, an operation which in a large pit occupies the men 
some two or three hours. Some of the shallow tiutnluns are kept free from 
water by rude but ingenious bamboo pumps, placed in a sloping position. 

When the ruby sand has been taken out and placed in a heap, it is washed 
in fiat closely-worked baskets made of bamboo. Two men are employed in 
filling these and handing them to the washers who, by whirling them in the 
water and forcing them in a peculiar manner, bring the larger pebbles to 
the back of the basket and rid the coJitents of all clayey matter, leaving 
the sand and pebbles clean. The\ arc then handed to other men, who 
spread out the stuff rapidly in the basket and pick out whatever rubies or 
spinels it may contain, which are placed in a small upright bamboo tube (illcd 
with water. After the washing is finished for the day the tube is emptied and 
the rubies sorted, those of greater value being placed carefully into small 
cotton bags. The sand is then picked over a second time by women and 
children, who act as gleaners and sell the small particles of rubies and 
spinel which they find to the owner of ihe pit. As soon as one pit is finished 
which is accomplished in eight or ten days for a large one and four or five 
for a small one, another pit is sunk close by and so the work goes on. 

(ill) Myawdwins are open cuttings of an elongated form, the lower end 

Water workings. °' ^^'^'^'^ '^ °P*^" *° ^ S^'^y side. In commencing this sort 
of mining some outlay of capital is necessary in bringing 
water to the head of the working. This is effected by digging a trench from 
one to two feet wide and one to four feet deep from the side of a mountain stream 
and generally for a considerable distance along the hill side. Where a ravine 
intervenes, the water is conducted across in bamboo troughs supported on 
bamboo poles held together by strong crosspieces and stays. The water is 
delivered into the top of the cutting by bamboo troughs and Hows away through 
a trench in the bottom of the working which forms a ground sluice. I'he 
operation of excavating the face of the mine is performed with long and short 



32 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



luut) 



handled spuds and the stuff is thrown in heaps until a sulTiciciil quantity is col- 
lected for washing. As the face is undermined below, the clay slips down and 
is washed away. The large stones are thrown in heaps to one side, or formed 
into walls to supp Tt the refuse as well as the sides of the sluice, which is ad- 
vanced towards the fare of the working as the process of excavation proceeds. 
There may be one or more sluices and these sometimes run under huge blocks 
of rock too heavy to be removed. The water delivered at the mine head is 
discharged from troughs at as great an elevation as can be obtained upon the 
heap of ruby clay and sand thrown under it by'the miners. The ends of the 
discharge t'oughs are closed and by this means the water is scattered, falling 
in a heavy shower on the stuff and softening it, at the same time taking up 
in suspension the clayey particles, which it carries away down the sluice. 
When the material thus treated is sufficiently softened, the big stones are 
picked out and thrown to one side and the remainder hauled with hoes into 
the upper end of the sluice where it is puddled. Two or three wooden riffles, 
of two feet or more in height, arrest the sand and gravel containing all the 
minerals. This latter is taken out, placed in baskets, and washed and sorted 
as in a Twtnldn. 

One day is usually devoted to digging and the next to washing, or where 
there is a sufficient number of hands employed, the two processes are carried 
on conjointly. 

The sluice is in part built over with rocks, where deeply situated. The ruby 
sand which may escape from its upper portion is collected behind rifHes 
placed along its entire length and washed from time to time. The prin- 
cipal and most valuable washings are obtained from the first tw»4ve feet. In 
some instances these sluices are one hundred and fifty vards in length and 
vary according to the time the mine has been in operation. There is a cer- 
tain amount of danger in working under the face of a Myawd'ain, as in 
some cases the cliff is as much as sixty feet in height and accidents may 
happen through a sudden fall of clay. 

(iv) Luiiwins arc said to have produced the finest and largest rubies dis- 
Cavc workirffs covered in the whole district. There are an immense 
number of old cave mines in the granular limestone, and 
this attests the importance of this method in former times. In them the 
brownish clayey ruby loam is excavated from the cavfs and fissures of 
the rock, which extend in every direction .ind go to great depths. The 
miners, provided with short handle spades, baskets and small oil ]am]>s, 
descend the mines and dig out the loam, bringing it to the surface themselves 
in some instances, though usually the proceeds of their work are hoisted up 
perpendicular pits, sunk in wide lissurcs, by means of balance poles. In one 
ludicin the material excavated is lifted a distance of ninety feet by means of 
a most ingenious combination of two balance poks. By these pits, and 
by tunnels connected with the workings which have other passages leading to 
the surface, ventilation is kept up. -Sometimes the work is entirely suspended 
on a good lead by the sides of the tunnel narrowing in for a short distance. 
No ladders are used, but the miners descend and ciscend the most difficult pas- 
sages with apparent ease. Uwing to the porous nature of the limestone 
there is usually no water to contend with in the workings and none is re- 
quired to soften the loamy clay, which is taken directly to the nearest water- 
supply and there washed as in the cases before described. 1 he number of 



RUB] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



33 



men usually employed in a ludwiu is ten, and women and girls also assist in 
working the balance poles as well as in re-washing the stuff. 

, (v) Mr. Lockhart thus describes method five, which is not extensively re- 

Dredeines sorfdto: — '* A dam is built across a stream, thereby 

making a pool which is dredged by hand, the miner diving 

to the bottom with a basket which he fills with his hands or feet and then 

brings up to be washed and sorted." 

On the annexation of Upper Burma various suggestions were made as to 
die most promising way of developing the native methods 
The Rtiby Mmes -^^ scientific appliances, and considerable sums were spent 
. by the Company with a view to improving method No. 3 

by scientific hvdrauUc mining and method No. 4 by tunnelling. The form- 
er scheme was not completed and the latter was found to involve verj' heavy 
expenditure and gave no equivalent result, and these works have now been 
abandoned in favour of method No. 2. 

The first attempts at valley mining were made by digging trenches in the 
Mog6k valley and sinking twinWns in the bottom of the trenches. Difficulty 
was experienced from the water, and the results being poor this method was 
abandoned and for some time the Companv's efforts were directed to deveIoj>- 
ing method No. 4, in the neighbourhood of Kyatpyin. Tunnels were run 
into a very remarkable mountain named Pingutaung, to which native legend 
ascribes fabulous wealth in rubies, but the results were disappointing and the 
method expensive. Attempts were therefore again made to develop method 
No. 2 and work was commenced in the Tagaung-nandaing valley and also 
near Kyatpyin. 

In April 1894 work was commenced in the MogAk valley, but regular 
washing could not be commenced until January 1895. 

In February 1895 work was started in the Luda valley near Kyatpyin and 
in March 1895 the tunnel workings were definitely abandoned. In Septem- 
ber l8g6 the Tagaung-nandaing valley was abandoned, as the ruby-bearing 
earth seemed to have been completely worked out, and operations have since 
been confined to the Luda valley n^ar Kyatpyin and to the MogAk valley, 
where three workings have been opened. The Company closed the Luda 
mine in May 1898, as it was practically exhausted, and started work on the 
same principle in the Yebu valley in August 1898. 

The method by which the economical working of the vallev deposits has 
been attained consists in stripping off bodily the top soil, which covers the 
ruby-bearing earth [hydn) to a depth of some ten or fifteen feet, and then 
digging up the byon so exposed and carrying it in trucks on rails to the 
washing apparatus, which consists of rotary pans worked on the same princi- 
ple as those used for washing diamonds in South Africa; these remove the 
mud, sand, and pebbles of low specific gravity, leaving behind only the heavy 
deposit of precious stones and" high specific gravity detntus ; this deposit is 
further reduced and concentrated in a pulsator. a sort of perpetual jigj^er, and 
then gone over by hand and the rubies and other precious stones picked out. 
The mines take the shape of an open quarry or gravel pit, the bottom of which 
is some thirty-five to forty feet below the level of the surrounding country ; 
they have to be kept dry by incessant pumping, the Company at present 
employing for that purpose centrifugal pumps driven by steam or water 
power. The largest quantity of by6n yet washed in a month was eighty-two 



f 24 

y^ thoi 

\ duci 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



thousand six hundred and forty-two truck-loads, in March 1897 I this pro- 
duced rubies valued at Rs 79,069-6-0. 

The number of ordinary licenses fluctuates largely. The largest number 

^ ,. ,. of workers licensed in any one month was two thousand 

Ordinary licenses. i.jj jr<'- • at 1. 11 

' seven hundred and forly-nme, in March 1895, ^"d the 

smallest number In recent years was three hundred and eighty-nine, in May 
1897. About thirty-seven per cent, work myaws in method No. 3, six per 
cent, lus in method No. 4. and fifty-seven per cent, twinldns in method 
No. 2. In the rains the percentage of myaws increases, as many do not 
get a sufficient supply of water in the dry weather for washing purposes, 
while in the rains most of the Iwi'nlSns are flooded out and mining is impos- 
sible with native methods of pumping. 

In the Mog6k Stone Tract, besides the mines above described, in which 

rubies, sapphires, spinels, garnets and tourmaline are found, 
The Mobye work- there are also workings for tourmaline along the bank of 

the Mobye river, which forms the boundary between 
Ruby Mines district and the Shan State of MainglAn. These lie on both 
sides of the river and are managed by the Mainglfin Soicbwa, to whom 
the Burma Ruby Mines, Limited, have leased their rights in the workings 
on the right bank of the river. The workings consist of shallow pits close 
to the river bank, which are pumped out with primitive bamboo pumps. 
This is a lengthy process and has to be commenced afresh before each day's 
digging begins. When the pit Is sufficiently dry the deposit is collected and 
washed and the tourmaline picked out. The Sawbwa charges a license fee 
for working and also a royalty on the finds. 

He pays the Company Rs. 200 a month for their rights. 

In the M5ng Mit (Momcit) Stone Tract rubles and other precious stones 
have been found in various places, but not under circum- 
stances which have as yet made it worth while to mine 
for them. The only exception is the case of the tour- 
Maingnin, a village in the hills about fifteen miles north- 
The present system of mining is to sink a pit through the 



The Mong 
Stone Tract 



Mit 



mahne mines at 
east of Momelt. 



rock until the stratum in which the tourmaline occurs is found. This vein 
IS then followed in the same way as in a Mogfik ludwin, and at intervals 
in it the tourmaline is found in pockets, sometimes of scveraj viss at a time. 
Many of the miners never succeed in striking the desired vein, but a success- 
ful find brings in a considerable return. For some years the mining rights 
were leased, the rent varying from Rs 70 to Rs. 228 a month, but in March 
1896 the licensing system was introduced, Rs. 10 a month being charged 
for each workman. This was found to be excessive and in September 
1896 the monthly fee was reduced to Rs. 2 per workman, with the result 
that the annual receipts rose to Rs 8,900 in 1896-97. The highest number 
yet licensed in a month was six hundred and thirty-eight, in February 1897, 
working one hundred and nine mines. The number diminishes in the 
rains, as the atmosphere in many of the mines becomes noxious and extin- 
guishes the lamps of the miners. 

A small amount of mica is extracted in the neighbourhood of Twinngfe, 
|L.. where mining rights over a square mile were leased to a 

Mr. D'Attaides in 1894, but very little has been done to 
develop the concession. 



ftUB J 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



25 



•A few licenses have also been issued for the extraction of gypsum, and 
gold and silver are reported to have been worked in former times, but the 
only mineral products of practical importance at present are rubies, sap- 
phires, spinels and tourmaline. 

On the Shvveli and Irrawaddy rivers the principal occupations are fishing 

_ . ■ J , • bamboo-cut' ing and timber trading. Rafts of bamboos 

er in s ries. teak, and other kinds of timber are made up on the banks 

and floated down the river to ManJalay. Weaving and cotton spinning are 

practised to a small extent, for home consumption only, as a rule imported 

goods being used. 

In Burmese times taxes on the mining industry were the only imposts V 
exacted. The sa-thugyi paid one lakh into the Royal I 

Revenue in Bur- exchequer and took Rs. 40,000 for himself, most of which ) 
was derived from market, excise, gambling and othery 
fees. 

In addition to the annual tribute paid by the so-tkugvt's to the King, all 
stones above a certain value had to be presented to the King by the linder. 
As soon as a good stone was found, the so-lhugyi, who was certain to come 
to hear of it, reported the find to the King, who then sent an officer with a 
following of men and some drummers to a place near Madaya to meet the 
owner of the stone as he brought it down to Mandalay by the Wapyudaung 
and Chaunggyi road. It was then taken to the Kyauk-set-wun, or Appraiser 
of Rubies, who took it to the King and asked for orders. The King granted 
the lucky finder of the stone an audience, during which he made him a present 
worth Rs. 20 or Rs. 30, keeping in return the ruby, which might be worth 
a£ many thousands, 

In King MindAn's reign the people were allowed to dispose of stones 
up to the value of Rs. 500. If worth more than this amount, they had to be 
presented to the King. Not unnaturally this system gave rise to much 
smuggling. Traders used to come up with goods and exchange them for 
stones, with which they returned to Mandalay by jungle-paths, first paying 
five f>cr cent, of their value to the dacoit bo in order to be allowed to pass. 
If the trader was very poor he had to pay Rs. 5 only, and this amount used 
also to be leviid from each traveller by some of the villages on the road, such 
as Wapyudaung. 

In the Twinngi and DaungbAn circles, which nominally belonged to the 
Momeit State, tliathatneda-i&\ was levied, but the people had to pay in 
addition the travelling and other petty expenses of the Satvbwa, and these 
amounted to a considerable sum. 

After the Annexation miners had to f»ay license fees of Rs. 10, Rs. 25 or 
Rs. 50, according as the mine worked by them was a 
twinlon, ludwin or myawdivtn, and further a royalty 
of thirty per cent, on the owner's valuation was taken on 
all rubies produced at the monthly sales at the Deputy Commissioner's 
Court-house. These conditions were altered about six months after the lease 
was granted to the Burma Ruby Mines Company. Revenue is now raised 
from the thnthameda-i&x, bazaar rents, slaughter-house, opium and liquor 
licenses. 
Tbe amount of thalhameda and land revenue raised has been — 



and after 
Annexation. 



the 




HE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[RUB 



Vs 





Year. 




Thathameda. 


Land revenue. 








Rs. 


Rs. *. p. 


1887-88 ... 


• (• 


... 


»S450 


4,9«2 13 








These figures do not Include Mal^ subdivision. 


1888-89 ... 
1889-90 ... 
1890-91 ... 

1897-98 ... 


... 


• •4 


1 7.830 
27.289 
33.450 
61,789 


9.368 4 

9.063 3 

10,710 

18,669 



The Momcit State pays a fixed tribute of Rs. r 3,000 a year to the Gov- 
ernment of Burma, and a separate account is kept of the State Fund. . 

The Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, pay a rent of Rs. 3,15,000 ) 
a year besides a share of their profits, but as the Company have never 
hitherto realized any profits the revenue from this source has been confined 
to the fixed rent. 

Fisheries and ferries in the Tagaung subdivision bring in about Rs. 22,000 
a year and there is a considerable forest revenue, mostly reab'zed in the 
Momcit State, which does not enjoy either the forest or mineral revenue. 
The tourmaline mines in the Momeit State bring in about Rs. 10,000 a year 
under present arrangements. The land revenue is a share of the produce 
collected on all permanent cultivation, and a tax of Rs. 2-8-0 levied on each 
family engaged in tanngya cultivation. Mog6k is the only place in the 
district where any large amount is realized from opium and excise. There 
is a large demand for opium and, in spite of constant captures, smuggling is 
extensively carried on. 

Little is known of the early history of the dLstrict. The Ruby Mines 
Histor ' '"^^^^^ proper originally formed part of the Momeit State, 

but in the sixteenth century it was taken in exchange for 
Tagaung by the Burmese King. Prior to this the tract was covered with 
dense jungle and very thinly peopled. The probable date of its annexation 
by royal proclamation from the Momeit State was 959 B.E. (1597 A.D.,) 
during the reign of Nuha-thura Maha Dhamma-yaza, and the ratitication of 
the royal order proclaiming the annexation took efTect on the fifth waning of 
Thadingyut (October) of the same year. The Royal Order ran as follows : — 

"The City of Ava was founded on Tuesday the second waning of Tatethalin.Q^o 
B.E. (1588 A.D.) The villages of Mogdk and Kyatpyin are ruby-producing tracts 
under the Savbwa of Momeit. They must be t.iken oi-er and included in the Kingdom 
of Ava. In exchange for the district's of Mog flk and Kyatpyin, the city of Tagaung and 
the adjacent villages are hereby made over to Momeit. As regards the Government of 
the aforesaid districts all orders must be issued from Ava alone. A register of the 
native population should be taken by the Ministers of Slate and the document must 
be carefully preserved in the Royal Treasury. Since the Sawbvi'i of Momcit has 
received Tagaung in exchange for "this territory he will not be allowed to appoint any 
oPRcial or issue any orders in Mogdk or Kyatpyin." 

The boundaries of the stone tract were fixed in 1145 B.E. (1783 A.D.), in 
the reign of Bodaw Paya. as follows :— 

On the east, three doings distant from Mogok to the rock caves 
adjoining Momeit. 



RUB] 



THE UPPER BL'RMA GAZETTEER. 



27 



On the west,^ to the Bein-win kwin, four daings distant from Mogok 
and adjoining Momeit. 

On the north, to Ai Pok creek, north of Kyutnaing village. 
On the south, to the Momeiticreek bounding with Maingl6n. 
The inhabitants within these boundaries were allowed to work whatever 
precious stones might be found. 

When the Burmese took the tract over, it was placed under the supervi- 
. sion and control of a kyasen or wun, under whom was a 

Kyltplin Molfik Superintendent of the Mines, and along with these officials 
and Kaxhh. ^ number of families were sent to Kyatpyin to commence 

mining operations. The first settlers of Kyatpyin were 
therefore pure Burmans. [Another account however states that the original 
settlers were convicts, deported from U Hmin near Madaya in Mandalay dis- 
trict, and that they were sent expressly to dig precious stones for Alaung-paya.] 
No particulars as to who the headman of the village was are obtainable, but 
the official in charge of the mining operations was designated the kyaukwun. 

Mogok at this time was covered with dense jungle, but small portions of 
it were cultivated by people from Kyatpyin and thus the existence of rubies 
at Mogok al.io was ascertained. In 1145 ^E- (1783 A.D.) iht so'thugyi 
Maung Taw of Kyatpin separated Mog6k from Kyatpyin and placed the 
former under his son-in-law, Maung E. 

In the wars which Bodavv-paya waged against Assam and Manipur many 
captives were taken, and these were deported to a site selected for them to 
the north of Kyatpyin, where they were employed as State slaves in digging 
rubies. As soon as this settlement had been effected, it was separated 
from Kyatpyin and placed under a separate headman with the name of 
Kathe, Kathfe being the name given by the Burmese to the Assamese and 
Manipuris. 

There were thus three townships in the Ruby Tract, Kyatpyin, Mogok, 
and Kath^. Not long after this, a rebellion broke out and was followed 
by famine and frequent raids by the neighbouring hill tribes. The bulk of 
the inhabitants fled to Theinni and to the Shan-Chinese State of Mong 
Mao, north-east of Momeit. The Burmese King immediately sent a number 
of Pages of the Royal Household with orders from the King to the different 
Shan Chiefs to seek out the fugitives and send them back to their proper 
settlements. This was no easy matter, for many of them had inter-married 
Avith Shans, and in consequence many never returned. 

Prior to the last century no one knew the proper value of the stones. The 
working of the mines was compulsory, and all stones had to be made over to 
the kyaukwun. The first sign of a trade in them appears to have shown itself 
during the superintendentship of a wun named Maung Tan. He was a 
native of Nga-singu, from which place traders frequently came up to the mines. 
They gradually began to purchase the stones, or barter goods for them, and 
soon found that there was a ready market for them in the plain?. This 
discovery introduced smuggling among the diggers and it has continued ever 
since. 

Mogfik alone of the townships claims hereditary Succession for xi&so-thug^i 
appointed from Burma. 



28 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



LRUli 



These are- 



No. 


Date of appointment. 


Name of iij-thugyi. 


Title. 


1 


II4S B.E. 1783 (A.D.)... 


Unknown ... 


Watha Yaza. 


a 


Unknown 


do 


Zeta Yaxa. 


3 


do 


Maung San HIa 


do. 


4 






do. 






Maung A ... 


Watha Vara. 


6 




Maung Ku Su 


Thizin Ralta Yaza. 


7 


1309 BE. (1847 A.D.) ... 
1211 B.E. (1849 A.D ) ... 


Maung On Gaing 


Zaya Yaza. 


8 


Maung Kaing Bin 


Thenza Th.-ina Yaza. 


9 


1214 B.E. (1852 A.D.V... 
1317 B.E. (1855 A.D.)... 


Maung Hyin 


Namyo Min. 


10 


Maung Gyi 


Namyo Minihu-mintha 








Manusathra. 



The last named so-thugyi continued as Governor of Mog6k until ttie 
Briti.sh Occupation. 

In Mindon Min s reign the revenue derived from tlic mines was a lakh and 
forty thousand. The lakh was paid into the Royal Treasury and the so-thugyi 
retained the forty thousand for himself. This latter sum included bazaar, 
liquor and gambling licenses. KingThibavv raised the amount to be paid to 
two lakhs and forty thousand, but this amount was never paid and the British 
Occupation took place before it fell due. 

The district was first occupied in the autumn of 1886 by a force consisting 
. . . of the 51st King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, the 43rd 

ry. Gurkha Light Infantry, a Mountain Battery and a Com- 
pany of Sappers and Miners. There was some resistance, particularly at 
Taungmfe, but it was soon overcome and the villagers who had fled returned 
before long to their homes. It was at first determined to allow the local 
miners to continue to work, paying a royalty of thirty /^r cent, on all stones 
produced, together with a nominal fee for each kind of mine. Messrs. 
Streeter, whose agents had accompanied the force, were allowed the privilege 
of purchasing stones from the miners. All stones not bought by them were 
sent down to the Ruby mart at Mandalay and there sold by auction. In 
November 1899 the lease of the Ruby tract was given to the Burma Ruby 
Mines Company, Limited, for a yearly payment of four lakhs and onc-sixtn 
of its profits. In April 1890, an arrangement was entered .into by which 
native miners wishing to work were granted licenses on payment to the 
Ruby Mines Company of a fixed sum of Rs. 20 per month per workman 
employed. 

In i88g [r. supra] the circles of Daungb6n and Twinngfe were taken over 
from Momeit and added to the district. These were formerly administered 
by a htamOHgt who was appointed Myofik when the tracts were taken over. 

The ojdest pagoda of which anything is known in the neighbourhood of 

... . . Moefik is the Shwe-gu-eyi, which was built in Dhamma- 

Antiquilies. ^, ", %t < .• i» ^ j ^1 .1 

thawka Mm s time. It was erected upon the spot where 

the elephant which brought a tooth, some hair and some bones of the 

Gaudama from India knelt down, The -Sudaungbvi pagoda, built about the 

same time, owed its origin to the same incident. 



RUB) 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



29 



There is a gilt image of the Buddha, now in 2i pongyi kyaung at Mo^ok 
object of special veneration at ihe annual Burmese New \eai 



ear 



which is the object ol speci 

fesLivah The legciiii runs that this image was Idken with liim by Mani-s&thu, 
King of Pagan, when he i^'d an expedition into China. It was left by him 
on his return at Thonzfe, in the Thibaw State, and some few years ago a 
pongyi named U Daik brought il to MogAk. 

There is a pagoda at Kyatpyin placed on the very summit of the Pingu- 
taung. It was built about fifty years ago by so-thugyi Maung Gan, but is 
only remarkable for the immense amount of labour which it must have in- 
volved to carry the materials up to such a height. 

The present village of Tagaung is built on the site of Old Tagaung which, 

according to local tradition, was built by King Mahasabu 

lagaung. Diparaza, one hundred and one years after the death of 

the Buddha Gaudama, that is to say, in about 450 B.C. This King was the 

seventy-seventh in direct descent from King Abiraza, ^\■ho, on his exile from 

Kapilavastu inOudh, settled in Northern Arakan. 

About two miles to the south-east of the present village of Tagaung stands 
the site of Old Pagan which was afterwards erroneously known as Old Ta- 
gaung. Old Pagan (which must not be confounded with Pagan in M}'ingyan 
district) was the capital of the first kingdom of Burma. It is said to have 
been built by Kanraza-gyi, elder brother of Kanraza-ngfc and son of Abiraza, 
in about 850 B.C. 

Maha-sabu Dipa-raza, founder of Tagaung, built the Shwezigon pagoda in 
the centre of Pagan, and ordered all his tributary Princes and their subjects to 
come and worship there on an appointed day. According to tradition the 
Chinese came in late and were ordered as a punishment to build a pagoda 
at some distance from the south-cast corner of the Shwezig6n pagoda: 
this was called the Gaungtaik pagoda in token of their submission. 

Other pagodas of note in the neighbourhood are the Shwczedi pagoda, 
south-east of Tagaung, said to have been built by King Thiri-dhamma- 
thawka, the Zina Aunggya Shweb6ntha pagoda, south-west of Tagaung, built, 
by Alaung-paya, and the Shwegu-gyi pagoda, west of Tagaung, built by King\ 
Bodaw. Among the overgrown shrines of the Shwezigcm pagoda are found V 
terra cotta tablets with an embossed efligy of the Buddha bearing Pali \ 
inscriptions in Gupta characters. Some of them show two erect figures, one ) 
on either side of the sitting Buddha, which appears to indicate an Indian/ 
origin. Many of these tablets have been carried off by visitors to the shrine/ 
and at one time a some-what brisk trade is said to have been carried on in 
them. 

The most frequented pagoda in the district is the Shwe-myindin pagoda 
near Momeit, which is the scene of a large gathering of many nationalities at 
the full moon of Tahaung (March). Tribesmen frou) the'hill villages and 
traders from the surrounding country make up an interesting picture of this 
somewhat variegated tract. Former the festival furnishtd and opportunity 
for agreal gambling carnival and the number of legimate worshippers was 
swelled by an immense concourse of less devout visitors. In recent years 
the gambling has been checked, but there is still a large annual gathering. 

It is generally believed that if a goat, elephant, cat or monkey appears 
near a place where mining operations are going on the 
precious stones will soon disappear. 



Local superstitions. 



3<5 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[RUB 



The people account for the formation of rubies as follows : Once upon a 
time a Ncgama, or female dragon, named Zanthi, was engaged at her devo- 
tions at the foot of the Mal6 hills. J here she was visited b)' a son of the 
King of the Solar regions, with whom she fell in love and by whom she con- 
ceived a child. Shortly after this her lover deserted her and when her 
time came near she sent a white parrot lo tell him of her state. He sent 
back with the parrot a bag containing a precious stone. The parrot on its 
way met a number of travellers eating their food. It placed the bag on a tree 
and flew down to pick up the crumbs. One of the travellers saw that the bird 
had left something on the tree and climbed up to see what it was: he took 
out the precious stone, and put some dry human ordure in its place. Shortly 
after this the parrot flew back to the branch and carried off the bag to its mis- 
tress Zanthi. Zanthi thought the bag must contain something valuable and 
was exceedingly glad, but when she opened it she cried bitterly. She was 
then delivered of two eggs and returned home. Attliis time a traveller who 
had missed his way came across the eggs and carried them off as a curiosity, 
but a great storm of w ind and rain overtook him and he dropped them. One 
of the eggs was gold-coloured and fell in the Ruby Mines tract and from that 
time on rubies, sapphires, jasper and jarcon were found there. The other 
egg was green and it fell in Mogaung and there became jade. 

Belief in nais is wide-spread and their worship is still practised by the re- 
e . . , . sidents of Mogok and .Momeit and the surrounding hills. 

'"' In I i6o B.E. (1798 A. D.), when sixty-four families of Shans 
fromThibaw and Th6nz& in the Thibaw State came and settled in Mogok on 
account of the great famine of that year, they found here twenty-seven families, 
who at once imparted to the new comers the names and peculiarities of the 
nats who dwelt there. They are seven in number, and are named Bodawgyi, 
Thawdein-thakinma (sister to Bodawgyi), Shwedaing Ashingyi, Po Saw 
Maing, Keitsagok, Chaungzfin Ashingyi and Kyaukkala. 

Bodawgyi is the most important of them all, as his name implies. He 
lives in a little mound near the Ruby Mines Company's works and it is said 
that he was very indignant some years ago because his mound had been used 
as a stop-butt for the Military Police rifle-range. Bodawgyi's ttatst'n, or 
Devil's house, is on a hill to the north-west of Mog6k jmd is regarded with 
particular awe by the Burnian and Shan residents. 

Thawdein-thakinma, the Guardian of the Keys, is not remarkable for any- 
thing in particular. She has her natsin near to Bodawg^'i's, and Po Saw 
Maing's is between the two. She lives on a hill just to the north of the town, 
and near her brother's hill. 

Shwedaing Ashing}'i lives in the jungle to the west of Keitsag6k, the 
curiously shaped rock which stands just to the north of the Ruby Mines Com- 
pany's large mine. It was in his honour that a gilt post was erected in that 
neighbourhood, and this post had to be taken down and a new one put up 
every time a new governor came to rule ovt-r the district. 

Keitsag6k lives inside the rock of that name, and on the west side of it. 

Chaungz6n Ashingyi lives in a very fine cluster of fig trees near the river, 
on the west of the town, and Kyaukkala lives on the hill immediately oppo- 
site these trees. 

The wishes and orders of the nats arc communicated to their laithful wor- 
shippers through the medium of a Natkadaw, or inspired Sybil, into whom the 



RUB] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



31 



nai enters for the time. Whilst so possessed she can perform astounding feats. 
When first the spirit enters her, she becomes like one in a fit, she sliivers all 
over, her voice sounds like a man's and she threatens and abuses all who are 
near her. She can climb trees which no woman would attempt, and lift 
enormous weights. It is while the frenzy is on her that she communicates to 
the people the orders of the nat. The last Natkadaw known in Mog6k was 
in Pagan Min's time, but there are three or four women in Momeit even 
in these degenerate times into whom the nats have entered. Apparentlvi 
too, a man may become the medium through whom the tints communicate. 
According to the elders of Mogok, no longer ago than igg6 Bo-daw-gyi 
entered into one Maung Y6n and warned the people through him that a great 
fire was imminent. Maung Y6n, it seems, suddenly announced that he had 
a message from Bodawgyi. The m%<othu^yi, who was praying at the pagoda, 
was at once sent for and found Maung YAn in a state of frenzy, lifting 
enormous weights with one finger and performing other superhuman feats. 
On being asked what nat possessed him he replied that Bodaw gj-i wished 
him to warn the people of the town that there would soon he a great fire, 
which would start in the north and burn towards the south. A few months 
afterwards the fire did breakout in the north and nearly destroyed the whole 
town. The w^o/Aw^i alone' removed his property in time, for he believed 
the nat. 

The following are some of the more common beliefs about these nats 
who seem to supply the place, to a certfiin extent, of a manual of etiquette. 
They do not like to hear an elephant called '' Sin : " it should be called '' Mye- 
legauni^;" similarly a monkey must be called not " Myauk " but " Mekkata," 
a cat not "Kyaung" but " J^/j>'arc," andatigernot '' Kya" but ''tazv gaung." 

They disapprove of Brahmins and beggars, and a Royal Order was issued 
in consequence forbidding either of these classes of persons to come to 
Mog6k. When a man goes to his mine, he must not wear a black coat, 
nor, when he gets there) must he use obscene language, for if he does the 
nafs will turn all his stones into sand for him. 

The nats eat three times a year, in IVaso, Thadingyut and Nadaw (July, 
October, I'ecember). Their tastes vary; some like fresh meat, others fruit 
and sweetmeats only, and others frankly like spirits. The devout make their 
offerings at these seasons: they must be made either on a Saturday or on a 
Tuesday and must be placed at the three natsi'ns or Devil's houses mentioned 
above. A natkadaw should, if possible, be present and dance wildly round 
the shrine. On the day following that on which the offerings are made, the 
«<i/j sleep, " A'flw/Atf," and meanwhile the people are not allowed to make 
the least noise, must draw no water nor cut down trees, nor go into the 
jungle until after 1 1 o'clock in the morning, when a gong is sounded to let 
them know that they may have indulgence. 

The Chaungz6n Ashingyi is a very rough uat. He drinks spirits and likes 
fresh meat: when a man is murdered, an offering must be made to him: 
otherwise he sends his tiger, the Si-daw-myin, to kill the murderer and 
the ponies and buffaloes of the village from which he comes. The term 
for making an offering to this nat is " Chaungmi myaungmi si Hii," 
literally " to wash a ditch and a stream :" it would seem to mean " to make 
atonement," through the process by which the words came to bear this mean- 
ing appears somewhat veiled to the inexpert. 



32 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tBUr-SAB 



At times it is necessary to kill fowls for him. The throats of a cock and 
hen are cut at the same moment ; if the blood from the cock gushes out more 
freely than that from the hen. it is a sign that the person making the offering 
will find rubies of a good quality. The hen must then be cooked for the nat, 
and cooked rice and cho|>-sticks must be put beside it ready for hisu se. 

The furfs are the guardians of the villagers and know all that is going on. 
If a woman commits adultery, the si-daw-myin, the Ghost Tiger, is sent to 
maul the people living in her village, and the same fate awaits any village which 
misbehaves itself. Again, if a man goes into a forest which is in the juris- 
diction of the Bodawgyi without asking leave, and cuts down a trce> the 
nat not infrequently sends the si-daw-myin to carry off the offender. 

Bodawgyi is sometimes approaclied by the ruby-miners with a request that 
they may find more stones On these occasions he usually promises that a 
man or a woman, as the case may be, shall find a stone of such and such a 
value within so many days and this promise is always fulfilled. 

The nats strongly objected to the presence of meat-sellers on the north or 
Mogok side of the Yeni clinung, and are very angry if any meat is thrown into 
this stream. 

RUIBU.— A village of Chins of the Tash6n tribe in the Central Chin Hills 
It lies ten miles west of Rumklao, and can be reached via Rumklao. 

In 1894 it had fifteen houses Ti'inkwe was the resident chief. 

The village does not pay any tribute to Falam. Water is available from a 
stream on the north. 

RUMKL.\0.— A village of Chins of the TashAn tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies on the north side of Rumklao hill and south of the most southerly 
source of the Pow river, and can be reached ind Minkin post and Kiangrong, 
twenty-three miles. 

In 189.-^ it had two hundred houses. Tierr Byit was the resident chief. 

Rumlclo is a mixed Hlunseo and Yahow village of the Yahow family and is 
practically independjint, though it pays a nominal tribute to Falam. There 
is good camping-ground, with plenty of water from a small stream, on the 
north of the central village. There are also good camping-grounds along a 
stream, the most southern source of the Pao river, one aod-a-half miles from 
the village. 

RUMSHE. — A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It lies 
six miles south-west of Rawywa and is reached from Rawywa, six miles, 
after crossing a stream. 

In 1894 it had twenty houses Taseo was its resident chief. 

The village is an offshoot of Rawywa, to which it is subordinate. Water 
and camping-ground are available. 

RUTONG. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 22, Myitkyina district, situated 
25° 23' north latitude and 97" 56' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained thirty houses, with a popiihtion of 95 persons. The 
headman of the village has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants 
are of the Lashi tribe, and own twelve bullocks and twenty buffaloes. 

SA-BA-DWIN. — A village of sixty three houses In Ava township of Sa- 
gaing district, twenty-three miles south of Ava. 

The thugyi has four small villages under his cha'-ge, with fifty-five houses 
in all. The villages of Wunthag6nj fourteen, and Chanthag6n, eight houses, 



SAB 3 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



33 



are on the Myingyan border, from which only separated by the road from 
M yinsakwet, a village in the Myingyan district. 

SA-BA-HMYAVV. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of one hundred and thirteen persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 340, included in that 
of Myaukpet. 

SA-BAN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pakdkku dis- 
trict, with a population of one hundred and ninety-two persons, according to 
the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 1,290. 

SA-BA-S.\W. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, twelve miles from headquarters, with a population of fifty- 
two persons. 

The chief industry is paddy cultivation. The thathameda revenue for 
1896-97 amounted to Rs. 1 19. 

SA-BA-THIN. — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and sixty-five persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 208. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

SABBA-GYI-GY.AT.— A circle in the Myothit township of Mag\ve dis- 
trict, including the villages of Ma-gyi-g6n, In-ywa-gyi, Okshitgfin, and Twinlfe, 

SA-B6. — A village in the Min-ywa circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, Gan- 
gaw subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population of three hundred and 
I fifteen persons, according to the census of 1891. The thathameda amount- 
ed to Rs. 400 for 1897-98. 

The Myittha river is bunded here for the irrigation of dry-weather mayin 

Eaddy, of which the outturn is estimated at nine thousand and three hundred 
askets. 

SA-Bfe-GU. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with one-and-a-half square miles of attached land. 

The population in 1891 numbered one hundred and twenty-three persons, 
and there were forty-four-and-half acres of cultivated land. Paddy and jag- 
gery are the chief products. The village is nine miles from Ye-u. It paid 
Rs. 280 thathameda revenue for 1S96-97. It is under the Ywama thugyi. 

SA-Bfi-NA-GO. — A revenue circle in the Thabeikkyin township of Ruby 
Mines district. It stands on the left bank of the Irrawaddy, opposite Malfe in 
Shwebo district, about eleven miles south of Twin-ng^. The population 
numbers two hundred and thirty persons, and is Burmese. 

Sk-'&'S.-YWAMA. — A village in the SabS circle, Myaing township. Pa- 
kftkku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and ninety 
six persons, according to the census of 1891. The thathameda amounted 
toRs. 680 for 1897-98. 

SA-BYAN. — A village on the Nan-ten chaung in the Mogaung subdivi- 
sion of Myitkyina district. 

The \'illage has three houses of Marip Kachins. 

SA-BYAW. — A village in the Nga-kwe circle, Seikpyu township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of twenty-nine personsi accord- 
ing to the census of 1898, and a revenue of Rs, 60. 



34 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTSCR. 



SADANKONG<— A KacUa tIB^ in Text No. 3^ Mykkpn 
fiteated io 2$^' 51' Doctl} btitede aadV;* 48' east Jonphwir 

la Iti^l it coMunti timtj koMes; its poyhtioa was aot know*. 
hfrfw of Uw yjlhge hM 00 cthtn —hotifaalc to tia. TVe 
are of tbe L4^p(u tribe aad Sadm Mb-tribe 

SA^DAUNG — A towMUp of tke Sa^aJaf » «bJi>iMoa aad ^Satntt, 
henadttd on the nortli by S h w rh o daukt, en die east by tbe Inawaddj^^ 
river, 00 the aoatli by tke Saguog toimdup aad 00 tbe vest bj t^ 
MTinma fubdhrtsaoo of S^ung diitrict 

Tke beadqnarten are at Fada. 

SA-DAUNG — A rercmie drde in tbe NatoQri towasb^ 
dhrisioo aod district. 

lo 1895-96 tbe popolatioa oitflibered two baadrrd and nioety-fivc 
aad tbe thathameda amooDted to Rs. 306. No land rereoue was osflectc 
M Ike drde. 

SA-DAUNG. — A revenoe circle in tbe Kjraakpadanng townsbip, Pa 
aabdirinoti of Myiogyan district. 

Id 1995-96 the population nambefed six bandred and twentj persoasj^ 
and tbe thathameda amouoted to Rs. 948. No land revenue was collected 
in tbe circle. 

SA-DAUNG. — Forroeriy the headquarters of tbe townsbip of tbe sam< 
oame of Sagaing district. It contains five hundred and two booses aad lies 
twenty-six miles north-west of Sagaing. 

Io Burmese times it was under a Myingaumg, subordinate to tbe ifyiit- 
wun at Shwebo. It was tben a Large village of upwards of 6ve hunc 
houses. During the disturbances that followed the Annexation it was mucl 
reduced, but is now fast recovering. Sadaung has a Civil Police post In 
the neighbourhood there is a considerable salt industry. Sadaung was tbe 
native place of " Man Bo," whose real name was Kyaw \Va, who disturbed 
all the country round until February 1S89. when he fled to Lower Burma 
He was captured there and brought back to Sadaung. where he was hange<l 
on the 6th March 1890. The headquarters of the township were moved 
from here to Fadu so as to be on the Slu Valley Railway. 

SA-DAW. — A circle in the Amarapura township and subdivision of Mah- 
dalay district, including three villages. 

SA-DAW. — A village in the circle of the same name, in the Amarapura 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, eight miles south of head- 
quarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and eighty persons at the census of 
1891, and paid Rs. /\-jot/iat/tameda-tax. 

SA-DO. — A circle in the Myothit township of Magwe district, including 
the villages of Sado and Yundaing-myaung. 

SA-DO.— A village in the Myothit revenue circle, Amarapura township and 
subdivision of Mandalay district, ten miles south-east of headquarters. 

There is a bazaar in the village, which had a population of five hundred 
and seventy-five persons, at the census of 1891, and paid Rs. 1,310 thaiha-^ 
meda-\Aii. 



SAD-SAG ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



35 



SA-PON. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan sub- 
division of Mylngyan district. 

In 1895*96 the population numbf-red three hflnHred seventy-five persons, 
and the ihathameda amounted to Rs. 504. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

SA-DON. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 8, Bhamo district, situated in 
24° g' north latitude and 97° 40' cast longitude. 

In 1892 it contained fifty houses, with a population of one hundred and 
sixty-two persons. The headman of the village has six others subordinate 
to him. The inhabitants arc of the Lepai tribe and Szi (Asior Ithi) sub-tribe. 

There is good camping-ground in the village and a plentiful supply of 
water. There is a signalling post here. 

SA-DONGWfi. — A village in the Myaing to\vnship, Pakdkku subdivision 
and district, with a population of one hundred and ninety-one persons, 
according to the census of i8g", and a revenue of Rs. 410, included in that 
of Myaing-a-she zu. 

SA-DWIN. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of Shwebo 
district, ten miles from Ye-u town. 

It has a population of fifty persons and an area under cultivation of 712 
acres. The chief crop is paddy. The thalhameda revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 200. The village is in the K6non thiigyh\\\^. 

S.\-G.\. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan townsliip, subdivision, and 
district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered eight hundred and four persons, 
,and the tliathamidn wes Rs. 894. No land revenue was collected in the 
circle. 

SA-GA.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 3, Bhamo district, situated in 23" 
40' north latitude and 97° 10' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained forty houses, with a population of two hundred and 
sixteen persons. The headman of the village has no others subordinate to 
him The inhabitants arc of the Lepai tribe and Lawhkum sub-tribe, and own 
no cattle. 

SA-GA.— A village in the Saga cirdo, !<u-hiia-ywa township, Gangaw 
subdivision of PakAkku. district, with a population of two hundred and thirty- 
six persons, according to the census of 1891. The thathamcda amounted 
to Rs. 460 for 1897-98. 

SA-GA. — See under Sam Ka. 

SA-GA-DAUNG. — A village in the Momeit township of Ruby Mines dis- 
trict, on the road between Momeit and Twinng^. 

It is at present the headquarters of a circle containing twentyone villages, 
but this will be broken up when opportunity offers. It is about twenty-five 
miles west of Momeit. There is a Civil Police station, and an office for 
the registration of trade. The Kinchaung emerges from the hills near 
Sagadaung and in the rains is frequently impassable. It is here called the 
Sagadaung ckaung. Its banks produce excellent crops of tobacco and there 
are extensive irrigated paddy fields near the village. There is a well-used 
path from Sagadaung to Bcrnardf/yp, about fourteen miles, but it is very 



36 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAG 



steep and rough in places. This was the route followed by the first Ruby 
Mines expedition. 

SA-GA-DAUNG, — A viHage in the Kaungmun-Chaulc-j^va circh.-, Pa- 
theingyi township, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, about nine- 
teen miles north-east of headquarters. 

It had a population of one hundred and ninety-one persons at the census 
of 189 1. 

SA-GA-GA-LE. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 3, Bhamo district. In 
1892 it contained fifteen houses, with a population of forty-one persons. 
The headman has no other villages subordinate to him. 1 he inhabitants 
are of the Lepai tribe and Lahkum sub-tribe, and own three bullocks. 

SA-GA-IN. — A group of three villages, numbering in all three hundred 
and three houses, in Ava township of Sagaing district, six miles south of 
Ava. 

The villages are Pinya, fifty-three houses, Hkanlu, twenty-one houses, and 
Wunpad^, thirty-two houses, with subordinate village headmen over each. 
Annual fairs are held at the Taungdaw pagoda about one mile south of 
Sa-ga-in. To the north, between Sa-ga-in and Pinya, is the Shwezig6n pagoda. 
Trustees have lately been appointed for this pagoda and lands set apart as 
" wuttagan lands " near it. 

SAGAING. — A civil administration division, comprising the districts of 
Sagaing, Shwebo, Lower Chindwin, and Upper Chindvvin. 

SAGAING. — {Sif, a species of tree and ^ai'ng, a branch ; Pk]\ name Zeya 
pura), a district in the Sagaing division, lying approximately between 23° lo' 
and 21° 30' north latitude and 96'^ 5' east and 95" 10' east longitude. 
. , It bestrides the Irrawaddy river, and on the north 

Boundaries and area. ;t j^ bounded by Lower Chindwin and Shwebo dis- 
tricts ; on the east by the Mandalay and Kyauksfe districts : on the south by 
Kyauksc and Myingyan district^; and on the west by Pakokku and Lower 
Chindwin districts. 

On the north the boundary is formed by a line leaving the Chindwin river 
and running east and north-east to the Mu, thence east by a little north to 
the Irrawaddy. Here the Irrawaddy steamer channel forms the eastern 
boundary as far as the Myit-ngfe, which is then followed as far as the mouth 
of the Panlaung. This stream marks the boundary as far as the mouth of 
the Sam6n, which is followed to a point above Panna, a village in Kyauksfe ; 
thence the line runs south-west to Kanna village in Myingyan. The southern 
boundary is an irregular line drawn from Hanna to Mozadaung, and thence 
to a point on the Irrawaddy above Sameikkon in Myingj-an, and from here 
the Irrawaddy steamer channel is the dividing line as far as the mouth of the 
Chaungyo channel. From this point onward the Chaungyo channel and the 
Chindwin steamer channel form the western boundary line. 

The area of the district is one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four 
square miles. At the census of 1891 the population was two hundred and 
forty-seven, one hundred and thirty-six, or one hundred and thirty-three 
persons to the square mile. The greatest length of the district, from an 
island opposite Mandalay on the east to Amyin on the west, is approximately 
sixty miles, and the greatest breadth from north to south is forty-five miles, 
between Singaing and Theiudaw. 



SAG I 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



37 



The river Irrawaddy, about ten miles below Mandalay, turns abruptly from 

j^ . , its general southern course and runs west and even a 

little north-west, until it receives the Mu. From that 
point it flows south-west. The district of Sagaing includes a strip of country 
on each side of the river from its western bend for about lorty-livc miles, to a 
point above Samcikkon, and thence a strip on the right bank only for a fur- 
ther stretch of some fifteen miles. The district is thus cut into two pieces, 
one north and one south of the Irrawaddy. The former comprises the Sagaing 
and Myinmu subdivisions, the latter the Ava subdivision, which on the Annex- 
ation of the country in iS86 formed a district in itself. 

The chief rivers arc the Irrawaddy, the Chindwin, the Mu, the Myit-ngfe, 
Panlaung, and the Samon. 

The general aspect of the country is very diversified, ranging from fine 
land to barren hills. Along the rivers, where the channel bank is frequently 
higher than the country behind, the land is flat and lowlying and is inundated 
almost yearly. These alluvial lands are very rich and productive, and the 
Irrawaddy itself is full of islands which are subject to yearly indundation and 
are consequently equally fertile. The Chindwin breaks into a number of chan- 
nels about Amjnn and again near its confluence with the Irrawaddy, so that 
the district as a whole is well watered. Part of the Chindwin delta is in 
Sagaing district, and the whole is liable to floods. 

The hill country is thinly wooded and produces no timber of value: much 
of it is very sterile, and petrified wood is found over large tracts. Yet though 
much of the upland carries the poorest sandy soil, on which a rrop^Pannot be 
raised oftener than once in four or five years, there are other slopes covered 
with the best cotton or sessam urn -bearing soils. The hills fall away into large 
paddy and wheat plains and in the hollows and stream courses fertile bottoms 
are frequently found. So diverse is the face of the country that an ordinary 
day's march will carry one through all these varieties of natural scenery. 

The greater portion of the district consists of high rolling country, with 
dry soil and a small rainfall, most suitable for millet, wheat, Indian-corn, ses- 
samum and cotton. Wheat and i ndian-corn are not grown on high rolling 
lands, however. The prevalence of dacoity during the last years of Burmese 
rule, and after the British occupation in certain tracts, combined with insuffi- 
ciency of rain and consequent scarcity, seriously affected the condition of the 
population in parts of the district, especially west of the Mu in the northern 
part of the Myinmu subdivision which was once rich and prosperous, but 
from before the time of the Annexation, became partially deserted. 

The Sagaing hill range, which commences far north, run parallel to the 

„. . Irrawaddy through the north-east' portion of the dis- 

' '■ trict and ends abruptly just north of the present town of 

Sagaing, and comprises the only range of any importance. The altitudes 

vary from seven hundred and forty-five to one thousand three hundred and 

seventy-three feet above sea level. 

The Taungtalon-Shwedaung hills, rising to an altitude of one thousand six 
hundred and sixty-one feet in the south-east corner of the district, cover but 
a small extent of country. A low spur of this range cuts through the centre 
of the Ava subdivision, and a similar range extends from a few miles south of 
Myotha to Nga-mya and Yepadaing on the left bank of the Irrawaddy. There 
is also a range which skirts the eastern border of the Ava subdivision, paral- 
lel to the Panlaung river. 



38 




THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tSAO 



The whole of the Myinmu subdivision may practically be said to be a huge 
plain. The Sagaing subdivision, too, with the exception of the Sagaing hills 
above mentioned and of two low and short ranges east of the Mu river, also 
consists of plains. In the Ava subdivision small plains occur between the 
low ranges already described. 

The Irrawaddy from Singaung to Sagaing is a wide river full of islands. 
Rivers. At Sagaing itself it contracts to twelve hundred yards 

Irrawaddy. in width and then abruptly turns west, receiving the 

Myit-ngfe at the elbow of the turn. It circles round Sagaing and flows be- 
tween low banks with a varying width, nowhere so great as just below 
Mandalay and nowhere so narrow as at Sagaing. The rise of the river in 
flood sometimes reaches to forty feet. At such times it tops its banks and 
carries fertility over tlie lowlands for many miles on either side. At low 
water the navigation of the channel opposite Sagaing is very intricate, rocks 
on the Ava side and a sand-bar towards Sagaing so narrowing the fair 
way as barely to afford passage for steamers. There are similar rocks in the 
river bed a couple of miles above Ywa-thitgyi and again a little below 
Myinmu, 

The confluence with the Irrawaddy of the main stream of the Chindwin 

is in Pakokku district. Except in size the Chindwin is a 

11 ^^'"- counterpart of the Irrawaddy. It maintains its southern 

course without break and is more rapid and violent in the rise and fall of its 

floods. The extent of these also is liable to much greater variations than is 

the case*ii'ith the Irrawaddy. The Chindwin is navigable all the year round. 

The Mu falls into the Irrawaddy about three miles above Myinmu after 
. , a most circuitous course. The general direction is from 

"■ north to south, but the windings rival those of the Forth at 

Stirling and continue over a much greater extent of country. The river is 
altogether unnavigable except for country boats ; indeed it is fordable any- 
where at low water, though in the season of floods it is a raging torrent en- 
cumbered with snags and with dangerous whirlpools at every curve. 

The Myit-ngt, the Panlaung and the Sam6n form the eastern boundary of 
the Ava subdivision for portions of their course, but the 
Myil-ngc, Panlaung ^f.^^_ Ungih of these streams lies in other districts. The 
and bamon. .Myit-ng6 is navigable by steam-launches up to Paleik ; 

above this, like the Panlaung and Samon, it is n.HvigabIc by country boats 
only. The Samon is spanned by a bridge, now in disrepair, at Dwe-hla. 
Elsewhere it is crossed by ferry or ford, as is the case everywhere with the 
Myit-ngfe and the Panlaung. 

The Irrawaddy receives the greater portion of the drainage of the district 
direct. The Mu receives water from tracts in Sagaing subdivision north of 
the cross range and west of the central range and ail from the ridge which 
follows its course. 

In Myinmu a few streams east of the Mu-Chindwin watershed find their 
way to the Mu, others go to the Irrawaddy direct. The Chindwin receives 
streams, all of which are small, from the west of the watershed. In Ava the 
Panlaung and ihe SamAn receive a few brooks from the Mozadaung. The 
rest of the drainage iinds its way to the Irrawaddy direct in three well-marked 
watersheds paying into, (i) the stream that flows fast Shwedaung, Kyauktan 
and Myinthi ; (2) the channel that passes Myothaand reaches the river at Nga- 
zun; (3) the water-course known as Paungdochaung on the Myingyan border. 



^t 



^^msti^ 



SkOi 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



39 



Limestone is found in lar^ quantities in the hills along the Irrawaddy, 
, and is burnt in kilns at Tonbo, Mingin and other places. 

Minera pr ucts. Licenses for the manufacture are issued at Rs. 10 each pef 
annum, and for every loo cubic feet of limestone extracted a fee of Re. r is 
payable. The outturn in 1895 and 1896 was estimated at one thousand six 
hundred and ninety-six tons, valued at Rs. 1,696, and two thousand nine 
hundred and seven tons, valued at Rs. 1,565 respectively. 

Saponaceous earth is found in the stream beds of the Ava subdivision and 
IS collected and sold at from eight to twelve annas a basket. It is estimated 
that three thousand baskets are exported in the year. 

Coal is said to exist near KyauktalAn but has not been examined. A 
license to prospect for coal in the neighbourhood has recently (1897) ^^^^ 
granted. A license to explore for mica in Sagaing, Padu and Chaung-u 
townships has also been granted. Clay suitable (or pottery work is found in 
various places. It is said that rubies of small size and little value are found 
in the hills near Singaung. A license to prospect for copper near Sagaing 
has been applied for. 

Salt is manufactured in the neighbourhood of Sadaung, Samu, Taung-gya 
and Yega The outturn has been estimated as follows :— 

Rs. 

In 1895, 871 tons valued at ... ... ... 31,64.0 

In 1896, 874 tons valued at ... ... ... 22,735 

The revenue is levied at five and ten rupees per licensej covering one iron 
cauldron. 

The revenue has been — 

Year. 

1886-S7 
1887-88 
1888-89 
1889-90 
i8go-9i 
1891-92 
1892-93 
1893-94 
1894-95 
i8g5-9'3 
1896-97 

There are no reserved forests. The hill tracts are mostly covered with 
thick scrub jungle. In waste places on low land the jungle 
becomes forest, with many large trees and thick under- 
growth and creepers. .-\t Nabe-gyu on the Ma and along the Sani6n such 
stretches of forest are found. 

The following list of trees has Ijcen compiled but is not exhaustive : 
L'au/iinia racemostt. 
Flora. Babul [Acacia arabica), not common and grows to no 

size. 
hc\[aegle trarmelos) {B. 6kshit'\. 
Common banvan (Ficus Indica) [B. Nynungbin]. 
Common cassia, of various kinds [B. Mesali-bin, Ngu-gyi-sat, firf.]. 
Terminalia teller tea (the cheida of Western India). 
Ber or Bor \Zisyphus Jujuba), very common and with several varieties. 
Conocarpus lalijolia (the Dharada of Western India), not common nor of 
any size. 



Rs. 



1.565 
2,710 
2,360 

2.3«» 

ii94S 
a,o7o 



Forests. 



40 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



raAO 



Acacia LencopkUa [B. Tanttunghin\. • 

Common Nancea, several species [B. Ata-u]. 
Khair {Acacia caieeku) [B. Shabiti\ , very common south of MyDtha, occurs 
everywhere. 

Mango (mangi/era fndica) [B. Thayet'^, of manv varieties and very com- 
mon. Some of the frait is excellent and ajmost, if not quite, equal to the 
best Bombay mango. 

Odnia Wodier [B. Hnanbin], of little size or value. 

Lagerstroemia parviflora. 

Erythinee {Suderosa}, rare. 

Pipal {Ft'eui religiosa) [B. Nyaungbin], common. 

Shinsh (Albissin) [B. Kdkku'], common. 

Silk cotton tree {liomba malabaricum) [B. Letpati'bin], common and of 
great size. 

Tamarind (T. Indt'ca) [B. Ma-gyibini, also common and growing to a 
verj' large size. 

ralmjTa palm (Borassus flabelli/ormis) [B. Tanbittl, ver)' common. 

Teak {Tcctona Crandis) [B. Kyun-bi»\, no trees are found, but there 
seems no reason whv they should not grow. 

Ficus glomerata [B. Nyaung^bin\. 

Flame of the forest {Bute frondosa) [B. Pauk-bin\. 

Cocoanut palm [B. Onbin\ found in some parts only. 

Wood-apple [Feronia Elcphantum) [B. Thibin.'\ 
Phyllanthui emblica [B. Zibyu-bin\. The fruit is collected and sold in 
the bazaars. 

The varnish tree [B. Thit-st\ is not found. 
And the Kabaung {strychnea nttxvomi'ca) is very rare. 
The Chinese date [Diosphyioi) and the following trees or shrubs have 
also been noted : — 

Saukbin, a shrub growing densely in low inundated land. Sekknungdati, 
than, tha-gyan, in, ta-nytn, thilpalwi, pyaukseik, or myaukseik, tama, iam- 
a-se, in-gyin, ba-sliu, pyima, petthan, petwun, thaminthapa, anankalawe 
kyibifi, thapan, padauk (rare and small), yindauk, thanthat, vnhke, taung' 
ma-gyi, thabye-gyo, ma-hlwa, thelyin, lelkok, shw^dan, yethabye, panga^ 
yema-ne (sandalwood), thabyu^ tliitya, yingat , thanion (the roots of which 
are used as medicine and as food in times of scarcity), yun, yok. 

Tlie following fruit trees are cultivated in gardens: — 

The lime (///fl»i^_V«?), the ]ack (petti rie), the marian [mayan), the citron 
{thauk, many kinds), the gtiava {malaga), the pummclo (s/iaukpan), the 
dorian {puyin, very small and rare), the custard-apple {ansa), the papaya 
{thimbawthi), the thitcho and ihe fanga. 

The domestic animals of this district are of the usual kinds. There were 
^ one thousand one hundred and sixty-five ponies shown 
in the returns for 1896-97 and the district has supplied 
very large numbers for mounted infantry. The number of bullocks and 
cows was 136,457. The bullocks as elsewhere are sturdy and well-made if 
somewhat undersized animals. The cows are very small and poor. Breeding 
is conducted on no system. The bulls are usually very young, and the cattle 
epidemics, which occur according to the Burmese every third year, area penal- 
ty for promiscuous and unregulated production. The number of deaths by 



Fauna. 



^^^ SAGJ THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 41 ^^H 


^H disease from January to July 1889 was seventeen thousand one hundred and ^^^H 


^m eighty-five head of cattle. The buffaloes were returned for 1896-97 as six ^^^H 


^M thousand and seventy-nine in number- Those of Chaungu are noted for the ^^^H 


^H size of their horns. Goats are mostly introduced by natives of India and are ^^^H 


^m kept by them. Donkeys are not found. Pigs are very abundant in some ^^^H 


H villages but are not found universally. In King Thibaw's time there was a ^^^H 


^ft law against slaughtering them. ^^^H 


^m Wild animals are not found in great numbers. Tho«ie noticed are the ^^^H 


^H panther [Felis pardus), the- jackal [cant's atirens), the hog(.SMJ indtcus), the ^^^H 


^M brow antiered deer (M««ri'Mj' vel Pawliii Eldt'i), the hog-deer {axis por^ ^^^H 


^m c/'nKjr), the barking deer (aVz'WM.r amens) and hares. Of gameb'trds, the ^^^H 


^1 jungle-fowl, partridge or francolin, quail, golden plover, snipe, duck of various ^^^H 


^H kinds, pintail, shoveller, pochard, Brahmany, and gray teal, common blu&> ^^^H 


^1 winged and whistling and geese, are regularly found. ^^^H 


^^ All Esheries in the district arc Government property. Most of them are ^^^H 


^^^L . leased annually, some for large periods. No attempt has ^^^| 
^^^r ^"" yet been made to classify the species of fish caught, but ^^^| 


^ the names applied locally to various kinds are given below. The fishing ^^^H 


^H nets, traps, and other implements are of many kinds : a list of the local names ^^^H 


^H also appended. ^^^H 


^B The mammal porpoise is found in the Irrawaddy. ^^^^^| 


H Burmese: namiis of Fishes caught in the Sagaing Streams. ^^^^| 


^H Nga myin yin. 


Nga bye-ma, ^^^^| 


H A'/'J gyin. 


Nga dein. ^^^| 


^H I^ga net thin. 


Nga yan. ^^^| 


^H Nga net pya. 
^H Nga pa-ma. 


Nga myin u-yaing. ^^^^k 


Nga ga-lein. ^^^^k 


^H Nga twe. 


Nga ywl. ^^^H 


^B Nga daw. 


Nga p6k thin. ^^^H 


^B Nga maung-ma. 


Nga hkan ma. ^^^^k 


^B Nga ywe. 


Nga pe-atmg, ^^^^| 


H %« gyaung. 


Nga sibu. ^^^H 


^1 Nga Bin. 


Nga saga. ^^^^| 


^M Nga lu. 


Nga thalauk. ^^^H 


^ Nga aik. 


Nga thaing. ^^^H 


^^^^H ^ga gyi. 


Nga pa. ^^^H 


^^^^^^1 Nga 


Nga hku. ^^^H 


^^^^^^1 Nga 


Nga byet. ^^^H 


^^^^^^H Nga myin-auk-pa. 


Nga paung yo. ^^^^| 


^^^^^^H Nga myin-kun-pan. 


Nga bat. ^^^H 


^^^^^^H Nga 


Nga myinchidauk. ^^^H 


^^^^^^H Nga nan-gyaung. 


Nga gal aw. ^^^H 


^^^^^^H Nga yaung. 


Nga thanget. ^^^H 


^^^^^^H Nga 


Nga hta-yu'et. ^^^H 


^^^H iV^a 


Nga tha-gyi. ^^^^k 


^^^^^^B l^ga shin, 
^^^V Nga yinbaungea. 


Nga nuthan. ^^^H 


Nga zinzat. ^^^^| 


^^^^^H Nga lein. 


Nga tha-ledo. ^^^H 


^^^^^H Nga sinbya. Nga hin nga. ^^^H 


^^^^^^1 Nga ^^^^k 



42 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAG 



Fishing Implements. 



Hnapinlein paik. 

Letkwa paik. 

Kyido paik. 

Usin paik. 

Paik wunbu. 

Hinaw. 

Metkun. 

Hnya. 

Taungdaing. 

Pinchinpaik. 

Paik pya. 

Hnalongwin paik. 

Ngasin paik. 

Yagwin paik. 

Taungdtn paik. 

Hmy6n. 

BSnbin. 

T6k. 

Linbei. 

Yinde-in. 

Za. ' 

Ye-gyi-le paik. 



Yindin paik. 

Ledo paik. 

Paik seik. 

Gaw paik. 

A in dan pat. 

Daingwaing. 

Sedaing. 

Letwa paik htnate-nge. 

Pet-kto. 

Hm6nyet paik. 

Hmaw-yin. 

Daing paik. 

Wun paik. 

Kunseik. 

Kun-gyan. 

Nga"hmyadan. 

Saung. 

Gok paik. 

Letmadan, 

Bu. 

Let htun. 

Yc'gwin. 



Climate and The rainfall and thermometer readings have been kept 
***'^*'* since 1888. They give the following figures : — 



SAGl 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



43 







■nmBra 
















1 


■liqaiiiifs "l ^""t 


o 


a 




o 






o 




- 


Z 




« 


w^ 


^ 




■jf*J»[«qM 


.u 


3 




S 


s 


ft 


s 




- 


S 




S 




S 


n 




1 


'i»i|ioaidji5 0taunf 


u 




i 


■n 


s 


» 


a 




w» 


m 


? 




-wutatniM 


u 


S 


: 


£ 


R 


■I* 


K 




« 


i 


s 




«< 
« 


ff 




1 


'J3qiu3)d:3s 0} iiniif 


U 


t 




: 




m 


2 




- 


in 
n 


1^ 


; 


s 


Pit 




'tai JiotL^ 


u 


tv 

A 


ft 


: 




£ 


M 




? 


'5 


1 


% 




B 




1 


JMluiaidsS o) nanf 


u 


, 


« 

■CQ 


: 


« 


m 


(A 




n 

■t 


a 


: 


w 

•» 


<a 


PI 




■naJaloitAV - 




■4 


! 




n 


& 




% 




= 


*a 


4 

m 


■m 


s 




•jaqum43Sf»Mnf 


o 


3 




; 


t 


I 


r 


1 


~ 


2^ 




: 


e 


1 


: 


■juJ3]oi|AV 


u 


H 




: 




: 


; 


- 


8 




: 


J 


: 


: 




1 


•jailBiatdas<»1»onf 


o 


*1 




! 


i 




I 




u 


= 




; 


i 


i 


i 




■«a* aioHitt 






! 


r 


: 


i 


, 


<o 




i 




: 


t 




1 


J9qiii})dag oiaonf- 


u 


s 




i 


; 


* 


* 




- 


w 




: 


5 


; 


! 




■«»)£ *|04^ 


u 


« 




i 


■ 


J 


: 




*r 


i 


: 


: 


: 


■ 




i 


■JSaiaiOHjVl 




1 £ 


! 


; 


t 


• 


• 




s 


: 


: 


i 


: 


: 




ft 


; 


! 


! 


1 


1 




^ 


: 


! 


• 


t 
i 


: 




i 


■jaqtBaidasoisaof 


u 


A 


: 


i 


: 




- 


X 


1 


:* 


• 


'. 


f 




'rt»t aqottM 


o 




I 


: 


t 


i 


1 




- 


9. 


I 


; 


I 




I 






118)] 


^s 


JonHtS 











I 

"S 

I 






i. 

-■go 

lie 

III 



44 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 

Thermometer, 



[SAG 



-f - — -^ -— ■ — 


si. 


6 














Si 


ii 


CI 


J3 




s 

cs 






< 


n 


c 

3 


3 


< 


t 
^ 

^ 





E 


2: 


B 

1 


afln t? . f maximum ... 

,888 Extreme. ^^^^^,,^ ... 


79 


91 


98 


103 


104 


9.1 


93 


93 


90 


gs 


S6 


78 


52 


56 


64 


n\ 75| 74 


76 


76 


74 


70 


63 


54 


„„ -- majLimum ... 


8o 


m 


100 


1 04 1 104 98 


94 


93 


92 


QO 


8b 


tfi 


54 


53 


6+ 


7o| 77 77 


79 


64 


J8 


75 


70 


58 



Thermometer. 



[Extreme 
Mean 
f Extreme 
/ Mean 

i Extreme 
Mean 
! Extreme 
Mean 
f Extreme 
Mean 

r Extreme 

1895 i 

/ Mean 

S Extreme 



Mean 



f MaTtiimum 
X Minimum 
f Maximum 
^ M inimum 
f Maximum 
t Minimum 
f Maximum 
t Minimum 

J Maximum 
Minimum 
f Maximum 
X Minimum 
? Maximum 
(_ Minimum 

i Maximum 
Minimum 
J Maximum 
X Minimum 
CMajiimum 
J^ Minimum 

{Maximum 
Minimum 
( Maximum 
X Minimum 
C Maximum 
3. Minimum 

i Maximum 
Minimum 



I 



79 

48 
75 
57 
So 

53 
79 

56 
8S 
54 
80 

57 
83 
50 
76 
54 
62 

5* 

77 
S6 

80 

57 
76 

59 
80 

S3 
76 
57 



K 

.0 



go 

49 
82 

S8 
83 

52 
S3 
59 
95 
57 
8S 
63 
92 
50 
85 
5S 
90 
58 
86 

64 

88 

54 
82 

58 



S3 

63 



< 



98 ^oa 
60 70 



89 
60 



55 
-91 

66 

IPO 

5S 
95 
71 
96 
60 
96 
65 
98 
64 

93 
69 

98 
6a 

91 
70 
91 rioo 
~ 64 



95 
81 



96 106 



93 



63 

98 

77 

J02 

73 
96 
81 
102 
66 
gS 
70 
103 

70 
95 

76 
103 
73 
94 
74 

1 02 

75 



104 
7a 
90 

81 

103 

, 76 

,98 

I 80 

100 

70 

94 

77 

100 

70 

86 



72 
19 



95 
78 
90 

79 
lOa 
75 
9a 
80 
92 
74 
88 

77 
g8 

74 
89 



77 ' 77 
102 95 



78 
89 

79 



100 I 96 



73 

93 

76 

103 

74 
96 
81 



74 
89 

79 
98 
75 
90 

79 



ga 

78 

ss 

79 
99 
78 



80 

76 
88 
78 
93 
70 

»7 
76 
92 
74 
87 
78 
95 
79 
90 
82 
96 
77 
91 
80 



90 
72 
86 

77 
94 
76 



92 I 9' 
79 



90 
74 
86 

77 
94 
60 
89 

7> 
91 

76 
85 

78 

78 
89 
79 
94 
78 
90 

79 



E 
41 



(fi 



ja 
E 

> 
o 



ga 1 90 
70 I 75 
86 87 
77 ' 77 
95 I 94 
69 I 70 
gi I 89 

79 75 
94 93 



76 


6S 


89 


86 


77 


74 


95 


95 


73 


69 


ga 


94 


72 


^ 


90 


74 


74 


86 


89 


75 


75 


9Z 


91 


76 


7a 


87 


87 


79 


77 


93 


91 


77 


7a 


88 


88 


79 


77 



88 

5B 
8t 
68 
go 
63 
84 
68 
86 
6z 
82 
66 
04 
66 
92 
68 
S9 
64 

% 

87 
60 
8i 
68 
87 
65 
81 

69 



So 

SS 

^^ 
58 

8i 

54 
81 

61 
84 
SO 
76 

58 

78 

5* 
74 
54 
80 

56 
76 
62 
86 
58 
75 
6» 
85 
58 
74 

63 



The rainfall varies considerably. In the rains of 1889, although the total 
fall in Sagairig itself exceeded by 459 inches the total of the preceding year, 
yet elsewhere, notably in the north of Sagaing subdivision, the south of Myo- 
tlia township and the south of Chaungu township, the rainfall was very short. 



SAG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



45 



The great body of water that pass'»s through the district probably prevents 
the thermometer from rising as high in the hot weather as it otherwise would. 
The hot weather is not distinguished by persistent hot winds, but gales of 
great violence blow occasionally. The end of the rains and the early cold 
weather, when very heavy fogs hang till late in the day all along the Irra- 
waddy, are the least healthy time of the year. But the district as a whole 
is very salubrious and has no fever-haunted hills or terai. Epidemics of 
cholera, small-pox and measles have been recorded. 

The chief diseases are fever, leprosy, venereal, opthalmic and skin diseases, 
with occasionally epidemics of measles, small-pox and cholera. There are 
no specially unhealthy jungle tracts and the district is, therefore, as a whole, 
much healthier than most of those adjoining it. 

Leprosy is very prevalent. Few villages are without one or more lepers. 
As many as five hundred persons are said to be afflicted with this disease 
out of the whole population of two hundred and forty-seven thousand persons. 
There was in former times a wuti, called the Ayut ?<'««, who to a certain 
extent enforced an order of partial segregation. This office, however, was 
abolished in Mindon Min's time, it is said because one of the Queens was 
found to be a leper, and the King did not see the use of an official who 
could not keep leprosy out of the Palace. At present lepers go about their 
ordinary avocations mingled with the rest of the population. Healthy and 
leprous persons live in the same house. Sometimes the leper is put in a 
separate hut in the same compound, but it is very seldom that one sees the 
lepers forced to live together at one end of the village. 

Venereal disease is, of course, commoner in the towns than in the villages 
and is most prevalent along the river. 

Vaccination is readily accepted by the people. 

There is no trace of any tribe or race in Sagaing other or earlier than 
p . . the Burmese, and wild or hill tribes are not found in the 

opu icn. district. There is, however, a considerable infusion of 

Shan blood, and a certain amount of Siamese, Arakanese, and Peguan 
(Moll or Talalng). This has been derived from servants or captives taken by 
Burmese Kings in their numerous wars or from the occasional domination 
of Shan or Talaing Kings. These imported types, however, are now quite 
merged in the general population and cannot be said to exist as distinct 
races. 

Of the Manipuris it would seem that all the castes except the Brahman 

-. . . have been absorbed into the Burman population and 

"'" '** have adopted Buddhism. They are known as Kathh 

Ekkabat, and by other names. 

Of the Brahmans (^PSttna) there are some thirty families in Sagaing. 

They speak Burmese and do not understand their own 

language, though they sing the ritual by rote in a dialect 

of Bengali. They retain their Hindu religion, worshipping Krishna and 

Vishnu and gods whom they call Mahaprinlam Mahaparapu. In the temple 

of Krishna are a number of images of human form and of normal shape, 

usually gilt or painted. The shrine of Maha-pein6 contains, amongst other 

images, a common alabaster Gaudama, 

Ponna do not freely intermarry with Burmans. Cases occur, but they 
as a rule choose from their own caste. If any one, man or woman, marries 



Br.ihmans. 



TME UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



J SAG 



an outsider, whether Brahman or of any other race or caste, he or she is de- 
barred from joining in the religious ceremonies and is forbidden to cat with 
other Ptinrtri and is in fact tfjc communicated. When a marriage is contem* 
plated, the parents of the bridegroom, together with a frw elders, go to the 
bride's parents to ask for their consent to the union. When this has been 
obtained a day is fixed for the ceremony, and the wedding then takes place 
in the presence of the elders and of the parents on both sides. The parents 
of the bride formally make over their daughter to the bridegroom and his 
parents with the request that she may be treated as their own. I he bride- 
groom's parents and ihe bridegroom himself then promise that the lady will 
be treated with all due kindness, together with what other vows the happy 
man may feel himself moved to add. The bride leaves with her husband on 
the day of the marriage and is not allowed to remain in her parents house. 
Seven days after the marriage husband and wife go round to the houses of 
near relatives and friends with pyramidal lacquer boxes stored with cocoa- 
nuts, plantains, areca-nuts and betel leaves, tobacco and the other ordinary 
Kadait'pwt! to pay their respects. The wedding presents are then given 
according to the means of the giver. These are ordinarily wearing apparel 
for husband or wife, gold or silver ornaments, or simply sums of money. 

There is a considerable colony of Mussulmans settled in Sagaing, Ava, 

ji, . Ywathit-gyi, Nga-7un, and other villages. None of them 

can say whence their great-grandparents came, but it is 

probable, that they wandered over from Chittagong. Certainly, although they 

near Rurmcse dress, none of them are of Burman race. They speak Burmese 

and do not understand their own language, except a few of the imaum or 

" jfl/fl"who teach them the Scriptures. They intermarry almost entirely 

within their own community and it is the duty of the father to tind a husband 

for his daughter. On the wedding day the saya read over the Koran and 

then solemnize the marriage. This is followed by a grand meal given to the 

public. 

Of Christians tliere are very few. The Reverend Mr. Hascall of the Amcri- 

^, . ,. can Baptist Mission opened a girls' and boys' school in 

Christians: , ^ , ooo i \t ooo ^u r. i r r> 

American Baptist. Januar)' of 1888. In May 1888, the Reverend v. P. 

Sutherland of /^ig<5ii, Lower Burma, was put in charge of the 
station at the Sagaing by the Executive Committee at Boston, Massachusetts, 
I', S. A. A day school has been continuously maintained since then, with the 
exception of about eighteen months. TJie highest standard reached has 
been the fourth, and the total number of scholars received up to 1897 ^^^ ^7* 
Twenty-three scholars have been added within the past two years (1896 and 
1897). Within the same period a medical department has been added, and 
two thousand and fifty patients have received treatment gratuitously. In 
1888 three Burmans were converted, two from Lower and one from Upper 
Burma. In the following year the same figures were repeated exactly. A 
small Church was formed in January 1889, consisting of new converts and 
of a few Christians from Lower Burma. The whole, men and women, num- 
bered about twenty souls. A pastor and two catechists attend to their spirit- 
ual welfare. The latter frequently accompany the missionary on preaching 
tours in the district. 
The Roman Catholic Mission in Myinmu has at present two stations, at 
Nabet and Chaungu. These missions do not do much 
proselytizing. They look after the native Christians, de- 



Roman Catholic. 



SAG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



47 



scendants of the Portuguese and others carried off as prisoners on the capture 
of Syriam by Maha Dhamma Yaza in 1613 A.D., and again on its saclc by 
Alaung-paya in 1756 A.D. 

There was formerly a Christian community and Church at Payoinma, hut 
they have long since disappeared. The Churches at Nabct and Chaungu are 
of very old standing. There are no native Christians in Ava. 

The census returns of population for 1891 give the following figures : — 













0. 
a. 










Township. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Bud- 
dhists. 







E 


in 

c 


in 


I 















•c 














< 


E 


*i 


U 
ISO 





Sasfaing Municipa- 
lity. 
Rest o( Sagaing 


9.934 


4.906 


S.028 


8,59> 


9 


630 


553 


4» 


29.308 


'3.796 


«S.573 


28,875 


7 


"3 


293 


80 


... 


township. 




















Sadaung township 


28.164 


13.291 


14.873 


27.9' 8 


I 


213 


23 


3 


7 


Myinmu 


39.3S6 


18,056 


I si.-^so 


39.«5i 


\ 


68 


141 


3 


ao 


Chaung-u 


30,108 


13439 


' 10.669 


29.523 


265 


3' 


263 


i» 


Kyaukyil 


35.788 


11.773 


14,016 


25.447 




r 


14 


326 




Ava 


30,477 


18,689 


20.7S8 


39.:^ 2 1 


4 


38 


203 


4 


17 


Mjolha 


44.9 It 


80,873 


34.038 


44.585 


6 


13 


283 


■ «* 


25 


L Total ... 


347.136 


114,833 


136,314 


343.3' » 


38 


i.3»9 


1. 541 


799 


128 



4^016 excess of women over men is partly due, no doubt, to the disturbances 
of the Annexation. The male population may be supposed to have been 
reduced by deaths in action, executions, imprisonments or flight to other 
districts. The excess of female over male children, cannot, however, be due 
'to any but general causes. Among the traders and shop-keepers are many 
natives of India who followed in the track of the native regiments. 

Cultivators naturally form the bulk of the population. Goldsmiths, black- 
smiths, coppersmiths, masons or bftcklayers, stone and wood car\'crs, paint- 
ers, carpenters and tailors are all found in fair numbers. Oil manufacturers 
are usually the persons who have grown the oil -seed. Cloth weavers arc 
also most frequently the wives and families of the cultivators of cotton. But 
silk weavers form a distinct community and are very numerous in Sagaing, 
which is famous for its manufacture of tamein, women's skirts. Dyers (of 
the yellow monkish robes), washermen, pwP dancers, paper-makers, native 
doctors, potters are some of the trading community. Fishermen are common 
and, like the toddy-climbers, jaggery-makers, cutch-boilers, fruit and market 
gardeners and hucksters form part of the agricultural population. 

PCngyis are very numerous, and there are many pagoda slaves, noticeably 
in the villages round the Kaung-hmu-daw pagoda: all the inhabitants of the 
villages of Paungya were actually slaves till the Annexation. 

Before, during, and after the Annexation many villages were destroyed by 
dacoils, or deserted for fear of them, or removed by Government for harbour- 



48 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAG 



ing them, and, though large numbers have returned, the State of the district 
in this respect is hardly yet normal. In 1897 there were seven hundred and 
four villages. Sagaing, the chief and probably the largest town, was re- 
turned in 1891 as having nine thousand nine hundred and thirty-four inhabit- 
ants. The villages are usually surrounded with a double or at least a single 
thorn hedge with one or more gates. The houses are generally of the most 
flimsy description, built throughout of bamboo. A fairly constant movement 
down to Lower I3urma in search of work goes on. The work sought is 
mostly harvesting, but fishing is also sought for as well as any labour that 
offers between the months that follow the garnering of crops sown in the 
rains and the preparation of the ground for the next crop. This movement 
is chiefly from riverain villages and especially from the Chindwin-Irrawaddy 
delta. In Ava township the movement is to Kyauksfe, where paddy culti- 
vation goes on continuously all the year long. 

The revenue settlement of the district, begun in 1893, is not yet complete. 
_ . . . No details of holdings can be given, and the returns as to 

arable area can be nothing more than a rough estimate. 
In 1896-97 the estimate was as follows ; — 

Acres. 



Cultivable land (excluding fallow) 

Fallow 

CuUivable waste (other than fallow) 

Uncultivable ... 



Total 



239.447 
38o,6gd 

4g.562 

623.345 

1.193.050 



The amount of stock estimated in the same year was — 

Ploughs 

Carts ... ... 

Cows and bullocks 
Budaloes ,.. ... 

Ponies ... ... .,, 

Goats 

The crops under cultivation were — 

Rice 

Wheat ... ... .... 

Other food-grains including pulses ,, 

Uil-seeds 

Cotton 

Indigo (a small amount only) ... ., 

Tobacco 

Orchard and garden produce 

Miscellaneous food-crops ... ., 



Number. 

36408 
19.670 

"36.457 

6,079 

1,165 

984 

Acres. 
68.600 

4,325 

104,723 

42,555 

« 2,650 

3,«>2 

4,670 
800 



Soil is found in every variety. The river sandbanks pass gradually into 
rich beds of alluvial silt. The deepest and best black cotton soil alternates 
with all varieties of clay, clay intermixed with sand, sand intermixed with 
lime nodules, gravel, kunkar and rock. A considerable area in the north of 
the Sagaing subdivision is impregnated with salt. 

Attention is paid to irrigation on a small scale only. Besides the large 
area of riverain village lands which are annually flooded, the filling of the 
natural sinks {in) and artificial tanks (kan) supplies means of irrigating the 
Eelds for long after the flush has passed. There are also many petty works 



SAG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



49 



in the interior dug to store up rain water or to utilize the water of streams. 
This is especially the case in the Ava township, though the system is nowhere 
so elaborate as in Kyauksfe. Many of these works have received attention 
from Government, e.g.y the Kandavv Kan-hia, near Ava, the Wuntho Kan 
near Cliaungg^a, a series of bunds near Nga-zun, the Melibin bund near 
Myo-hla, the Kyaungbyukan in Sadaung township, the Kandaw and Pegu 
tanks, the Pauk-in canal and Myauk-inma-gyi bund in Myinmu subdivision. 
Wells are used for irrigation purposes by market gardeners and keepers of 
orchards, and also for paddy cultivation in some lagoons where, after the 
subsidence of the surface flood, the water left behind remains suspended in 
the soil. In the broads (»"«) the water is raised by water-scoops {kanwe) or 
water-lifts {ku). The water-scoop, or ianwii, is simply a long half cylinder 
of bamboo matting with a long guiding handle. It is slung from the apex of 
three bamboos staked together and is worked by hand. The water-lift, iu 
or kttmaung, raises water to a greater height than is possible with a kanw^. 
It is a long, narrow trough worked on a pivot. The worker stands on a 
small platform (often a single plank or a mere pole) and brings his whole 
weight on to one end of the trough and thus sinks that end. When his weight 
is removed the other end of the trough, which overhangs the field to be 
watered, is depressed by the weight of a stone or lumps of mud placed there 
for the purpose. The water is thus tilted forward and runs through a hole 
in the trough. In raising water from a well the ordinary long bamboo, 
working on the pivot of an upright post, with a heavyweight at one end and 
a bucket at the other, is used. The bucket is lowered by hand, the weight 
at the end of the Maunglct raises it up and the water is tilted into a bamboo 
runnel. The farm implements used are the plough (te), the harrow (tun}, 
the hoe {pauktu), the sickle [tastn] and the knife [dhama). Oil-mills [sisun) 
are also freqently found. In cotton-growing neighbourhoods every house 
has its cotton gin, spindle for reeling yarn, and loom for weaving cloth. 

In some parts an early crop of sessamum, maize and kaukyin is raised in 
August and September. The main harvest between November and January 
includes paddy (knukkyi), cotton, sessamum and millet. The late hars'est 
from February to April, wheal paddy [mayin), all kinds of peas, maize, garden 
produce and tobacco. A third crop of paddy [mayin and kaukti) may in 
some places be obtained before the rains. 

Ploughing, or harrowing, as it would more correctly be called, is commonly 
done in the hot wealher from March to May. Early crops are sown in May 
and June, main crops in August and September, late crops from November 
to January. Threshing and winnowing are carried on in the same way as in 
India or China and the East generally. Manure is used, but in greatly in- 
sufficient quantitii^^s. This is the more to be regretted, seeing that the dung 
of cattle is not used for fuel as it is in India. Rotation of crops with fallow is 
not practised, except on the lighter dry soils. All possible changes may be 
rung on the four following : sessamum, cotton, millet, and fallow. Frequently 
the land is so poor that the fallow has to extend to two or three years after 
two crops, or sometimes even after only one. 

The crops are — 

(i) rice, saba, of three kinds ; iaukkyi, mayin, and kaukti; 
(2) wheat, gyon, kala-saba, and gySnsaba, This is extensively grown 
only in two tracts, one west ofithe eastern range of hills in Sagaing 

1 



5^ 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



(SAG 



subdivision, one on a somewhat elevated alluvial tract between 
Tada-u and Chaungwa, in Ava township. There is a small wheat 
tract in the north-west of Kyaukyit township ; 

(3) mWht, pyaung; 

(4) maize, pyaung-hu ; 

(5) peas of many kinds; e.g.^ pe-gyi, pe-gya, pedi, kala-pe (gram), 

sadawpe and matpi ; 

(6) sessamum, hnan, which is of two kinds, /man-ytn, which is reaped 

in the rains, and /t»att-gvt', which is rcapi^d in the cold weather. 

(7) Cotton, wa ; this is said to be very short in the staple ; 

(8) brown hemp, paiksan; occasionallv a little of this is grown amongst 

cotton ; 

(9) indigo, me ; this is grown sparingly after the paddy crop around 

Sagaing and on the banks of the Irrawaddy in the Ava subdivi- 
sion; 

(10) tobacco, se, grown on all alluvial banks of rivers and islands ; 

h I) chillies, ngaydk, and brinjals, kayan, arc grown on similar ground ; 

(12) tomatoes, kayan-gyin, are grown almost everpvhere; 

(13) onions, kyetthon, are grown as a field crop in wheat soil, or on 

alluvial lands ; 

In gardens are grown melons, thagwama, water melons, payC'thi^ gourds, 
3«, pumpkins, payonlhi, cucumbers, thagiea^ areca nuts, kun (not common), 
and betel-vino, only in well-sheltered gardens as at Sagaing and Tada-u, 
plantains, hnget-pyawthi, pine-apples, na-nai(hi, and the fruit and flowering 
trees mentioned above. 

Short rainfall occasionally causes local scarcity, as do blight and excessive 
floods, but general famine is unknown. 

Rust in the wheat-crops occurred for the first time after the Annexation, 
It was possibly introduced by seed brought from India. Rust was very pre- 
valent from 1894 to 1896. 

No statistics of trade in Burmese times are available. There must have 
_ . ... been a considerable traffic, but it has undoubtedly largely 
tries inaus- increased under British rule. The district was verv un- 

safe for years before the Annexation and is now completely 
at peace. The traffic on the Chindwin especially owes its expansion to 
this establishment of tranquillity. 1 he number of boats now ascending to 
Amyin exceeds anything that was ever dreamt of in Burmese times. The 
statistics yet available of the state and progress of trade under British rule 
are very imperfect and though figures have been collected for 1891-92 they 
are quite unreliable. 

A large Chinese firm, with establishments in Rangoon, Mandalay, Penang 
and Singapore, has opened a branch in Tada-u. The Bombay Burma 
Trading Corporation, Limited, have long kept an agent at the mouth of the 
Mu, and he has lately established a godown at Sadaung. The company has 
also an agent at Ava, at the mouth of the Myit-ngfe. 

The chiff centres of trade are Sagaing, Tada-u, Myotha, whence goods 
reach the river at KyauklalSn or Sameikkon, Ywathit-gyi, Chaung-u, and 
Myinmu. The last is not so much a centre of trade as a dep6t, where goods 
to or from the Chindwin vto the M6nywa road leave or reach the Irrawaddy. 
There are two markets in Sagaing, and three in Tada-u and Ava. At 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



S« 



Ywathit-gyi a small bazaar is held. An attempt to set establish a bazaar at 
Myotha failed, but al Nga-zun there has been a tnarkctsince the Annexation. 
Myinmu and Chaungu have flourishing bazaars, and that at Allakappa is 
doing well. That at Amyin is long established. All these bazaars, except at 
Amyin, are held dailVi and the transactions in them arc in ready money. Out- 
side the bazaars pedlars go round the villages and make their transactions 
usually by barter. Articles of bazaar supply are exchanged for quantities of 
some trade staple such as cotton, and the huckster sells the produce thus col- 
lected to the trader for cash. 

■ 

The fairs are, as elsewhere in Burma and in India, and as they were in 
Europe in the Middle Ages, religious. The principal of them are held at — 

Kyaukyit, Wachet, Kaunghmu-daw, Ngadatkyi (Sagaing), Sein-Uf 
Paung-ya-yin (Sagaing), Myaung (Ngay6n, Wunhlaing, Winzin), 
Pauktaw (Shinbindawyaik), Kyauktalon (Letmyet-hna), Nga- 
zun. Y\vathit-g)'i (Shinbin-damatha), Myinmu (Shinbin-Sawlu), 
Thawtapan (Shinbin-Nangaing). These do not greatly differ 
from the daily bazaars, except for the addition of religious 
observances, with dramatic performances and a few other 
amusements. 

Shops are not often found in the villages. The bazaars and the pedlars 
supply their place. In Sagaing town a large influx of Indians has taken 
place and they have opened the usual Indian grocery, sweetmeat and miscel- 
laneous shops in great numbers. 

The ordinary native crafts are still carried on. There arc gold and silver 
smiths in Sagaing, Vwataung and Wachet. They work with everything on 
a small scale, tile, chisel, hammer and anvil and make rings, bracelets, but- 
tons, studs, watch-chains, necklaces, cups, cAunam-hoxes, earrings, anklets, 
hair-pins, combs and tihe like. Their earnings average from Ks. 15 to Rs. 30 
a month, but they only work to order and keep no articles ready made. 

Brass workers ply their trade in Sagaing, Ywataung, Wachet, Ma-gyizin, 
Ondaw and Sadaung. They convert copper sheets brought in the Manda- 
lay bazaar into spittoons, betel and c/tu»am-bo\es, drinking-cups, filters 
{ye-sit), bowls and trays. They make from Rs. 20 to Rs. 50 a month. 

Blacksmiths get their iron in the bazaar and make dhas, axes, pickaxes, 
raamooties, hooks, hinges, chains, crowbars, scythes, ploughs, nails, springs, 
tyres for wheels and the like. The blacksmiths, unlike the gold and silver 
smiths, keep ready made articles for sale. Paid hands are kept, who get 
from Rs. 8 to Rs. 20 a month, according to their skill. 

A certain amount of sculpture, or stone-carving is carried on, mostly in 
alabaster obtained in the Sagyin tauno north of Mandalay. Images of 
Gaudama Buddha chiefly are turned out and the price varies of course with 
the size- Some men make a living by advancing money to the sculptors, 
Thev advance Rs. 50, with which the rough block is to be bought and 
brought to the speculator's house. There it is fashioned into an image 
which sells for, say, Rs. 150. The Rs. 50 advance is then deducted and 
the remainder halved between the workman and the man who advanced the 
money. 

Pottery is made chiefly at Obo. The following are the chief articles 
manufactured; drinking pots, bathing jars, flower-pots and cooking-pots. 



i 



5a 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tSAU 



The clay is obtained from the east of the village ; it is a red earth mixed with 
a little sand, and to this black earth, also obtained near the village, is added. 
The whole process of manufacture is carried on by hand, the one implement 
being a round piece of wood, shaped like a top, but with a flat face. This 
is so fixed that it can be turned either way. On this sufllcient moistened 
clay for a pot is put and the potter with one hand turns the implement and 
with the other shapr-s the pot. A block of wood, with scrolls and floral de- 
signs cut in relief on it, is then used to add ornamentation to the outside. 
When from one to two hundred pots are made and sundried, they are tired 
and burnt hard. The work is not done by any paid establishment, but by 
each householder for himself, or rather by the daughters of the house. 
From Rs. 5 to Rs. 10 a month are the common earninj^s of a family of 
father, mother, one son, and one daughter. Glazed earthenware vessels of a 
superior kind are made at Chaunj^diauk near Myinmu. 

Bricks are made of pure black earth, mixed with one-quarter the amount 
of paddy dust. They are ordinarily made in moulds measuring eighteen 
inches by ten inches by two inches. One kiln burns ten thousand bricks, 
which sell for Rs. 75. It takes five men a month to fill a kiln. 

Lime-burning is also carried on. The limestone is broken into lumps about 
the size of one's fist and then burnt. It is then taken out and sprinkled 
with water, when it breaks into powder. The slack lime is sold at ten rupees 
the hundred baskets. A kiln contains from five to eight hundred baskets. 
The slaked lime fetches a better price than the unslaked. 

Sugar -boiling is carried on wherever there are sufficient palm-trees. When 
the palm puts out a sprout about a foot long it is tied up with bamboo hnyai 
as tight as possible and then the head of it is cut three times on three suc- 
cessive days. A new pot is tied beneath it and a little lime {/i(dfi) is put in 
to prevent the toddy from fermenting as the sap drops slowly from the sprout. 
The lime enables the toddy to be kept in stock until there is enough to boil 
for taH'nyet or jaggery. A little rice dust is always put into the boiling to 
facilitate the formation of the sugar. This sells at from Rs. 12-8-0 to Rs. 20 
the hundred viss. 

A certain amount of indigo is also produced. The plants are set out in 
October or November and cut in June or July. The stems are soaked in 
water in a big pot {ptok) for a whole night and taken out in the morning. 
Some lime is then put in and stirred up in the water. Then the water is 
allowed to stand for some hours, when the surface water is poured ofT. The 
sediment is allowed to dry and is then taken out and sold as indigo. The 
process is very primitive and wasteful. The indigo sells at Rs. 25 the 
hundred viss. 

Cutch-boiling used to be a regular industp»'. The trees are cut down, 
stripped of their bark, and chopped into little blocks which are then boiled till 
all the sap has come out. The chips arc then taken out and the water is 
boiled to evaporation. The cutch obtained sells at Rs. 25 the hundred viss. 

Jack-tree branches are treated in the same way as cutch to obtain the 
yellow dye used for hf>6ngyis' robes, 

In the cotton-growing districts cotton-spinning is carried on in every house. 
The implemenis used are the wacheit, \hc yit, the cha, the httitldngdn, 
the hnat, the yinthwa and the lun. For a description of the weaving pro- 
cess see under Amarapura. 



SAG 3 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



S3 



Silk weaving is also common, but the silk all comes from China or Siam. 
After being boiled and dyed it is wound on reels. The weavers are both 
men and women, but there are few male weavers of any age. The women 
weave all their lives long. The chief silk-weaving villages are Seing6n, 
Ach6k, and Linzin and all over the town of Sagaing. The Sagaing silks are 
famous and sometimes from one hundred to an hundred and Hfty shuttles 
are used in weaving a lun-hlamein or a lun-pnso. Not more than an inch 
can ordinarily be woven in a day. One of these skirts costs from Rs. 12 to 
Rs. 15 ; a paso from Rs. 100 to Rs. 150. 

Coarse paper is manufactured in the district from paddy-straw or from 
young bamboo sprouts which are steeped in water until they rot. The fibre 
is then beaten into a pulp and the water pressed out, 1 he pulp is then 
spread on rectangular frames to dry in the sun and the coarse paper thus 
produced is chiefly used for interleaving gold leaf. 

There are three or four fermented toddy shops licensed in each subdivision 
and several beer and spirit shops in Sagaing town. 

The trade routes and communications are (i) the Irrawaddy for conveyance 
,j. . by steamer or native boat to Mandalay and Bhamo (for 

China) and down to Rangoon, (2) the Chindwin for trade 
between PakAkku and Kindat, (3) an old high way from Ava to the south, 
called the Minlan, passing down the Samon valley. This appears to have 
been gradually falling into disuse since Ava ceased to be the capital. Along 
this road villages of fifty houses each were planted at regular intervals. 
The inhabitants were charged with the duty of keeping the road free from 
robbers and in return lived rent-free, or received quit-rent grants of royal 
lands and a whole or partial exemption from thathaineda taxes. 

Since the Annexation there have been added to these : (4) a made road 
Myinmu from on the Irrawaddy, to Mfinywa on the Chindwin. This road 
carries the M6nywa mails and a very large amount of traffic. It has very 
easy gradients and is suitable for a steam-tramway and a light railway. 

(5) The Mu Valley and Mogaung-Myitkyina Railway, worked by the 
Burma Railways Company, starting from Sagaing, with a link on the oppo- 
site bank of the river to join the Rangoon-Mandalay main line. 

(6) The Sagaing-AlAn branch Railway passing through Myinmu is now 
(1900) open to traffic of all dc'scriptions,] 

Minor roads lead from Myotha to Kyauktal6n, to afford access to the 
river from a fine cotton country ; Myotha and Chaungwa to Kyauksi, open- 
ing up the same country to the railway ; various feeder roads to the Mu 
valley and Mogaung Railway ; and from Ywathitgyi to Lig)-i, connecting the 
lower parts of the Mu valley with the Irrawaddy. 

The only important bridges in the district are, that at Tada-u, spanning 
the Myittha river, and the bridge across the Sam6n at Dwehla. The former 
connects Ava with Tada-u and has a continuation part causewav and part 
bridge over low ground and another stream, the Panzfe. leading into Tada-u. 
The Sam6n bridge is on the Myotha-Chaungg\va-Kyauks(!: road. It is now 
(1897) in disrepair and is not used. 

The rivers arc generally crossed by ferries, which are all Government pro- 
perty and are auctioned yearly. The proceeds are assigned to district 
funds. 

The ferries at present leased are — 



54 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



CSAG 



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SAG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



55 



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56 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAG 



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SAG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



57 



Administration. 
(<}} In Burmese 
times. 



Under Burmese rule tlie Wun was the highest local official, with a nomi- 
nal monthly pay of from Rs. 200 to Rs. 500. His full 
establishment consisted of: one nahkan on a salary of 
Rs. 50, one sayc'gyi also on Rs 50, and (in Ava at least) 
two tauHghmus on Rs. 50. He was allowed in addition 
as many myo-sa-yes as he chose to take on himself. The rrttw-ships which are 
included in, or have contributed part to, the present Sagaing district are — 

Sagaing^ all except a small portion now assigned to Shwebo. 

Ava. 

Shwebo, part of ihc^ Myingaung-s]\'\^ of Sadaungand the Myingaung- 

ships of Pagu and Myaung. 
TalChnyo, the Al6-gyun. 
A Ion, a few small villages only. 

Nga-myo (the five towns), namely, Amyin, almost in its entirety, 
Payeinma, Kyaukyit, Nabet, and Allakappa of the Ywa-bu-gyi 
township. 

Nga-myo was afterwards reduced to the four towns Lemyo^ Allakappa 
being placed under a separate Wun, Maung Ku, who, on the English advance, 
resisted at Myingyan, under the Hleihin Aiwinwun and U Kyaw Gaung. 
Maung Ku afterwards took British service and '' after serving as Myook of 
Ayadaw, has now retired and is living in Myinmu," whilst U Kyaw Gaung 
went out as a dacoit and was caught and hanged in t888. 

Each township was also divided into three thauks, each of them under a 
thwethaukgyi. Shwebo, however, was divided into tracts each under a 
myingaung. The principal duty of the thwe-thaukgyi and myingaung was 
to maintain each his fixed contingent for the king's army. The only differ- 
ence seems to have been that the myingaung s men were tattooed on the 
small of the back, or on the right or left side with the figure of a horse, 
while the t hwe-t haukgyi' s were not marked in this way. It does not appear 
that the thve-thaukgyi or the myingaung had anything to do with the collect- 
ing of revenue. The thugyi collected the thathamcda and paid it in through 
the u'uns. Royal-land revenue was paid in by the ayadaw-vk. The officer 
who got the farm of the revenues of an island was called a kyun-Sk ; of 
land under a tank a kan-Ck, Each farmer paid a fixed rent for his farm 
— for example, the Myaung Royal lands were farmed for Rs. 5,000 annual 
rental, and the farmer made as much more out of it as he could. His 
subordinates the le-6k, and under them the legaung did the same, so that 
the cultivators paid a very great deal more than the amount that found its 
way into the King's coffers. The various ahmudans were all subordinated 
to their own Bo. Shan ahtnudan Bo also received sa-gyun palm-leaf orders 
tapered at the end into points — as ahmu of the village or tract where they 
were quartered. Thugyis as a rule were hereditary; thtce-thaukgyi, myin- 
gaung and ahmu were not so by right, but frequently were in reality. 

In the " Doomsday" drawn up by Bodaw Paya in 1145 BE. (1783 A.D.) 
and renewed in 1 164 B,E, (1S02 A.D), were shown all the details of heredi- 
tary officers, their villages, lands, and boundaries all carefully marked out, as 
were also the limits of the Royal lands. The duties to be discharged by 
ahmudan and the lands to be enjoyed by them in payment for their ser- 
vices were all set out in sit-lan. Most of these now only exist in uncertified 
copies. 



8 



58 



THE irppER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAG 



The village was liable as a whole for the thathameda revenue due from it, 
that is to say, ten times the number of rupees that there were families in the 
village. At first each family paid one rupee only. This was afterwards 
raised to three rupees and again to ten. The that h anted a -i^x was first im- 
posed by Mind6n Min. Many exemptions were granted and the number of 
families was never properly checked. The money seems to have been raised 
without difficulty. Thug)'is were paid for collecting it, at first by receiving 
tracts of Royal land, rent-free {fhugyisa), and afterwards by ten per cent. 
commission on collections. Transit duties of five per cent, ad valorem were 
levied on all staples except rice. River duties of four annas and a pyi of rice 
per man were payable by each boat passing Kyauktal6n. 

Under British rule the present district of Sagaing existed as two districts* 
... . . , Sagaing and Ava, from the time of the Annexation up to 

Annexation^. *^^ ^S^^ January 18S9, when they were amalgamated with 

one. Since then a small township has been made over to 
the Lower Chindwin district and a fertile island taKen over from Pak6kku. 
The district is administered by a Deputy Commissioner, with an Akunwun and 
Treasury Officer, three Subdivisional Officers and seven Township Officers. 
The ex-wuns, except Maung Mu, have declined to take service under the 
British Government, but a taunghmu with the title of witn and an official 
who served the Burmese Government as a Myook are serving now as Town- 
ship Officers. The thwe-thaukgyi, myingaung, ayadaw'6k, kyun-6k, kau- 
6k, and ahntudan of all kinds have of course lost office, but the office of 
thug}'i remains, and is very often held by the same incumbent as in Burmese 
times. 

Ahmudan-sa and other land held under the Burmese regime on condition 
of rendering public service now fall under the category of State-land, if still 
enjoyed by the original assignees or their descendants. Administration is 
still in a transition state. The old form of taxation known as thathameda is 
maintained. The farming of Royal lands has been abolished, but no system 
to replace it has as yet been elaborated. All transit and custom duties are 
at an end, but fees on limestone and salt arc collected. Excise, fishery 
and ferry revenues are farmed, the farms being auctioned. Land is now 
either State or private. The right of acquiring ownership by squatting 
(Dhanima-ucha) is now at an end. AH waste land is Statr land, Service 
lands become State or private according to the decision come to in the parti- 
cular case. 

The administration of civil and criminal justice in Burmese times offers no 
. . distinctive peculiarities. It was similar to that exercised 

•'" ' throughout the King's dominions. Under British rule 

justice is administert-d by the Commissioner of the Sagaing Division, who is 
a Sessions Judge ; one Disirict Judge, who is also District Magistrate ; three 
Subdivisional Officers and Magistrates of the first class, one of whom is 
Additional Judge of the District Court ; seven Township Officers, ordinarily 
with second class powers ; and one Treasury Officer with third class Magis- 
terial powers. The ywatftugyi, or village headman, has ordinary criminal 
powers under the Upper Burma Village Regulation. Of these there arc 
three hundred and ninety-one, of whom seventeen h.nve special criminal, and 
twenty-one civil powers. Ywathugyis' criminal powers are not mucli exer- 
gised. In charge of the Civil Police there are a District Superintendent of 



SAC] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



59 



Police, an Assistant Superintendent of Police and three Inspectors. The 
Military Police employed in the district are part of the Lower Chindwin 
Battalion. 

Village headmen also have some of the powers of arrest of police officersj 
and the regular polico depend much on them for working out investigations- 
There is as ytt no jail. There is a police lock-up at Sagaing and others at the 
various police posts. 

Besides the usual district headquarters \_v. Sagaing town] olTicial buildings 

there arc at Sagaing diik and Public Works Department 

Government build- bungalows. Post offices ha^ e been established at Sagaing, 

'"^^ Tada-u, Myotha, and .Myiomu, and telegraph offices at 

Sagaing, Mvolha and Mymmu The Ava subdivision was crossed by the 
king's telegraph wire, and is now crossed by the British line. Sagaing town is 
administered by a Municipal Committee and one was started also at Myinmu, 
but has since been abolished. An account of the municipal revenue is given 
under Sagaing town. 

Revenue \v. also The revenue estimated to have been collected in Burmese 
preceding head; times was Rs. 90,000 from thathameda in .Sagaing, and 

(.1) In Burmese Rs. 70,000 in Ava. For Myinmu there are no estimates 
''"'^- available. Ten thousand rupees was ihe estimated reve- 

nue in Sagaing from Royal lands, including fisheries and tree tax. 

In Ava the amount received was fcmrteen thousand rupees. The amount 
paid varied from three to twelve rupees per pe, according to the quality of 
the soil. This was nearly all paid out, or assigned as service remuneration, 
to the nhmit.ititt. The Sagaing customs duties were paid in Mandalay. In 
Ava fifteen thousand rupees was the estimated collection. Duties were 
leviable on earth-oil, forest produce, betel-nut, tea, pickled tea, jade, wax, 
Indian-rubber, salt, gold, tobacco, jaggery, garden produce, vegetable oil and 
ivory. 

(6) After the In the year 1886-87 the revenue actually collected in 
Sagaing was— 



Annexation. 



Land revenue ... ... 

Stamps 

Kxci.se • 

Law and justice 
Police 

Receipts in aid of sitperannualion and compas- 
sionate aliovvancLS. 
Miscellaneous 
Civil works 



Total 



(c) In 1887-88. 

Land revenue 

.Stamps 

lixcise 

Law and justice— Courts of law 

Law and jiiiiice— Jails 

Police 

Medical ... 



Rs. 

1,67,640 

580 

40 

17.190 

1,830 

30 

2.940 
6.770 

1,97,010 



Rs 

3,93,230 
2,4 10 

3>«90 
16,960 

10 
5.«S0 

19 



6o 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAG 



Receipts in aid of superannuation and compas- 
sionate allowances. 
Miscellaneous 
Civil works ... ... •. 



Total 



(d) In 1888-89- 

House-tax 

Miscellaneous 

Fisheries 



(•) 1895-96- 

Thathameia 

State-land rent 

Fisheries 

Water-rate 

Ferries 

Stamps 

Excise 

Salt 

Other receipts 



{f) 1896-97— Famine year — 

ThathatHBda 

State land rent 

Fisheries 

Water-rate 

Ferries 

Stamps 

Excise 

Salt 

Other receipts 



Total 



Total 



Total 



Rs. 

20 
9,410 
9^70 

3.38.950 



Rs. 
2,36.360 
4,210 
10,790 

2.51.360 



Rs. 

4.48,576 

534>3 

45.693 

668 

8.463 

18,526 

6.174 
2,070 
4.266 



5.87.849 




4.39.279 



The district funds are raised from bazaar rents and fees, ferries ^ (v. sub- 
trade routes, supra) and a few miscellaneous items. The income, including 
the opening balance, was as follows : — 



Year. 



1887-88 
1888-89 
1889-90 




Expenditure. 



Rs. 4. p. 

Nil 
2,831 3 o 

35.755 «» 7 



Buddhist monastic schools are found, as throughout Burma, generally all 
J . over the district. There are about one hundred and fifty 

indigenous schools (lay and monastic) that receive grants- 
in-aid from Government. 



SAG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



6i 



The instruction includes reading, writing, arithmetic, Burmese grammar 
and geography. The kindergarten system is being introduced into those 
schools which teach up to or beyond the fourth standard. 

The most conspicuous of these schools are those conducted by U-thi-la of 
Sagaing, U-ah-dissa of Allakappa, and Maung Shauk To of M}otha, They 
are graded to the seventh standard, and the two former have been successful 
in passing pupils under that standard. Pupils from these schools are being 
employed by the Education Department as certificated assistant teachers. 

The total amount of grants paid in this year (1897) ^^ ^^^ whole district 
was Rs. 5,375-12-0. There are eight certilicated teachers emplo}ed, namely, 
one itinerant teacher for each township and one teacher permanently attach- 
ed to Maung Shauk To's lay school, at Myotha. Eighteen pupil teachers 
receive allowances from Government. There is an American Baptist Anglo- 
Vernacular school in Sagaing {z'. sufira). 

The Municipal school at Sagaing was first started in August 1892 and it 
has since been progressing steadily. The establishment at present costs 
Rs. 220 monthly. The strength of the school is sixty-eight pupils and it 
teaches up to the seventh standard. The Roman Catholic school at Nabet 
was registered by the Education Department in 1887, when English was taught 
according to the department rules. The amount of grants gained was Rs. 
500. !n 1893 the school was struck ofT the list. At present the pupils in 
attendance are forty boys and thirty girls. The English language is not 
taught now. The school has two assistant teachers whose yearly pay is 
Rs. 100 and Rs. 80 respectively, paid by the mission funds. The present 
Superintendent is Mr. E. Faulquire, who is in charge of similar schools in 
Myingyan, Pak6kku, Minbu and Magwe. 

There is another Roman Catholic school at Chaungu under Father Jirang, 
which has about twenty pupils. 

A survey school was opened in Sagaing on the ist March 1890. The 
number of pupils is forty-four (1897), °^ whom thirty-six are sons or relatives 
of tkugyis. Eighteen are from the Sagaing subdivision, eleven from Myinmu, 
three from Ava, and twelve from the Lower Chindwin district. 

The history of the district from the time of the destruction of the Pagan 
monarchy under Talokpyi J/i>i, and the establishment of 

History in Bur- jj,g shan Kings at Panya and Sagaing and of the Shan- 
mcsc nines. Burmese Kings at Ava (founded 1364 .'X.D.) is the history 

of Burma [y. sub. Sagaing town.] 

It is said that the Myinsaing where the eldest of the three brothers who 
established the Shan dynasty, first set up his authority, before Panya was 
built, is not the Myinsaing some six miles south-ea.st of Chaung-ywa, which 
until lately h;is been completely deserted, but the Myinsaing in the Kyauksi 
district. After the destruclion of Panya and Sagaing by Thadomin-paya in 
1364 A.D., and the erection of Ava to be the capital, that city remained the 
capital of the country until 1781, when Bodawpaj'a removed the centre of 
government to Amarapura. Ava again became the capital in Ba-gyidaw's 
reign, from 18 tg to 1837, ^"^ was then finally abandoned. In the rebellion 
of the Padein and Myingun Princes in Mindon Min's reign, a large part of 
Shwcbo, including part of Sadaung, now in Sagaing subdivision, followed the 
former Prince, and all Alegyun (then under Talokmyo, now in Myinmu sub- 



62 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



(SAC 



division) threw in its lot with the latter. On the suppression of the rebellion 
the property of leading rebels, including their land, was confiscated to the 

Crown. 

In Thibaw's reign the notorious dacoit HIa U ravaged all Myinniu sub- 
division. In the Ava subdivision Bo Po T61t was the Taingda AtingyCs jackal 
and freebooter and paid him a handsome income. Sagaing itself was in the 
same state, disturbed by many dacoits. 

Upon the Annexation, when all semblame of obedience to headquarters 

vanished, whether to the Hluidaw during the interreg- 

After the Annex- pu,,!, or from ist January iS86 to the British Government, 

eailie lo'w^n^ ^^ *" every little group of villages elected its own bo^ to protect 

it from its neighbours, or to attack them. The greater 

number acted quite independently of one another in resistance to the British. 

They preyed on villages which had come in and on rival bo' s villages with 

perfect impartiality and, except some few who made speedy submission, were 

the dacoit leaders whom it took three years to suppress. 

The first resistance on the Sagaing side was under a pretender called the 
Kyun-nyo Mintha, who collected a very large rabble about Kaung-hmudaw 
and the villages between it and Sagaing. After two defeats he fled west and 
was killed by another predatory band beyond Ywathit-gyi. In Ava there 
were two princes known as Teittin Yanbaing and Teittin Yannaing. In 
Myinmu, the Saw Yannaing Prince, Kyaw Gaung, *A-Tal6k-myo wun, and Hla 
U were the principal leaders of resistance. Generally speaking it may be 
said that during 1886 the struggle was with large and powerful gangs that 
occasionally made a stand. The sympathy of the people was then largely 
with them, and Government had little authority outside its posts or beyond 
the neighbourhood of its columns. 

During 1887 the large gangs were broken up and their place was taken by 
smaller ones. These had still a strong hold on certain villages, but many 
other villages were submitting. In these they tried to maintain their influ- 
ence by terrorism, dacoity, torture and murder. It was a year of hardly any 
open fighting, of many violent crimes, of endless pursuit of ever-concealed 
outlaws. To say the truth, the outlaws with their system of terrorism main- 
tained themselves little, if at all, reduced in numbers. 

Further detail by the supersession of dacoity in the district are given in 
Part I. The district is now as uniformily graceful as any in Upper Burma. 
The following were the most notable dacoits in Burmese times : — 



(1) NgaHlaU. 

(2) Nga Nyo U. 

(3) Nga Nyo Nyo Mpu. 
{4) Nga Min O. 

(5) ^'ga Po Sin. 

(6) Nga Po Ni 

(7) NgaPa-gyi. 

(8) NgaToLu. 

(9) Nga Htun. 

(10) Nga Sfe. 

(11) NgaYo. 



(12) Nga Yan Min. 

(13) Nga HmvaGa-Ie. 

(14) Nga Po t6k alias Po Wa. 

(15) Nga Lu Pe. 

(16) Nga Lu Ngwfe. 

(17) Nga Aung Yan. 
(iS) Nga Tha Hka. 

(19) NgaShwe Kyun. 

(20) Nga Sein Bin. 

(21) Nga Pyu B6n. 

(22) Nga Lu Paing. 



SAOl 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



63 



AH these continued their freebooting under our rule and were joined by 
the following : — 



(i) Nga Ng\v& Yin. 

(2) Nga Saw. 

(3) ^^ga Kj'aw Gaung. 

(4) Nga Paw Win. 

(5) Nga Tha Htun. 

(6) NgaGok. 

(7) Nga Le Myo. 

(8) Nga Tha Pwe. 

(9) Nga Kyaw Wa. 

(10) Nga Shwc Hla Gyi. 

(11) NgaT6k. 
(li) Nga Yaing. 

(13) Nga Chwft. 

(14) Nga Ngvve Hmun 

(15) Nga PoTha. 

(16) Nga Thu Yin. 



(17) Nga Htun Hla. 
{18) Nga Kya Gaing. 
(ig) Nga Ne Htun. 

(20) Nga Tha Gyi. 

(21) Nga Kyu. 

(22) Nga Tha. 
{23) Nga An Gyi. 

(24) Nga Lu O. 

(25) Nga Po Hlaing. 

(26) Nga Hkan Gyi. 

(27) Nga San Hko. 
(28 j Nga Saung. 

(29) Nga Eik. 

(30) Nga Shan 

(31) Nga Hte. 

(32) Nga U Gaudama. 



Pagodas. 



(33) Hmati Prince Teittin Hmat. 

A list of notable pagodas is given under the head o 
Sagaing town. 

The chief spirits worshipped dwell, as far as their shrines are concerned- 

„ . . , . out of the district. The Bad6n tiat, who lives at Alon, 

" ' "■ requires the attendance of all the people along the Chin- 

dwln river at his annual festival. The penalty for non-attendance is liability 

to be smitten with lepros}'. 

Many Sagaing peoy>le attend the festival of the Shwepyin-gyi and the 
Shwepyin-ga-le at Taungby6n in the Madaya subdivision of Mandalay district, 
{q. v.). The penalty for failure to worship and present gifts is liability to in- 
curable disease. 

The Etn-saungy the household spirit, or Min Magari, is worshipped, as he 
is all over Burma, by hanging a cocoanut on the u-yu taing or main post of 
the house, which is covered with a red cloth. Sometimes the cloth is white. 
Daily offerings are made. 

The nat called Myin-byu-shin, the spirit of a faithful servant of King Anaw- 
ra-hta-zaw (A.D. loio — 1057), is much reputed. His nat-sinox slirinc occu- 
pies a prominent position in many villages, especially inthe Ava subdivision. 

The following account of a ceremony performed at M6nyo village in 
August 1897 was obtained from the Township Officer of Padu. After choos- 
ing the largest tan.arind tree to the west of tiie village, and naming it 
the Monat Ma-gyibin (i.e , the haunt of the naf who controls the rain), the 
villagers proceeded to surround it with sand ai.d to prepare offerings; these, 
consisting of white bread, red bread, cocoanuts, plantains, fowls, male and 
female, boiled in parts designated also as male and female, were collected 
and divided into thirty-seven portions, of which one was offered to the nai 
that watched over the village, and one to the tint that gives the rain. This 
ceremony of oblation lasted from seven in the morning till noon. The fol- 
lowing prayer was then made " O Lord ««/, have pity on us, poor mortals, 
and stay not the rain. Inasmuch as our offering is given ungrudgingly let 



64 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



(SAG 



the rain (all night and day." After the food offered had been cast away for 
the beasts, along with a basket of rice and another of paddy, accompanied 
by further prayers for the much desired rain, libations were made in honour 
of the nat of the tamarind trre. Later on, at three in the afternoon, ten 
fdngyis, who had been invited to a suitable spot in the middle of the village, 
after receiving the gifts due to them from laymen, offered up the prayer for 
rain known as the ' Nga Van Min,' which was echoed by the assembled de- 
votees. Finally at sunset the following rite was performed. Three women, 
of about the age of sixty, dressed in fine clothes, and wearing necklace and 
earrings, came forth bearing a '' Waba Chin" (or basket in which cotton 
is placed) and sang the Rain Song. This concluded the ceremony and all 
that remained to be done was to wait for the rain. 

Another method is sometimes resorted to : two ropes are fastened to a 
stick and held by different persons, who pull alternately; but as this device 
is apt to engender disputes it is considered to be of less efficacy in appeasing 
the offended nats than the former one. 

SAGAING. — A subdivision of the district of that name in the Sagaing 
division. It is bounded on the north by an arbitrary line dividing It from 
Shvvebo district; on the east and south by the Irrawaddy river; and on the 
west by the Mu river. 

It is marked by a range of limestooe hills running parallel and close to the 

j^ . , Irrawaddy on the east ; by a similar line of hills following 

the course of the Mu on the west ; and by a third line, 
running likewise north and south, through the centre of the subdivision; a 
LTOss line of hills from east to west divides it into two distinct portions. 
The highest point is in the Irrawaddy range, where a peak above Mingun 
rises to a height of 1.373 ^'^'^t- 

The intersection of the Irrawaddy and central ridges by the cross range is 
. marked by a large and deep depression, which forms the 

Yemyet-/"M. After heavy rain this lake covers an area of 
ten miles from north to south and three from east to west. In the hot weather, 
particularly after a light rainy season, it is all but dry. The neighbouring 
soil is impregnated with salt and the water cf the lake is correspondingly 
brackish. For this reason irrigation cannot be carried on from the Yemyet- 
i"n, nor can its bed be cultivated. The intersection of the Mu and central 
ranges by the cross ridge forms a similar sheet of water, called the Thazin- 
i«, which is about two miles square. Between the Mu river range and the 
river itself, there are a series of these lagoons or broads, the Inza, Zayatpyu, 
Thai:in, L^-gyi, and others of smaller extent. A similar phenomenon marks 
the banks of the Irrawaddy, where the chief in are at Kaung-hmudaw, Nga- 
tayaw, and Ywathit-gyi. AH these are of considerable area and depth after 
the rains and river Hushes, but shrink as the dry season advances, natural 
evaporation being greatly accelerated by the quantity of water which is drawn 
off for mayin rice cultivation. 

The subdivision is divided into the townships of Sagaing, with its head • 
quarters at the capital town, and Sadaung, with headquarters at Padu. • 

SAGAING. — A township of the subdivision and district of the same name, 
is bounded by the north by the Sadaung township and on the west by the 
Myinmu subdivision of Sagaing district, on the east and south by the Irra- 
waddy river. The headquarters of the township are at Sagaing town. 



SAG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



65 



SAGAING. — The headquarters of the Sagaing Division and of the Sa- 
gaing district, subdivision and township, is the terminus on the right bank 
of the Irrawaddy river of the Mu Valley and Myitkyina Railway. Sagaing 
was constituted a Municipality on the 5th April 1888. 

The public buildings are the office of the Commissioner, Central Division, 

P M" h M* '^^ Deputy Commissioner's court-house and ofhces, 

^' ' " ' Post and Telegraph offices, a lock-up and police 

tkana, dak and Public \\'orks Department bungalows, Military Police 

lines and hospitals, and a Settlement office. 

There were one thousand five hundred and eighty-seven houses Sn the 
town in 1897. 

The old city walls were very strongly and substantially built of large and 
j^ . J well-burnt bricks. All the ground north-east of ihe 

town must have been at one time covered with pagol 
das, for the soil is full of bricks. There are, however, no remains of the 
old Palace visible. Sagaing, like Ava, was in Burmese times rather a col- 
lection of little villages than a town, and the only part of it at all resembling 
western ideas of a town was the f^yilSn-an quarter, where the merchants 
used to live, and this was near the only spot where steamers can put in at 
all times of the year. 

The Irrawaddy circles round the town on the east, south, and west and 
in flood covers all the low land to the north also. A considerable portion of 
the town itself was also, until 1S89, under water during flushes, so that the 
place had the appearance of a partially submerged peninsula during the 
rains. The result of such ample moisture on an alluvial soit is seen in 
great luxuriance of vegetation. The same abundance of magnificent tama- 
rind trees which is so striking in Ava is noticeable in Sagaing also. Until 
1889 the town was literally choked and buried in vegetation. Since then, 
however, great changes have been made. The old walls have been broken 
down and converted into wide roads. The river has been bunded out, and 
much new land has been taken up and cleared. Substantial houses have 
been built and have made a town out of what was before a mere congeries 
of hamlets. The advent of the railway caused further changes, as it was 
necessary to clear away whole quarters, among them that which was occu- 
pied by the trading community in Burmese times, to make room for the 
Shore station. 1 he railway was opened from Sagaing to Shwebo in June 
iSgi and has now been continued north to Myitkyina. 

Sagaing is one of the prettiest and appears also to be one of the healtlii- 
est and coolest places in Upper Uurma. The sick 
""^ ^ rate of the Military, while troops held the town, and 

of the Military Police since that time has been remarkably low. Only two 
months, April and May, are really hot; and even In these twc. months the 
average maximum temperature is und<='r 100° Fahrenheit. During the rains 
high winds blowing over the wide waters of the flooded river keep the air 
cool and pleasant. 

To the already long mixed population of Burmans, Burmanized Mussul- 

„ , .. mans, Manipuris, Shans, Talaines and Chinese has 

Population. . jj J • .k A •• -J lT 

been added, suice the Annexation, a considerable 

colony of Hindustani shop-keepers. There \» also no small number of 

Madrassis, and Uriyas, with some Upper India coolies. Noticeable in Sa- 



66 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tSAG 



gaing, besides its rich fruit and flower gardens and its indigo fields, is the 
large manufacture of silk. The silk is imported, but Sagaing woven tameins 
are especially famous. 

The Sagaing Municipality supports itself mainly on bazaar rents and 
_. „ .. fees and a municipal tax on lands. The income for 

unicip 1). i8g6-g7 amounted to Rs 23,647 and the expenditure 
to Rs. 21,396. Of the latter amount over Rs, 2,oro was devoted to lighting, 
the same sum to police, nearly Rs. 4,000 to conservancy, Rs. 2,650 to 
hospitals, upwards of Rs. 3,000 to roads, and nearly Rs. 2,000 to the Mu- 
nicipal school. 

As a capita] Sagaing dates from A.D. 1315 (:-. infra) when Athin-khaya 

„. ._ ,. J . made himself independent of the Shan Kingdom of 
History ; the dynasties. r> u- j *. 1 i 1 r ^ • 1 u- 

ranya. His dynasty lasted torty-nine years and his 

grandson founded Ava and was the first king at that capital (Thadomin-paya, 
A.D. 1364). These dynasties were Shan, and Ava and Sagaing continued 
under Shan dominion until Payin Naung took Ava in 1534 A.D. 

From this time it remained under trihutary kings subject to the Ijurmese 
Emperors at Pegu, until the break up of the empire in 1 599 A.D. From Ava 
the Burman tributary King then extended his power over all Pegu and tcx>k 
Syriam from the Portugese (.A.. D. 1613). The seat of empire was fixed at 
Ava by Thadu-dharama-yaza. 

The Talaings, however, took Ava in 1751 A.D. and retained it until they 
were driven out by Alaungpaya. fBefore this, in about A. D. 1733, the 
Manipuris had ravaged the country right up to Sagaing. There, however, 
they were checked by a stone stockade, though they had carried a similar 
erection at Kaung-hmudaw. 

Naung-dawgyi, the eldest son of Alaungpaya, fixed his capital at Sagaing 
(1760—63) but on his death Ava again became the royal city and the scat of 
empire never returned to Sagaing. 

At the Annexation, the occupation of Sagaing was marked by the death in 
action of Surgeon Heath and Lieutenant Cockerana. 
Burmese soldiery defended for a time the fort on the right 
bank of the river, which, with that at Ava and a third of 
the head of the reach between them, were to have prevented t!ie advance of 
the British force to Mandalay, aided as they were by boats sunk in the narrow 
river channel. But these positions were inadequately defended on the land 
side and were not conspicuous for strength on the river face either and they 
were taken by us as early as the 14th December 1885. The cx-Wun ol 
Sagaing joined the British and served for a short time, but soon withdrew into 
private life, and has since taken no part even in Municipal affairs. After the 
occupation Sagaing itself was never attacked by dacoits, though its scattered 
hamlets and dense jungle .seemed to court sudden surprises. 

The following account of the founding of Sagaing is taken from a Burmese 
chronicle : — 

'' Thinka Saw Yun or Saw Yun, the youngest son of Tasi Shin Thihathu, by 
, „. a daughter of the Linyin Tiiugyi, built the city and 

Legendary History, established the Kingdom of Sagaing in 677 B.E. (A.D. 
131 5). He reigned under the title of Thiri Athin-khaya from the age of 
tifteen. The manner in which he obtained the country is told uader Pinya 



After 
at ion. 



the Annex- 



SAG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



67 



ig.v.). He had four chitdrcn, the eldest, a daughter, Somin Kodawgyi, 
mother of Ihadomin-paya, who founded the city of Ava, and her brothers 
Kyawswa, Nawra-hla, and Tarabya-ngt^. Saw Yun formed a kind of regi- 
ment called the Sagnins; Taun^itlian, which was maintained up till the fall of 
the Burmese monarchy, and nine squadrons of cavalry, called respccti\ely— 

Strong. 



Tamakha myin 
I'yansi myir 
Ywa-da\A hmu myin 
Let-ywa-gyi myiii , 
I.ct-ywa-ngft myin . 
Chaungthin myin 
Myinthi-gyi myin 
HkatlAn myin . 

Sawput 



«5o 
150 

'50 
70 
50 
50 
30 

built the Zin- 



numbering in all eight hundred and thirty saddles. Saw Yun 

gin monastery at Sagaing. He was powerful, kindly, and popular ; reigned 

eight years ; and died at the early age of twenty-three." 

The following kings of his dynasty reigned in Sagaing: — 



Name. 


Burmese. 


A.D. 


Age on 
accession. 


Length of 
reign. 


Athin-khaya Saw Yun 


677 


1315 


».5 


8 years. 


His step brother Tarabya-gyi 


684 


132^ 


24 


14 do. 


His son Shwe-taungdal 


698 


1336 


IS 


3 do. 


Saw Yun's eldest son Kyawswa ... 


701 


1339 


22 


10 do. 


His brother Nawra-hta 


7n 


1349 


30 


7 months. 


His brother Tarabya-ng6 


711 


>349 


29 


3 years. 


His brother-in-law Minbyauk 


7U 


'35a 


4a 


13 do. 



In B.E. 726 (A.D. 1364), after the Kingdom had existed for forty-nine 
years, both Sagaing and Pinya were destroyed by the Shans. Three hundred 
and ninety-five years later, in 1759 A.D. , the present city, which has a circum- 
ference of two miles, was built to the north of the Daoavuii pagoda and 
became the capital again under Naungdawgyi, the eldest son of Alaung-paya. 
The old city, founded by Saw Yun, lay to the north of this site at a distance of 
two miles, to the east of the Zig6n-gyi and Yatana-seikstn-mva pagodas, north 
of the Zingin creek and in the centre of the Shweminwuntaung, near the 
Khawfe Taung. Its classical name was Zeyapura, the victorious city. 

The same chronicle gives the following account of how Sagaing got its name : 
" The last King of Tagaung, Thado Maha Yaza, had two twin sons by his chief 
" Queen, both of them born blind. They were called Maha-thanbwa and Sula- 
" thanbwa. The King was ashamed of this and told the mother that the child- 
'' ren must be destroyed privately. She, however, could not bring herself to 
•' order their death and had them brought up secretly until they were nineteen 
" years of age. The two princes were then discovered and the King had them 
'' placed on a boat amply supplied with provisions and set adrift on the river. 
''The boat on its way down touched a sit tree which overhung the river and 
** remained fast. Hence the name sit kaino^ which, though still so written, has 
" become corrupted in pronunciation to Sagaing. The princes, having fraed 



68 THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. isao 

" the boat, floated on to Saku and there they began miraculously to recover their 
" sight, an4 so the place got its name, which means '' the beginning of the 
" cure ;" thence they went on to Satin (the commencement of seeing), and con- 
" tinued their voyage until they reached a place where they met their uncle 
" who was living as a Yathc (hermit) ; they stayed with him for some time and 
" he gave his adopted daughter, Badayi, in marriage to the elder nephew, 
" Maha-thanbwa, who reigned there as King for six years : and after his death 
"the younger, Sulathanbwa, made Badayi his wife and became King in his 
" turn. After reigning thirty-five years he died and his son Dwottabaung suc- 
"ceeded him and founded the city of Thare-khetara, now called Prome. 
" Dwottabaung reigned seventy years and is remembered as one of the most 
"powerful and noteworthy of Burmese monarchs." 

p . The following list of pagodas in and near Sagaing is 

^^* given by the MyoCk Maung San Min. 



SAGl 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



69 



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76 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAG 



SAGA TINGSA, — A Kachin village in Tract No. 7, Bhamo district, 
situated in 23° 50' north latitude and 97° 29' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained thirty houses, with a population of eighty-six 
persons. The headman of the village has no others subordinate to him. 
The inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Lawhkum sub-tribe and own 
twelve bullocks and eight buffaloes. Five hundred baskets of paddy and 
a little tobacco are grown yearly. There is fair camping-ground, with water. 

SAGONWA or SAGONG.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 21, Myit- 
kyina district, situated in 25° 34' north latitude and 97° 41' east longi- 
tude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-one houses, with a population 01 eighty 
persons. The headman of the village has two others subordinate to him. 
The inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Sadan sub-tribe, and own tea 
buffaloes and one pony. 

SA-GU. — A township of the Minbu subdivision and district, is bounded 
on the north by the Logaing township, on the east by the Irrawaddy river, 
separating it from Magwe district, on the south by Pakokku district 
and on the west by the Nwa-mataung range, beyond which lies the Ngap6 
tonwship, 

A great part of the township to the east is irrigated by the Man river 
canal system, which existed in Burmese times and has recently been ex- 
tended. The non-irrigated tracts are entirely dependent for their crops on 
rain water and a timely rise in the streams, and when these fail many of 
the villagers emigrate to Lower Burma. 

The festival of the Shwe-zettaw pagoda is largely attended by pilgrims 
from all parts of Burma. 

The population of the township is Burmese, with the exception of a few 
natives of India. The headquarters are at Sagu, 

SA-GU. — The headquarters of the township of the same name in the 
Minbu subdivision and district. 

SAGUN.— A Kachin villageinTract No. 40, Myitkyina district, situated 
in a6° 36' north latitude and 96° 27' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses: its population was not known. The 
inhabitants are of the Sassan tribe. The headman has no others sub- 
ordinate to him. Parties of Chins come here every year for rubber, and 
they have a house in the village. 

SA-GWE.— 5"fi>ff under Sa Koi. 

SA-GYAN.— A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan sub- 
division and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand three hundred and 
twenty-five persons and the /Af7///<jffje'rfa amounted to Rs. 1,587. No land 
revenue was collected in the circle. 

SA-GYET. — A village in the Nga-singu township, Madaya subdivision of 
Mandalay district, north of Shwe-g6ndaing. 

The village has fifty-five houses, and its population numbered in 1893 
two hundred and tifty persons approximately. The villagers are fishermen 
and cultivators. 



SAG-SAI ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



77 



SAGYILAIN or LIMKAI. — A village of Chins of the Siyin tribe in the 
Northern Chin Hills. It stands on the Tanglieng spur of the Nilkorn 
range, and is reached by the mule-road from Fort While. 

The village is inhabited by the Limkai or Sagyilain clan of Siyins. In 
1884 it had ninety houses; the resident chief was Manl6n, Manlon is the 
chief of the clan, although his father is stijl living, and has a younger 
brother. Manlfln has visited Rangoon. There is abundant water-supply 
in the village. The best camp lies above the village and west of the 
burial-ground. 

SA-GYIN. — A village of eighty-four houses about eight miles north of 
Sagaing, in Sagaing district 

Wheat is extensively cultivated, but paddy-growing is not successful 
owing to the hardness of the soil. 

SA-GYIN NORTH. — A village in the Nga-singu township, Madaya sub- 
division of Mandalay district. 

It has one hundred and seventy houses, with a population of seven 
hundred persons, on an approximate calculation, made in 1897. The vil- 
lagers are cultivators and sculptors. Rubies are found in the Sagyin hills 
and alabaster is also quarried. 

SA-GYIN SOUTH. — A village in the Nga-singu township, Madaya sub- 
division of Mandalay district. 

The village had one hundred and ten houses, with a population of five 
hundred persons, as ascertained from an approximate calculation made in 
1897. The villagers are cultivators and sculptors. 

SA-GYIN SON-BAING. — A village in the S6nniyo circle, Nga-singu 
township, Madaya subdivision of Mandalay district, north of Sa-gyin. 

The village had twenty-five houses, with a population of one hundred 
perons, on an approximate calculation made in 1897. The villagers are 
cultivators and coolies. 

SA-GYIN-WA. — A village in the Ngido revenue circle, Amarapura 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, two miles south-south-west 
of headquarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and sixty persons at the census of 
1891 and paid Rs. 470 thathameda-\.&^. 

SA-GYU. — A revenue circle in Myingyan township, subdivision, and 
district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three hundred and ninety-three 
persons and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 891. No land revenue was 
collected in the circle. 

SAI LEIN. — One of the largest of the Palaung circles in the Kodaung 
township of Ruby Mines district, containing thirty Palaung and twenty- 
four Kachin villages. The Kachins predominate north of the Shweli and 
the Palaungs on the south. The headman is known as the Sai Lein Kin 
and lives at Sai Lein, a village on a high ridge about twenty miles south- 
west of Nam Kham. In 1892-93 a Military Police post was established at 
Sai Lein lor the dry weather, but it was found to be not sufficiently central 
to supervise the Kodaung. 



a 



78 



THE UPPER Burma gazetteer. 



[SAI 



SAILENG. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 29, Katha district, situated 
in 24° 45' north latitude and g6° 30' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-five houses, with a population of eighty per- 
sons. The headman of ihe village has no others subordinate to him. 
The inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Hpunkan sub-tribe, and own 
five bullocks and six bufTaloes. There is good camping-ground and a plen- 
tiful supply of water. 

SAING-BYIN NORTH.— A village in the Mayagan township, Yc-u sub- 
division of Shwebo district, sixteen miles from Ve-u. 

The population numbers three hundred and thirty-three persons, and is 
chiefly engaged in rice cultivation. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 5ga • 

SAING-BVIN SOUTH. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u sub- 
division of Shwebo district, with a population of (our hundred and fifty-five 
persons, chiefly paddy-cultivators. 

There are Civil and Military Police posts in the village. The thathameda 
revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 990. 

SAING-DS). — A revenue circle and village with three hundred and ninety- 
three inhabitants in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district. It 
lies in the Sc-ywa-gyaung valley, on the banks of the Patolon chaung^ 
which runs from south to north between the Pfindaung and Mahudaung 
ranges in the west of the district. 

Paddy is grown extensively. The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to 
Rs. 690 from thathameda. The Eastern PatoI6n Forest Reserve, 206 
square miles in area, forms the eastern boundary of the circle. 

SAING-DU. — A village in the Min-ywa circle, Ku-hna-yvva township, 
Gangaw subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population of three hundred 
and twenty-six persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 950 for 1S97-98. 

SAING-GAUNG— A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, 
Pagan subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and fifty persons and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 189. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

SAING-GAUNG.— A village in the Saing-gaung circle, Myaing township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
eight persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 660 for 1897-98. 

SAINGGON. — A Kachin village in Tract No. i, Bhamo district, situated 
in 24° 13' north latitude and 96° 49' cast longitude. 

It contained thirty-six houses in 1892, with a population of one hundred 
and sixty-four persons. The inhabitants are Shan-Burmese and Burmese, 
and own no cattle. The headman has no others subordinate to him. 

S.'MNG-IN.— A village in the Nga-kwe circle, Seikpyu township, Pakftkku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and twenty-nine 
persons, according to the census of 1S91, and a revenue of Rs. 540. 



SAt-SAK] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER 



SAING-KIN. — A village of fifty-one houses on the Tapin chaung, in the 
Bhamo subdivision and district. 

The villagers owned fifty buffaloes and work a large area of mayin and 

kaukkyi paddy. 

SAING-LA-YAor SAING-YA. — A revenue circle, with nine hundred and 
seven inhabitants, in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district. It Is 
situated in the south of the township, at some distance from the North Yama 
chaung. 

The villages included in the circle are S.iing-la-ya, Pauk-taik, Nyaung- 
gaing and Chaungzdn. The chief crops are paddy and jovear. The reve- 
nue for i896'97 amounted to Rs. 2,010 from thathameda and Rs. 133 from 
State land. 

SAING NAING. — A village on the Nan Ten chaung, in the Mogaung 
subdivision o* Myitkyina district. 

It has twelve houses of Marip Kachins, who practise le and taungya 
cultivation. 

SAINON. — A village of China of the Tashon tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies four miles north-east of Bowtsun, and can be reached by the 
road to Botung. The inhabitants are Norhs, tributary to F"alam. The 
village was disarmed in 1S92 and 1893, and was punished for refusing to 
supply coolies in 1892. In 1894 it had eighty houses: Huplien was its 
resident chief. 

SAIYAN.— A village of Chins of the S6kte tribe in the Northern Chin 
Hills. 

It lies seven miles south-west of Tiddim and five miles west of Dimlo 
post, at a height of 2,300 feet above the bed of the Manipur river, and is 
reached from Tiddim along the Dimlo (Government) road for three miles to 
the cross roads, thence along an improved Chin track with a gradual 
descent, winding above Losow and Philian and passing through Chinnwe. 

In 1894 it had seventy houses: the resident chief was Pumtong. 

The inhabitants belong to the Hwelnum, Tawmte, and Somput families 
and are subordinate to Dokiaung, Chief of the S6ktes. The village was 
destroyed by troops in March 1889 and was disarmed in 1893. '^ 'i^s 
camping-ground (at 4,700 feet) for a large force, just above and command- 
ing the village. Water is procured from a stream which runs through the 
village, the supply is small and is collected in holes in the bed of the stream. 
A more convenient camp is at Chinnwe village close by, as Chinnwe and 
Taiyan are practically one village. 

SA-KA. — A revenue circle and village in the south-east of the Salin-gyi 
township, Palfe subdivision of Lower Chindwin district. 

It lies on low ground at a distance of about a quarter of a mile from the 
right bank of the Chindwin river. 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 681 and the population num- 
bers six hundred and eighty-one persons. 

SA-KA. — A village in the Kyaw circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, Gangaw 
subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population of thirty-three persons, 
according to the census of 1S91. 



8o 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tSAK 



The thathameda amounted to Rd. 460 for 1897-98. 

SA-KAN. — A village in the Sa-kan circle, Seikpyu township, PakAkku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and ninety-eight 
persons, according to the census of l8^I. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 130 for 1897-98. 

SA-KAN-GYI. — A circle in the Maymyo township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, on the old pass to Yankintaiing and Mandalay, including 
a single village, situated tsvelve miles west of Maymyo. 

It had a population of two hundred and sixty-one persons at the census 
of 1891. 

The thathameda paid in i8g6 amounted to Rs. 240. Shan paddy is culti- 
vated. 

SA-KAN-MA. — A circle in the Natmauk township of M^we district 
including the villages of Tanbing6n, Okshitmyaung, Sakan-mak6u-ga-le 
and Ded6kk6n. 

SAKAP. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 37, Myitkyina district, situated in 
25^ 34' north latitude and 97"* 32' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses : its population was unknown. The 
headman has no other, subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of the Lah- 
tawng tribe. 

SAK.\T. — A village of ten houses of Lahtawng Kacbins, on the west 
bank of the Irrawaddy river, north of Myitkyina in Myitkyina district. 

The inhabitants came originally from Naunglan, about eighty years ago. 
They work tartn^ya and have no cattle. 

SAKAW. — A Chinese village of eighteen houses in the Ko-kanj Trans- 
Salween circle of North Hsen Wi (Tliein-ni) Northern Shan State. It 
stands at an altitude of 5,500 feet among the grassy undulating hills north 
of Satisu, the chief town of the circle. 

There were fifty-seven inhabitants in l8gi, who owned a number of bul- 
locks and buffaloes and cultivated some sixty acres of irrigated paddy-land, 
half a mile south of the village, besides stretches of hill rice and opium on 
the slope of the hills towards Taw Nio. Opium is very plentiful and sells 
for si.x rupees the viss. 

SA-KAW. — A village on the north bank of the Indaw chaung in the Mo- 
gaung subdivision of Myitkyina district. 

The village was burnt down in 1897 in an accidental fire, and the people 
migrated temporarily to the hill about one mile to the north, where the 
Kachin village of Sa-kaw stands. They are now re-lniilding their old village 
near the water. Sa-kaw has twenty-four houses and forty- five buffaloes, but 
no bullocks; l^ is worked; forty ba.skcts of seed-grain in 1896 yielding 
nine hundred and fifty-five baskets. The road from Kamaing to Kan- 
yaseik passes through Sa-kaw. 

SA-KOl (Burmese Sa-gwfe). — A State in the Central division of the 
Southern Shan States, with an area of one hundred and two square miles. 
It is bounded on the north by Sain Ika and Nam Tok, on the east by 
Gantarawadi and Ilsa Htung; on the south by MongPai, and on the west 
by Mong Pai and Loi Long. These boundaries are practically the same as 
they were in Burmese times. 



SAK] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



8i 



Nearly the whole of the State lies in the valley of the Pilu or Balu river 
and is more or less a paddy plain, rising in a gentle slope to the hills. 

The Nam Pilu is the only navigable stream and is only so for small dug- 
outs, owing to the river being dammed for the purpose of irrigation which is 
effected chiefly by water-wheels. There are no forests, and indeed there 
is not much jungle of any kind in the State. In the cold weather, like 
Sam Ka, Sa-Koi is enveloped in dense fogs till late in the morning. The 
raiafallj like that of most of the Shan valleys, is estimated at about sixty 
inches. 

Paddy js practically the only crop in this State : what little garden latjci 
there is is sown with miscellaneous country vegetables, plantains and sugar- 
cane, all used entirely for home consumption. The greater part of the 
plain is irrigated by means of water-wheels from the Balu stream and yields 
from twenty to twenty-five-fold of the seed sown. The Red Karens have 
more primitive methods of cultivation and only average ten-fold. Taungya 
paddy is also grown in small patches. 

Land under cultivation — Acres. 

Lowl\ing paddy ... ... ... ... 400 

Taungya ... ... ... ... loo 

Cattle — Number. 



Buffaloes ... ... ... ... 

Cows 

Pack bullocks 


239 

156 

7' 


Prices of produce — 




Rice per too baskets, Rs. 2oO to Rs. ^50. 
Paddy per loo baskets, Rs. 70 to Rs. 80. 




Population in 1898 — Male. Female. 


Total. 


Adults ... ... 497 555 

Non-adults ... ... 336 3^4 


1,052 

660 


Grako Total 


1,712 



The population has increased considerably during the last few years owing 
to the return of old residents. The households in the State now number- 
Numbers. 

Shans ... ... ..• ... ij07S 

Taungthus ... ... ... ... 4^ 

Inthas ... ... ... ..• 17 

Talaings ... ... .. ... 27 

Red Karens ... ... ... ... 544 



Tola! 



1,712 



Besides Sa-Koi, which has only thirty-four hous.s, there are no villages cf 
any size. There are a few over twenty houses, the chief being the Shan 
village of Wan Ku, with thirty-two houses ; the Shan village of Kyern 
Teng, twenty-five houses, and the Red Karen village of Mya Li, with 
twenty-one houses. None of them is noted for any particular industry. 

There are no trades of any importance, though at one or two of the vil- 
lages earthen pots are made. 

A sum of Rs. 8 on Shans, Inthas and Taungthus and Re. 1 on Red 
Karens and Talaings is assessed on the same principle as the thathameda. 

11 



8a 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tSAL 



Sa-Koi is not, however, divided into circles, but is roughly divided according 
to races for convenience of assessment. Thf r^venne is collected by tnye- 
daings, who receive lo per cent, commission on their collections. 

The myoza conducts thp administration practically single-handed, beiag 
onlv aided by two tax-collectors and a myosaye who drafts his letters. 

Sa-Koi has practically no separate history. It was a sub-State nf Mdng Pa 
until the present myoza's father procured for himself the title nf myoza. He 
died in 1239 B.E. (1877) and his con Kun T6n became myoza, and was 
confirmed in charge by the British GovernmenL 

SALAZANG. — A villasfe of Chins of the Kanhow tribe in the Northern 
Chin Hills. It lies south-west of Tunzan and is reached by a road to 
Tunzan and thence via Puntong. In i8q4 it had thirty houses. 

The resident chief was Yankolyin. The people are Yds and Kanhows, 
and are subordinate to Howchinkup. The village has been disarmed. 
Water is brought in by leads and is abundant. 

SA-LE. — A township in the Pagan subdivision of Myingvan district, on the 
eastern banW of the Irrawaddy river. Its are!^ is approximately 500 square 
miles. Its boundaries are, on the rorththe Pagan township, on the south 
the Yenan-gyaung township of Magwe district, on the east, the Kyaakpadaung 
township, and on the west the Irrawaddy river. 

The number of revenue circles in the township in iRg6-Q7 was 44. 
The population is estimated to number thirtv-eight thousand eight hundr«?d 
and thirty-four persons. For 1895-06 the land revenue amounted to Rs. 
10,983, the thathampdn to Rs. 58,^93, and the gross revenue to Rs. 72,132. 
The township periodicallv suffers from scarcity as the rainfall is scanty and 
capricious, but the bulk of the population is savpd from acute distress by 
finding employment in the Yenan-gyaung nil-fields of Magwe district and hv 
migrating to Lower Burma. The soil is poor, but there is a considerable 
trade along the Irrawaddv river. Scssamum, pvaung and beans are the 
chief crops cultivated. The headquarters are at Sa-Ie. 

SA-LE. — A town in the Sa-le circle and township, Pagan subdivision of 
Myingyan district. It is situated on the eastern bank of the Irrawaddy river, 
about ten miles south of Singu, 

Sa-le is a port of call for steamers and is the centre of the trade of the 
greater part of the Sa-le township, of which it is the headquarters. The 
public buildings are a Civil Police post, a bazaar and a combined post and 
telegiraph office. Its chief industries are the manufacture of lacquer-ware 
and the stuffing of pillows and mattresses. 

It is of some repute as being the birth-place of U Ponna, the author 
of several well-known dramatic works in Burmese ; he was condemned f^ 
death by the King MindAn for being iniplicatpd in the Myingun Prince's 
rising, U P6nna's kyattftg at Sa-le has been burnt down, but the brick 
building in which he kept his library is still intact. 

The population in 1895-96 numbered three thousand and twenty-three 
persons and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 3,281. No land revenue was 
assessed in that year. 

SA-LE-GA-LE or SA-RE NAM-NGAW.— A Kachin village in Tract 
No. II, Bhamo district, situated in 34* 23' north latidude and 97° 29' easi 
lon^tude. 



SAL] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



83 



In 1892 it contained forty houses. The population was unknown. The 
inhabitants are of the 'Nkhuin tribe, and own no cattle. The headman 
has no others subordinate to him, Water is scarce and there is no good 
camping-ground. Sa-le-ga-le was fined all its guns in 1890-91 for an attack 
on a Chinese caravan in November i88g, at Mantow hill. 

SA-LE-KYUN. — A revenue circle in the Sa-lc township, Pagan subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three hundred and forty persons, 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 610, the State-land revenue to Rs. 566-4-0, 
and the gross revenue to Rs. 1,176-4-0. 

SA-LE-MYIN. — A circle in the Nga Singu township, Madaya subdivision 
of Mandalay district, north-cast of Yenatha, including five villages. 

Sakmyin village is situated east of Sa-le-Ywe. It has fifty houses and the 
population numbered in 1897 two hundred persons approximately. The vil- 
lagers are bamboo-cutters and cultivators. 

SALEN. — A village of Chins of the Klang-klang tribe in the Southern Chin 
Hills. It lies between Munlipi and Hripi, thirteen miles south-west of 
Twalam. 

In 1894 it had thirty-two houses. Lvenkum was its resident chief. The 
village, which is sometimes called Shankal, is not stockaded. It has good 
water-supply and camping-ground. It is under the influence of Haka, as 
Lvenkum is a brother of Vareng of Kotarr. 

SA-LE-YWA. — A revenue circle in the Sa-le township, Pagan subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

fn 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and fortv-five persons, 
and the thathameda anounled to Rs. 200. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

SA-LE-YWE. — A circle in the Nga Singu township, Madaya subdivision of 
Mandalay district, east of Yenatha, including four villages. 

SA-LE-YWE. — A village in the Sa-le-Ywc circle, Nga Singu township, 
Madaya subdivision of Mandalay district, east of Wet-ne-taung hill. 

It has one hundred houses and its population numbered in 1 897 four hundred 
persons approximately. The villagers are bamboo-cutters and cultivators. 

SA-LL— A circle in Mong Tung sub-State of Hsi Paw, Northern Shan 
States, under a nebaing, with an area of about ten square miles. 

The population in i8g8 numbered one hundred and forty-two persons, 
divided between thirty-five houses and five villages. The circle is bounded 
on the north and east by Man Nawng, on the south by Man Hawm, and on 
the west by suburbs of Mong Tung. 

The revenue paid in that year amounted to Rs, 273 with three hundred 
and ten baskets of paddy. Lowland paddy cultivation is the only industry. 

SA-LIM. — A Falaung village in the Mong Yu circle of the Northern 
Shan State of North Hsen Wi, situated in the hills west of M6ng Yu village. 

There were six houses in February 1892, with forty-four inhabitants, all 
Palaungs of the Humai branch. They cultivated hill-rice and a little cotton, 
besides tobacco and vegetables, 

SA-LIN.— A subdivision of the Minbu district, is bounded on the north by 
Pakfikku district, on the cast by the Irrawaddy river, separating it from 



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Magwe and Myingyan districts, on the south by the Minbu subdivision, and 
on the west by the Arakan Vonia. 

It includes the townships of Sa-lin, Kyabin and Siddktaya. The subdivi- 
sional headquarters are at Sa-lin. 

SA-LIN. — The most import int township in the Sa-lin subdivision of Minbu 
district, is bounded on the north by the Sa-lin chaung, separating it from the 
Kyabin township, on the east by the Irrawaddy, on the south by the M6n 
river and the Ligaing township, and on the west by the Sidoktaya town- 
ship. 

The country generally is flat. Scrfar as the crops are concerned it may 
be said to consist of three main tracts {(i) the riverain, {^) the irrigated 
and {c) the kuuya. The riverain and konya tracts call for no special de- 
scription. They are similar to those found in other districts bordering the 
Irrawaddy in Upper Burma. 

The most interesting feature of the township is its irrigation system, 
which dates far back into Burmese times. The main canal, known as the 
Myaungmadaw, derives its water from the Salin river, and is about eighteen 
miles in length : a large number of branch canals take off from it. These 
were formerly private property, but are now under the management of the 
Deputy Commissioner of Minbu. The total estimated area irrigated in Salin 
township is 22,133 acres. There are several fisheries and of these the ntiost 
important is that at Paunglin, which pays a revenue of from Rs. 6,000 to 
Rs. 7,000 a year. 

SALIN. — The headquarters town of the subdivision of that name in the 
Minbu district and of the Salin township. 

It contained about sixteen hundred houses and eight thousand inhabitants 
in 1890 and the population is now estimated to number over ten thousand 
persons. The town stands ;.bout six miles from the Irrawaddy on low flat 
land and is surrounded by valuable paddy lands, irrigated by the Salin river 
and its canals, chief of which is the Myaungmadaw, There is a large munici- 
pal bazaar, which returns a yearly rent of Rs. 4,700. The public buildings 
are the Courts of the Assistant Commissioner and the Myook. 

The main road from Acng comes in at Salin. There is also a bridle-track 
over the hills to Talak, but the hills are very steep. 

Nearly all the trade from the MAn comes to Salin and not to Minbu. 
The chief traders are natives of India and Chinamen, but the Salin land- 
owners possess much larger holdings than the fanners of any other part of 
Burma. 

In March 1826, after the signing of the Treaty of Yandabo, a party con- 
sisting of the i8th Regiment, Madras Native Infantry, with fifty Pioneers, 
marched from Sinbyu-gyun over the Acng Pass into Arakan, guided l>y the 
"ThandukWoon Maunzzah, " probably the Tliaunthwut Wutt. The follow- 
ing account is given in the Calcutta Government Gazette of May 22nd, 
1826. 

" On the 16th (March) the party marched (from Sinbyu-gyun) to Chalain 
mcait on a capital road made by the orders of the Menderagieprah [M int ay a- 
gyi paya). A brick wal!| about three feet high, marked the breadth for a 
considerable distance, and over every ravine, however small, a bridge had 
been erected. The country on both sides was laid out in rice-fields as far as 



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the eye could reach, and tliickly interspersed with inhabited villages. It is 
irrigated by means of the Clialain river, which the inhabitants dam up, and' 
cause to flow into the adjoining fields ; wells are also to be met with in great 
abundance and sacred groves, with superb kioums {kyaungs) and pagodas, 
are seen all along the road." 

" The suburbs of Chalain mew had fallen a prey to the flames, as also 
the city itself, and the only buildings saved from the conflagration were the 
kioums and other edifices appropriated to the purposes of religion. This 
wanton act is said to have been committed without the knowledge of the 
chieftains, by some of the disorganized bands of the Burmese army. Round 
Chalain mew are the remains of a lofty brick wall, and in those places where 
it has fallen to decay a capital teak-wood stockade was erected at the com- 
mencement of the war. The situation of the work is very strong, and on 
two sides completely defended by large jeels, whence by cutting a small 
bund sufficient water might be procured to form a wet ditch round the forti- 
fications. The brick portion of the latter is well worthy of remark, offering 
a more perfect specimen of ancient fortification in this country than any 
other of the forts that have been passed. One part of the wall, which 
seemed to have suffered loss from the ravages of time, more than the re- 
mainder, particularly attracted attention. Its outer height was fifty feet, 
and inside it rose about thirty feet above the level of the town ; and this 
must be about si.t feet below the original elevation. The turrets which for- 
merly adorned the summit have fallen down. This great height of brick- 
work was only between three and four feet thick, supported by slight abut- 
ments every fnrty yards, and it seemed quite extraordinary that so much of 
it still remained, in many places tottering on its base. Near the summit of the 
walls were small apertures intended to receive the beams by which the plat- 
form, whence the defendants fire, was sustained ; and on enquiry, it appeared 
that these walls were long antecedent to the use of firearms. TheThanduk 
VVoon stated that Chalain mew is said to have been built one thousand five 
hundred years ago, at the time Pagahm mew was the scat of government, 
and that it used frequently to be honoured with the residence of the sover- 
eign. Mcnzaghee, the present Queen's brother, occupied this post for seven 
months, and only left it when the English army approached Pakang 
yell." 

" Chalain me7v contained ten thousand inhabitants, and is the chief town 
of the district of Chalain, which consists of between five and six hundred 
square miles, and has a population of 200,000 souls. Sixty-four villages are 
scattered over this fertile tract, and furnished during the war ten thousand 
men as their quota to the army, of whom only one-half returned, The dis- 
trict of Chalain is governed by a Musghi (Myothugyi)." 

Salin, according to tradition, was founded in the year 656 B.E. (1294 
A.D.) by King Narapadi Sithu, of Pagan. On a tour round his kingdom 
he admired the site and ordered the establishment of a town here. 

Another account says that it was originally a Chin settlement. The ruins 
of the Burmese Wall are still to be traced. 

A 7vun with his staff lived here in Burmese times. The tovv;n was besieged 
for three days at the end of July 18S6 by the Pon^yi Bo Oktoma, but he 
was driven off by a party of the Hampshircs under Major Atkinson, who fell 
in the attack. 



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SA-LIN CH AUNG. — A river in the Minbu district, extensively used for 

.irrigation. It rises in the Arakan Yoma above Laung-she in Pakuklcu 

district, not far from Mount Victoria, and after a general south-easterly course 

bends to the north-east near Salin and enters the Irrawaddy opposite Pakan- 

ngi and close to Sinbyu-gyun. 

Below The-y wa, where the irrigation system commences, the river widens 
out into a broad, slow, shallow stream, with low indefinite banks and a gra- 
velly bed. Above Salin there is verv little water in the river in the dry 
months ; below, the bed is in the hot months quite dry. In the rains the 
ordinary flood past Salin is not more than three-and-a-half feet deep and the 
river is generally fordable all the y^ar round. 

The country watered by the Salin canals is naturally well adapted for 

The irrigation rapid and thorough irrigation. It is of an undulating 
system. character with a gentle down gradient towards the 

Irrawaddy. 

The higher land and basins forming the undulations run in parallel lines 
east and west and gradually merge into the alluvial plain which skirts the 
river. As the ridges have a general declination from west to east, and the 
canals are carried along the tops of the ridges, the irrigation of the whole 
tract is made easy. An immense amount of labour must have been expended 
years ago on the terracing of the slopes. 

The Salin valley is traversed over almost its entire area by a very eflR- 
cient Burmese system of canals fed from the Salin river. The valley and 
its irrigation system commence at 1 he-ywa, twenty-eight or twenty-nine 
miles from the Irrawaddy, on the Salin river. From The-ywa to Paukma 
the valley is very narrow, not more than half to one mile across. This strip 
of valley is watered bv a system of independent village canals taking off 
from both sides of the river. From Paukma the valley widens out from one 
to three miles in breadth down to Salin, twelve miles distant. Beyond Salin 
down to the Irrawaddy, about nine miles, an open tract of country is 
reached, nine to twelve miles broad. The whole of the area south of Pauk- 
ma is watered by a system of much larger canals and distributaries than 
those north of Paukma. 

The Minbu Settlement OITicer, in his report dated i8g8, says;— 

"There are in all eighteen canals, thirteen of which lie within the settle- 
ment tract and five of which lie outside it. The irrigation system within 
the settlement area begins at Shasha on the right bank and at Swfed^ on 
the left bank of the Salin chnung^ and the length of irrigated tract thence 
to the Irrawaddy where it ends, is about twenty mites. Of the thirteen 
canals within the settlement area, the following are situated in the Salin 
township : — 

(i) Shasha canal, (5) Chaungdein canal, 

(2) Wunya canal, (6) Mingala canal, 

(3) Sfegan canal, (7J Myaungthit canal, and 

(4) Myaungmadaw, the chief (8) Thayetchin canal ; 

canal, [ 

and the following in the Kyabin township :— 

(i) Swfedfe canal, I (3) Kaing canal, 

(2) Kyauksit canal, j (4) Nw&tcmfe canal, and 

(5) Thadunwa canal. 



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" The Lfema, Thayetdaw, Nyaungzin, Pyadauk and KyundS canals He 
outside the settlempnt tract. 

" Tlie names of the canals as above given are in the order iq which their 
headwaters come, the Shasha weir in the Salin township and the Swfedfe in 
the Kyabin township, being situated at the highest points on the Salin 
chating. The Salin systems are all situated nn the south or right bank and 
the Kyabin systems, with the exception of Thadunwa, which irrigates lands 
in both townships, are on the north or left bank of the chaurtg. 

Hendieorks. — The headworks are extremely simple and of a nature only possible in a 
wide shallow river with a slow current. Dams are not necessary. Low training hanks. 
three to five feet hijjh, are constructed of saplinj^ stakes and brushwood, with sand and 
gravel from the bed of the river. These training banks are built well out on the slopini; 
river-bed almost into the centre of the stream and run nearly parallel with the bank until 
they gra 'ually cross the stream and join the mouth of the canal. The Myaiin{rm'»daw 
training bank is a mile long from the centre of the stream downwards parallel with the 
bank to the mouth of the canal. As water comes gently down it is diverted into the 
artificial ch.inneis thus formed and thence into the can.tls. In heavy floods w.iler passes 
over and submerges the training banks, making breaches here and there. The damage 
is, however, easily and cheaply repaired when the flood goes down. As many as eight 
or nine such freshets may occur in a season, repairs costing Rs. 700 iir Rs. 800 a canal 
head. Sill is removed by means of a plough or harrow, across the 'length of which mats 
are tied to drag up ihesilt again into the training banks. It is difficult to devise anything 
cheaper or simpler than these accessible and easily repaired headworks." 

''There are no regulators at the head of any of the canals to control the 
supply of water. 

•'The Myaungmadaw canal is said to have been constructed by King 
Namani-sithu, of the Pagan dynasty, six hundred and sixty-six years ago. It 
takes off on the right or south bank of the Salin chaurtg at Linzin, a village 
about twelve miles west of the town of Salin, passes tlirough that tovvn and 
across the level country south, ending in the Paunglln lake. From it 
numerous minor channels diverge, the larger of which are called myaungs, 
the smaller behauk or viyaun^let. 

''About six miles from the head of the system and five miles from Salin the 
canal meets the Paung stream, a large tributary of the Salin chaun^ coming 
from the south-west, which it crosses at right-angles. At the point of inter- 
section, built across the Paung chaung is a large weir called the Paung se or 
Paung weir, which forms one bank of the canal and prevents the water which 
flows down the canal from making its way back to the parent stream. It also 
serves to break the freshets which come down the Pawngchctungivom the hills 
and to pass them into the canal. During heavy floods much of the water 
which comes down the chaung passes over the weir and so is lost for purposes 
of irrigation, but a not inconsiderable portion goes down the canal. The 
waters of this chaung are charged with a highly fertilizing silt. If the canal 
be carried over the chaung by means of an aqueduct, as has sometimes been 
suggested, the beiiefit derived from this silt will be lost. 

" The dam is constructed with a crib-work of saplings and stone-filling. It 
measures five hundred feet along the crest, and the width from crest to toe is 
three hundred feet. It is further protected with a tail — a covering of split 
bamboos interlaced so as to form a matting which serves to break the fall of 
the water behind it, gives the water a free run, and prevents the scouring out 
of the bed of the stream. On the annual repairs to this weir (at an excessive 
cost of Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 15,000) the major portion of the expenditure on the 
maintenance of the Salin system is incurred. Colonel Fox, R.E., Superin- 
tending Engineer, has noted : '' It (the dam) is generally repaired, quickly, 



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"but a succession of floods might damage it hopelessly," and recommends 
that a more lasting and serviceable weir at the cost of about Rs. 15,000 might 
be constructed. 

''Resembling the Paung weir in construction, but much smaller in size, is 
the Kaing st' or the Kaing weir. It is situated at the village of Paukma in 
the Kyabin township, and is built across the Paukma chaung at a point 
where the Kaing canal crosses it- 

" With the exception of the Myaungmadaw, or Royal canal, all the canals are 
said to have been constructed by the people themselves from eigijly lo a 
hundred years ago. The latest, the Thadunwa, was made about three hun- 
dred years ago. When the dam and canal were in course of construction the 
contractors, one Shan and one Burman, invited all landowners and cultivators 
to come and help them, and they came to the work with one or two paTS of 
buffaloes, or as many as they could spare. The fields which supplied these 
buffaloes were thereafter called by the number of buffaloes they sent to the 
work. 

" Annually a few months before the rains, a committee of officials, landlords, 
canal managers and ciders, after the dam and works had been visited, deter- 
mined what works needed repairing and the amount of labour and money 
necessary. Only such money as was actually required was collected. Money 
was collected at so much a pair of bullocks, fields using the canal water being 
divided into fields worked by one, two, or three pairs of buffaloes or bullocks, 
and money was assessed at so much a pair. The fields alluded to above, 
which originally supplied buffaloes for the first construction of the work, 
continued to be assessed on the number of buffaloes from which they were 
then named. The Sagu and Ligaing Afvothu^yis were responsible for the 
proper working of the Man canal and the balin Wun for the Salin canals. 
The Sagu Myothugyi was alone responsible for the Sedaw, as it was in his 
township. Under ihem were ozas, se-asiyins, peiktagas, and gaungs. 
The office of osa was hereditary. They were said to be descendants of the 
original constructors, there being ten Slian osas and eleven Burman. The 
osas collected the money, working under the se-ast'yins. They got 10 per 
cent, on the collections. The se-asiyi'ns exercised a general supervision over 
work, the labour employed, and the expenditure. The />eikfagits were in im- 
mediate charge of the works. An asiyin got two rupees, a peihtaga one 
rupee eight annas, and an asiyin' s wxiter one rupee eight annas a day out 
of the money collected. Myaung-gaungs regulated the dist ibution of 
water for the channels under the j(?-(i5/).'z'«'i- supervision, and looked after the 
cleansing and repair of distributaries. They had the power of whipping, or 
stopping the supply of water in the case of disobedient or recalcitrant culti- 
vators. Water was generally given in rotation, except in cases of urgent 
need, when the water might be given out of turn. Disputes were settled by 
the Myothugyi. 

" This was the system of management at the time of the Annexation and it 
was continued for a time. The money collected was banked at the Subdivi- 
sional treasury, and the Subdivisional Officer was nominally responsible for 
the proper working of the canals. 

" In 1894-95 the management of the Man cana! and of the seven major Salin 
canals was laken out of the hands of the people and placed in those of the 
Subdivisional and Township Officers, assisted by a se-6k. In 1895-96 an irri- 
gation assistant was appointed and a water-rate varying from one to three 
rupees an acre was charged." 



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SA-LIN-DAUNG.— A revenue circle in the Sa-Ie township, Pagan subdi- 
vision, of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the p')pulation numbered one hundred and ninety-five persons, 
and the thaihameJa amounted to Rs. 324. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

SA-LIN-DAUNG. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaun^ township, 
Pagan subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-Q6 the population numbered two hundred and sixty-five persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 441. No land revenue was collected 
in the rircle. 

SA-LIN-GAN. — A village in the Alyaing township, Pakokku subdivision 
and district, with a population of two hundred and thirty-one persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 510 for 1807-98. 

S.\-L1N-GA-THL'. — .\ revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan 
subdivision and district". 

In 1895-96 the population numbered four hundred and seventy-five 
persons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. ago. No land revenue was 
collected in the circle. 

S.A-LIN-GON. — A village in the Tha-bye circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
five persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs 1,020 for 1897-98. 

SA-LIN-GYI. — .\ township in the Pal«^ subdivision of Lower Chindwln 
district, with an area of two hundred and ninety-six square miles and a popu- 
lation of forty-three thousand six hundred and fifty-eight persons. 

It is bounded on the north by the North Yama stream, separating it from 
the Kani township of the same subdivision, on the east by the Chindwin 
river, on the south by the South Vama stream, separating it from Pakokku 
district, and on the west by the Mintaingbin township of the same subdivision 
and district. It was once known as Eastern Pagyi. In December 1894 it 
was renamed after Salingyi village, the present headquarters. 

Saling)'] is the most thickly populated township of the district, the number 
of persons to the square mile being one hundred and forty seven. The town- 
ship is flat except in its north-eastern portion, where there are a few hills, 
and is uniformly well watered. The soil is for the most part black cotton, 
and grows millet and maize extensively. Tlie principal products are dry 
and wet weather paddy, jotear, sessamun peas, gram, cotton, salt and 
jaggery. Vegetables also are grown largely. 

There are forty revenue circles in the townstkip, which paid revenue for 
1896-97 as follows: — 

Rs. 
(.1) Thathanuda ... ... ... 1,01,560 

(2J Stale kand ... ... ... ... 2,764. 

(3) Salt ... ... ... ... 1,920 

(4) Fishery ... ... ... ... 326 

(5) Kxcise ... ... ... ... 350 

(6) Ferries ... ... ... ... 1,630 



Total 



1.08,550 



?? 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



rSAL 



SA-LlN-GYI. — A revenue circle in the township of the same name in the 
. Lower ChinHwin district, with four thoi|sand five hundred and thirty-five in- 
habitants. It is situated on the ri^ht bank of the river Chindwin, at a dis- 
tance of two miles from that river. 

The circle contains twenty-one villages: Salinjjvi. Chantha, KyaunsfjfAn, 
Nyauncr-evattin, Mv&zundaun?, Kantha, NvaunpHindo, Myauk-vwa, Kyauk- 
hmaw, Htudauk. Mindaw, Ynnbinvo, Sinbvukvt^, Pauktaw, Aukthin, K'\nkin- 
pankyat. Nge-zunmvauk, Pyawb\v&, Oho, Mvinthe-ywa and Kywe-khodaw. 

Sa1in?yi village is the headqua'^ters of the SalinETvI township of Lowe*" 
Chindwin district, and has one thousand four hundred and seventy-five 
inhabitants. It was in Burmese times the headquarters of the Pagyi w»u«. 
The public building^s in the village are the Myo5k's court-house, a Civil 
Police-station, a bazaar and rest-house. 

SALLAVATI. — The Chindwin river q. v. 

SA-LUN. — A revenue circle in the Rudalin township, Lower Chindwin 
district, with two thousand one hundred and thirteen inhabitants. It lies 
on the left bank of the Chindwin river, and includes the villages of Salun or 
Sanlun, Kunpvan, NAndan. Tandaw, Nyaungfgon, Nyaun^thamya, YAntha, 
Hnawbinvo and Kyizu. The chief products axajowar, peas, and gram. 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 4,080 from Hiathameda. 

SALWEEN— Called Nam Kong bv the Shans, Than-Iwin by the Bur- 
mese, Lu Kiansf or Nu Kianp or Lu-Tzu Kiang by the Chinese, is the long- 
est river in Burma and one of the wildest and most picturesque rivers in the 
world. 

Its sources are still undetermined, but there seems little doubt that it 
rises in the Tania mountains, south of the Kuen Luen, somewhere in the 
thirty-third or thirty-second degree of north latitude, and that perhaps it 
draws some of its water from the Kara Nor. Its very considerably greater 
length than the Irrawaddv, notwithstanding its smaller volume of water, is 
due to the narrowness of its basin from the moment it leaves Tibet. The 
late Sir Henrv Yule savs : " The French missionaries, who were for some 
" vears stationed near the T.u Kiang. about latitude 28° 20', speak of tt as a 
" great river." [This is roughlv the latitude in which the Irrawaddy takes its 
source. 1 Abbe Durand, in June 1863, describing a society of heretical 
Lamas who had invited his instructions, and who were willing to consign the 
paraohernalia of their worship to the waters, writes : " What will become 
"of it all. The Great River, whose waters roll to Martaban, is not more' 
"than two hundred or three hundred paces distant. A river so spoken of id 
•'latitude 28° 20', or thereabouts, may easily have come from a remote 
"Tibetan source. It is hard to say more as vet, amid the uncertainties of 
" the eeographv of Tibetan steppes, and the difficultv of discerning between 
" the tributaries of this river and that of the next ; but the Lu Kiang, or a 
"main branch of it, under the name of Suk-chu, appears to be crossed by a 
" bridge on the high road between Ssu-ch'uan and Lhassa, from stations 
•' west of Tsiamdn on the Lan ts'ang " (the Mfekhong). 

Prince Henri d'Orleans crossed the river a little south of the 28th paral- 
lel in September 1805, but does not give many details. He savs : "The 
*' aistand 22nd September were employed in the passage of the Salween. All 
" our party were in high spirits and the cattle rested. At the request of th^ 



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9^ 



" men, the mules were given a hash of raw fowls and salt, avowed by the Tibe- 
"tanslobe a rare pick-me-up for beasts of burden. We ferried over in 
"skiflfs about sixteen feet long, hollowed out of trunks of trees. From two 
'' to four men manceuvred them with small oars. '1 he crossing was an easy 
" matter compared with that of the Miskhong at Halo ; there were no read 
" rapids here and counter-currents could be taken advantage of. The tcm- 
" perature of the water was much the same as that of the Mfekhong at the 
" same height, being 60° Fahrenheit ; but a neighbouring tributary from the 
" mountains registered nearly 6° higher." The Prince gives as the altitude of 
the river banks here five thousand and nineteen feet, but this is almost certain- 
ly much too high. He continues; " On the 23rd and 24th September we 
"continued down the Salween by a good road. As is the case lower, the 
" valley is greener than that of the M^khong, witli flora almost appoaching that 
" of warm countries. The trees were literally decked with tufts of orchids, 
" whose yellow and brown spotted blooms hung in odoriferous (!) clusters ; this 
" might appropriately have been named the Orchid valley, a paradise for 
"amateurs, * * * After Djewan we worked westward again, and for two 
" days we rcasccnded by the bed of a small tributary of the iiahveen. But 
" the higher we w cnt the worse grew the path, till it was no better than a track 
'' through sodden brake and over abrupt declivities. Great thorny thistles 
" with yellow heads choked the hollows, through which the mules, even slrip- 
" ped, could hardly struggle." 

Captain Gill in 1877 crossed the river by the since much-travelled route 
between Tali and Bhamo: He gives the following description of the pesti- 
ferous valley, as the Chinese regard it: — 

" Centuries had rolled by since Marco Polo spoke of the country ' impos- 
sible to pass, the air in summer is so impure and bad; and any foreigner 
attempting it would die for certain.' Already at Tachien-lu Monseigneur 
Chauveau, who had passed many year's of his life in Yunnan, had warned 
us of this pestiferous place, and had told us that, before the rebellion had 
destroyed every organization in the province, it has been customary to keep 
a guard at certain places on the road to prevent any one from attempting 
the passage during the unhealthy season. * ♦ * As it lay at our feet all 
nature seemed to smile and invite the tired traveller to stay and rest. But 
it was the smile of the siren, for should a stranger venture there to pass 
the night, it would be with fever-stricken limbs that, when the morning 
broke, he would attempt the escalade of the surrounding heights. " 

" Even in autumn, the most healthy season, it is with bated breath that 
passengers hurry across at a favourable moment ; and when the liery rays 
of summer are darted on that lowlymg \ alley, even the acclimatized inhabit- 
ants flee the ' infections that the sua sucks up ' and for months no living 
thing may venture there. 

" It is during an alternation of rain and sun that the poison is most rife 
and then they say a lurid copper-cloured vapour gradually lolds the val- 
ley in its deadly embrace. * * * The reasons tor the extraordinary un- 
healthiness of the valley are not apparent ; for though it is one thousand 
three hundred feet lower than ttie Lan- T'sang (the M^khong), and nearly 
twu thousand feet lower than the Lung Kiang or Shweli river, yet it is 
still two thousand six hundred feet above the sea. It was the fairtsl-iook 
ing valley we had passed ; mstead of being perfectly flat, like so man 



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others, the ground sloped gently from the foot of thehilb. This formation 
is very favourable for the terrace cultivation and here the rice harvest was 
well forward. There are a few small undulating hills in the bottom of the 
valley, which is bounded by mountains well-wooded or covered with long 
grass. There are plenty of villages, with a good many trees round them, 
and the landscape is more varied than any we had seen for sometime. 
From the rapidity of the river, and the undulating nature of the ground, 
it might have been supposed that this district would be healthy enough; 
but the secret of the red miasma must remain hidden yet awhile in the 
recesses. 

" The river is crossed by a chain suspension-bridge of two spans, the 
second span in a line parallel to the continuation of the first, but about four 
yards from it on the same level, This system is probably adopted for the 
greater facility given for tightening up the chains ; but it makes a misshapen 
affair of what would otherwise be a well-constructed bridge. The east- 
ern span was about seventy-three and the western fifty-two yards long. 
Each span is supported on twelve or fourteen chains underneath and two 
above, the links being of three-quarter inch iron, one foot long. At the time 
of our visit (1877) it was in excellent repair, but the eastern span, destroyed 
by the Mahomedans during the rebellion, had only recently been rebuilt. 
At the time of Baber's visit it was ' in a dangerous state of dilapidation.* 
The stream wis running rapidly b^low the eastern span, but the western 
was quite dry." 

This IS called the I-u-kiang bridge by the Chinese after the name of the 
Shan-Chinese of Lu-kiang, which the Shans call Mong Hko. 

Below this point the river has been unvisited until the point where it 
enters British territory in about the 24th parallel of latitude, from which 
point it bisects the Shan States, having on the right bank the States of North 
Hsen VVi, South Hsen VVi, Mong Nawng, Mong Nai, Mong Fan, Mawk Mai, 
and Karen-ni, and on the left hank the Ko Kang district of North Hsen Wi, 
the Wa country, Kengtung, Mdng Pan, Mawk Mai, Karen-ni, and the 
Siamese Shan States. 

Throughout it preserves the same character of a gigantic ditch or railwav- 
cutting and has a general north to south direction with unimportant bend's, 
though it is seldom that a distant view can be had up or down the river. 
Everywhere the hills rise up on either bank 3,000, 4,000, and 5,000 feet above 
the river ; sometimes the crests recede, but till the river readies Lower 
Burma there is no spot where there can be said to be flat land along its banks. 
The insignificant strips at Kun Long, Man Pan, Hsa Taw, and a few other 
places cannot be called an exception to the rule. In the dry weather the 
banks arc alternate stretches of blinding white, fine sand and a chaos of 
huge boulders, masses and slabs of rock, with here and there, usually where 
a tributary enters, long stretches of shingle. The rocks, though they are 
of the hardest kind, siliceous and even vitreous, are scored in furrows and 
worn into holes by the sand and pebbles borne down by the floods. F^ogs of 
wood are equally worn and often have gravel and fragments of rock deeply 
embedded in their ends. The rocks are coated with a peculiar glistening 
polish, as if they were black leaded, but it is said to be a film of oxide of 
manganese. In the rains all these disappear and the water laps against 
forest trees and the abrupt slopes of the hills. There are paths here aoj 



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93 



there along the river, sometimes for- many miles, but they seldom can be 
used all the year round and usually follow banks of saadj wind among the 
boulders and very frequently climb hundreds of feet over spurs running 
steep to, or overhanging the Salween in cliffs, so that the river is lost 
sight of for miles. The average difference between high and low water 
level of the Salween throughout the Shan States is between sixty ar.d seventy 
feet and in some places it is as much as ninety. It is this characteristic which 
causes it to be said that many rivers, such as the Nam Pang and the Nam 
Hka, enter the Salween in a cascade or cataract. They have only been 
seen in the cold weather. No doubt in the rains the cataract is swallowed 
up by the Salween floods. There are many rapids in the Salween itself, 
caused by reefs of rock running across the bed, or by a sudden fall of from 
one to several feet, which produce very rough water below the swift glide, 
but the most dangerous places for navigation are where a point juts out 
into I lie stream. The main volume of the river rushes into the hollow and 
is thrown back on either side, causing very rough seas and a violent double 
backwater. Nevertheless long .stretches of the river, extending to scores of 
miles, can be and are habitually passed by native boats and rafts going down. 
In the height of the rains most of these dangers disappear, and there is a 
tradition at Kun Long that a raft with a house on it once went down from 
that place to Moulmein. But the strength of the current makes navigation 
up-streara impossible for native boats at that time of the year. The cur- 
rent is extremely variable. Occasionally there are sluggish reaches where 
it is apparently not more than half a mile an hour; in the rapids it as 
much as ten knots an hour or more. The passage from Kun Long to Hsup 
Kyek, a distance of about forty miles has been accomplished by .several 
British officers. Messrs. Watsoiv and Feddeii went down from a little below 
Man Pan, the capital of Maw Hpa, to Ta Kaw on a raft. The stretch from 
Hsa Taw to Kyaukhnyat is habitually used by trading boats. It seems 
probable lliat boats might ascend from this point lo the Kaw ferry and 
no doubt beyond, perhaps as far as Kun Long. It is quite certain that 
steam-launches could ply over very long sections of the river in the Shan 
States. The worst portion on the whole river is in Lower Burma between 
Kyaukhnyat and the mouth of the Yonzalin. From that point to the mouth 
of the river launches can ply without difficulty. 

A characteristic of the Salween is the extreme coldness of its waters 
caused no doubt by melted snows and still more by the circumstance lliat 
sunshine onlv touches the surface of the river for a few hours in the day. 
It is this no doubt which is the chief cause of the heavy f(jgs which lie over 
the river practically the whole year rouud, except in the raius. In the cold 
weather this blanket of cloud is densest aud frequently does not rise till 
midday. In the hot weather the mist lies in a belt, half way up the hillsides, 
with sunshine above aud a clear atmosphere below. This coverlet is usually 
from five hundred to a thousand feet above the surface of the river and 
varies from five hundred to a thousand feet thick. It is this saturated at- 
mosphere which has procured for the Salween its name for deadliness 
among the Chinese. The drenching mists are very apt to produce fevers 
and ague, but otherwise there seems no justification tor the name of pesti- 
ferous given to it by the Chinese. The inhabitants of the valley are, of 
course, inured to the conditions fram iheir birth and nothing in their physique 
or character distinguishes them from others of their race. It is noticeable 



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Ferries : in Hsen 
Wi. 



that the water of the Salween differs in colour from that of the Mfekhong. 
The Salween has waters of a dirty grey; the M&khong of a reddish brown. 
North of the Shan States there seems to be a fair population, at any rate 
in parts of the Salween valley. In British territory there are very few set- 
tlements on the river itself. At many of the ferries the ferry village is a 
thousand feet above the river, and often for miles and miles there are no 
villages at all| and never are likely to be, for the hills shutting in the river 
in many places are little more than bare rock, covered with bamboo and 
^n^ growth. A detailed description of the Salween is impossible, because 
no one has seen it all. The following list of ferries shows in many cases 
the only places where the river is accessible. 

Teng Yang is the most northerly ferry in British territory. It communio 
cates between Maw Thai in Ko Kang territory, a couple 
of thousand feet above the river, and Teng Yang and 
other villages on the right bank in Lung-ling. It is only 

used by the neighbouring villagers when they go to market on one side or 

the other. There are two dugouts, but no ferry-men wait at the river. 

They have to be brought down from the villages high up on either bank. 

The charges are those usual everywhere at the smaller ferries, two annas 

a load and two annas a man. 

Sin Hsan ferry connects Ko Kang with Mang Ka and is the most north- 
erly in exclusively British territory. The descent on both banks is exceed- 
ingly sleep and there is no camping accommodation on the west bank and 
very little on the east. The banks on both sides of the river are strewn 
with huge rocks and boulders and, though a party of mounted infantry lias 
crossed here (in 1892) without mishap, it is a very dangerous place for 
animals, owing to the absence of a landing-place on either bank. It is served 
by a rait, and a sort of rake, consisting of a bamboo shaft fitted into the 
centre of a parallelogram of woven bamboo, like the float of a paddle-wheel, 
is used instead of a paddle. The ferry is only locally used. The river here 
is 2,000 feet above sea-level. 

About ten miles lower down is the Man Pang ferry. The approaches on 
both sides are very steep. There is no room for a camp on the right bank 
except on the sands ; on the left bank there is camping room for about seventy 
men. There is a large canoe able to carry twelve loads, but the landing points 
are very small and therefore dangerous for animals. The river is eighty 
yards wide by forty feet deep, with a current of about four miles an hour, and 
the altitude is one tliousand nine hundred and seventy-seven feet. The 
ferry is a good deal used by trading parties from Taw Nio and Chen-kang 
to Mong Mao, Nam Hkam, and Lung-ling. 

Twenty-six miles below is the Man Ton or Mong Hawni ferry. This is 
more used and by the same parties. Camping-ground is, however, very 
meagre and the approaches are very steep. The sand-banks for landing- 
places are very small ; the river is one hundred and twenty yards broad, 
fifty feet deep and has a current of three-and-a-half miles an hour. There is 
one boat capable of carrying ten nmle loads and served by a ferry village 
one thousand feet above the river. The charge is eight annas for a loaded 
mule. 

The ferry is one thousand eight hundred and fifty feet above sea-level. 



SM,1 



THE UPPER BITRMA GAZETTEER. 



The Ta Pa ferry, about fifteen miles lower down, is only used locally by 
parties from Monor Si and Kya-tzu-shu (Sati hsu^ bazaars. Tlie river flows 
here in a surcession of I-^ngr reaches and rapids, the reach at the ferry being 
abnnt half a mile Ioi£j. The current is slack and the breadth is about one 
hundred and thirty yar 's with a flood rise of thirty-five or forty feet. The 
banks are hi^h, steep, and iungle-covered and the approaches not good. 
There is no campinsf-eround on cither bank at the ferry itself. On the riorht 
bank, a quarter of a mile off, is camping-room for about fifty men. On the left 
bank the nearest point is onf* thousand and seven hundred feet ab^ve the river 
and two miles distant, and there is only room for one hundred men. The 
ferry is about eighteen miles from MQng Si. 

Ta Sawm is fifteen to twenty miles above Kun Long. It was crossed in 
i8qo by Mr. Daly with his party, but is said to have since been given up, 
owing to local quarrels, and there is now no boat. The approaches were 
always very bad and with disuse have no doubt become very much worse. 

The Kun Long ferrv has been steadily less and less used since the civil 
wars began in Hsen Wi, fiftv years ago, and the Kachin troubles of 1803 caused 
a fresh check. There is abundant camping-ground on the right bank, but 
very little room on the loft at the village of Kun Long itself, where also the 
landing-place is of very limited extent. The number of boats latterly main- 
tained has not been above five or six and these small. Most of the caravans 
pass lower down. The Salween at Kun Long is a little over two hundred 
yards wide, its altitude one thou.sand and six hundred feet above sea-level, and 
the average depth about eisrhteen feet. The Burmese used to have a cus- 
toms-house on the big island fwhence the name of the ferryl below, at the 
mouth of the Nam Ting. The railwav under construction from Mandalay 
will not go to the ferry at all, but to the mouth of the Nam Ting, si.K miles 
below. 

Below Kun Long the ferries of Hat Hpet and M5ng Kun have not been 
visited. Ta Si Hkam or Ta Hat Hpet leads to Kang Mong on the western 
bank and is reported to be good. 

The Hsup Kyek ferry has latterly completely taken the place of that at 
Kun Long. It is on the high road from Pang T,ong. the Chinese Mahomedan 
settlement, to Mong Yaw and Mandalay. The approaches on both sides, 
particularly on the west, are easy. In 1803 there were four boats at the ferry. 
Both banks are sandv and shelve down gently to the water's edge, so that 
landing is easv. The Mandalav-Kun long railwav is likely to strike the 
.Salween at this point, so that for a timeTa Hsup Kyek is likely to increase 
considerably in importance. 

Below this are given the names of the ferries j HsuD Yin, Kawng Hsang. 
Tftng Tan, Loi Hseng and Hsup Ka. which are only of local importance and 
have no more than one or two boats. 

Then comes the M6ng Nawng-Hsai Leng ferry, of which MSng Nawng is 
in the territory of Kang Hs3 and Hsai Leng on the west bank in Hsen Wi. 
This ferry was visited by Lieutenant Macouoid in 1896. He says that the 
river here, coming down from the north, turns north-west, then east-south-east 
and then south-south-west. '' .\t the bend the two Nam Mas join in, one on 
"either side, and here there is a triangular island formedof sand and stones." 
The river is about one hundred and sixty yards broad and there is good 



96 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



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landing-ground on both sides and sufficient room for several hundreds of pack 
animals to load and unload, on the right bank in paddy-fields round ahout 
Hsai Leng and on the eastern bank on the sands or to the south of Mong 
Nawng, where there is room for a brigade to encamp. There were five or 
six boats, several of them large. This ferry and that at Hsflp Kyek are 
much used by the mule traders of Pang I^ong. 

Below this are given the names of the ferries Na Yok, La Wo, Na Mongj 
Man Min, Ta Hung and Lok Ld as being in Hsen Wi control and Na MOng 
and Hsup Mu as being in Mot Hai or Wa territory. 

Then comes the ferry on the road between Nawng Hpa and Man Hpang. 
This is called variously Ta Pang Ti, Ta Ti and Ta Na Ngi. The approaches 
on bath banks are moderately steep and the road a good mule-track. The 
level of the river is about one thousand tour hundred and fifty feet above 
sea-level and it is about one hundred yards broad, with a current of about 
four miles an hour and a depth of thirty feet. The banks are rocky with 
Very small sandbanks and two of these, which would be easily missed when 
the river is in flood, form the landing-places. There are three boats at the 
ferry ordinarily which carry eight or ten loads. The ferry is much used by 
caravans to and from Na Fan in the Wa country. 

There is another ferry called Ta Kun Long at)out quarter of a mile below- 

As far as Ta Man Hsfim the ferries are as foUows : Hat Hseng, Man Ha, 

f kt T =_ Nawng It, Man Ang, Nawng Pat, Nam Yang, Nam Pa 

InMangLSn. ^am, I'a Pu. Hsup Kyet, Hsup Nang and Pang Mu. 

Ta Man Ang is just below Kon Hong and Ta Pa Lam, Pa Pu and HsQp 

Kyet are also close to Na Lao in West Mang Lon. At HsQp Kyet the river 

is eighty-five yards broad averages over fifty feet deep and has a current of 

three-and-a-half to four miles an hour. The only camping-gmund is on the 

sand, the boats are small and, except and in the dry weather, the approaches 

on either side are bad and nearly impracticable. 

The Ta Wo ferry is on the direct route between Na Lao and Ta Kut. 
The river is eighty yards broad and there arc three big dugouts. The 
landing on both sides is bad and the camping-ground cramped. Both Ta 
Wo and Ta Hsup Kyet have been used by British parties, but the Man 
HsQm ferry is preferable. 

The Man Hsum ferry is one of the easiest in this part of the Salweeu. 
There is a steep drop of one thousand feet on tie right bank from the Nam Pi 
camping-ground. The approaches arc good and sandy at high water level, 
but in the cold weather the water edge on both sides is rather rocky and 
difficult for animals unless they hit off the proper place. The ordinary dry 
weather breadth of the river is one hundred yards, and tlie difference betweeo 
high and low water level is sixly-seven feet. The river is at least fifty feet 
deep, with a current of from four to five miles an hour. The altitude is about 
one thousand five hundred feet and the temperature of the water 62°. The 
left bank landing-place is not quite so good as that ou the right. Unlimited 
camping-ground, which is, however, rather narrow, can be cleared on the left 
bank, south of the village, but not on the right, where there is nothing short 
of Pang Ni, one thousand feet up. The ferry is used by South Hsen Wi 
traders and by caravans from Mong Ltm and other places on the east bank of 
the Salween. There are usually four boats, A few miles above Man Hsum 



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the Nam Hkao, a stream of considerable volume, plunges in a waterrall about 
two hundred feet in height into the middle of the river. 

Below Ta Man Hsum there is a long succession of ferries which are only 
used locally by people visiting bazaars or for short trips only. These are 
in Man? Ltin territory, Nam Sawk, Mok Mam, Ta Mawn and Wun Hseng. 
Ta Mawn is a good ferry, but the approaches on the west are difficult for 
animals and it is only used by pedlars. 

In Maw Hpa territory there are the following: Hsup Pan, Wiin Kut, Wun 
Nawng, Mat Long, Kaw Kok, Kat Lap, Man We, Hsup Aw, Man Pan, 
Mawng Hung, Hsuo Hsing, Mak Keng, Ta Sing and Man Paw. These are 
little used except by pedlars who come to buy the betel-vine leaves grown 
along the river. At Ta Wun Nawng there is one small boat with good roads 
westwards to M5ng Hsu and Mong Kao At Ta Mat Long, there are two 
small boats and a good road to M6ng Hsu. At Ta Hsup Aw, the bullock 
caravans going to Mong Na from Man Pan usually cross. Eastwards, 
however, there is no traffic and practically no roads. 

In Pet Kang and Hok Lap territory there are the ferries of Ta S6, Hsup 
Pat, and Ta Hka. From the east an excellent road leads westwards to 
Mong Sane and the descent to the Salween is very gradual. To the east 
however, the road is very hilly and little used except by pedlars with PSt 
Kang tea. 

In M6ng Nawng territory the ferries are: Ta Yin, Hsoi Tawng, Kam 



In M<5ng Nawng 
the Kaw ferry. 



Pang. Mang Pn, Hsup Leng, Htup Htam, Ta Pu, Um 



Lwe. Kaw Sang and La He and below this comes the 

Kaw ferry. 

In the Southern Shan States below Ta Kaw only the main road ferries 
are given, but the number of others Is no doubt as great as in the Northern 
Shan States. The list above given is no doubt not exhaustive, but it shows 
that the Salween can be and is crossed at frequent intervals, wherever in 
fact its banks permit it to be approached. In case of need boats from 
ferries above and below could be collected at any given ferry, but in most 
cases anything but small parties could hardly progress except where main 
road strike the river. Rafting is always passible, but there are seldom 
large bamboos to be had near the river and in any case, where practicable 
landing-places have to be hit off with some exactness, rafts are rather 
unmanageable means of transport. 

The Kaw ferry has probably always been the most largely used on the 
Salween, at any rate for the past fifty years, and now that it is on the main 
route to the British post of Kengtung it will no doubt in time be greatly 
improved. Up to i8g8, however, it was still worked bv 'he native boat- 
men with their own boats under subsidy from the British Government. 
The right bank is steep to and commands the left, which is four hundred 
yards distant, but in the dry weather it is fronted by a great expanse of 
shingle and the channel is narrowed to about two hundred yards. The 
current is very rapid and the bed deep and rocky. Animals are usually 
ferried over If they swim they are apt to be carried a long wav down 
stream. The western ferry village numbered thirty houses in 189 1 and 
here, about six hundred yards from the landing-place, there is camping-room 
for four hundred men. The eastern ferry village in the same year had a 

«3 



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dozen hou^es and here troops had to marcli a mile befnre thev found 
camping-ground on the Hwe Long. Formerly some part of the road up Ihc 
valley of this river was very rocky and dangerous and the path climbed 
along the face of abrupt cliffs. A Public Works Department road has now, 
Iwwever, been cut along the banks of the strf am. The altitude of the Sale- 
ween at Ta Kaw is given as 850 feet. 

Some distance below Ta Kaw is Ta Pyen on the road from Mong Pu to 
M6ng Nai. The Salween is here about two hundred and fifty yards broad, 
with a swift current. The approach to the ferry from the east is down a 
hillside, verv steep and rocky. On the west there is a steep ascent of 
nine hundred feet. Boats are usually brought here when needed from a 
ferry (Ta l.x3ng) five miles distant, which has not been visited by any 
British party. Ta Pyen was formerly much more used than it has been of 
late years. There is exceedingly little camping-ground on either bank. 

Below this the next important ferry is that of Ta Hsang in latitude 20° 25' 

• MR P and longitude 28° 27', at an altitude of eight hiindred feet. 

m , ng an. "YUis ferry is on the route from Mcing Pan to Mong Ton 
and Chieng Mai. The approaches are down the Nam Sala on the one side 
and up the Nam Sili on the other, with a steep climb in each case at the 
end. The ferry is about a mile distant from the mouth of either river, along 
sandbanks which are covered In the rains. The river is about two hundred 
yards wide in the dry season. There are usually half a dozen boats avail- 
able from Wan Sala on the eastern bank : neither side has any camping- 
ground except the sandbanks. 

Below this is the Hwe Pon ferry, in longitude 97° 43', where the main 

... , ., . road from Mawk Mai to Mong Maii aad M6 Hawng 

Hsawn crosses the river. 1 here are usu.illy two or three 

boats availalde here. The village is on the right bank at the mouth of the 

Hwe Pi5n. From this point downwards it is certain, and has been proved, 

that boats of all sizes can ply to Kyauk-huyat. 

A short distance off is the Ta Ong Mu, which is the ferry used bv traders 
from Mong Maii and the east to Salawng and Kantu Long. There are 
usually two bnats here, liclovv it the Salween narrows very considerably 
and just above the Hwe Long Wai juncfion is only seventy-five yards wide 
in the dry season. 

Ta Hsfip Teng used to be an important ferry, but was ruined by the 
Karen-ni in 1888. It is at the point wliere the Teng river joins the Salween, 
and formerly there were many and large boats here. There is a wide cam- 
ping-ground on the spit between the Nam Teng and the Salween. Till 
1 888 there was a considerable village here and goods where brought up 
from Moulmein for distribution throughout the Shan States and ti aders 
came over from M6 Hawng Hsawn and Chieng Mai. There .ire now only 
three or four houses. 

Ta Taw Maw remains an important ferry It is nbont eight miles cast of 

in Karcn-ni ^^ ^^^^ '" ^•""■^''*"' territory, and on the way lo M& 

Hawng Hsawn, which is six bullock marches' distant. 
There are usuallv seven boats, large and small, at the ferry, which c\tiu in 
the dry season is about two humired yards broad. The ri^ht bank of the 
Salween is here a cliff of alluvial soil over fifty feet high: tlie Itft bank is 
low and completely commanded from the western bank. Boats go dow-|\ 



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99 



from Ta Taw Maw to Ta Hsang Le, the ferry of Man Maii (Ywa-tUit) in 
one day, but they take three days to come up. The village of Ta Taw Miw 
is on the right bank, and contained about fifty houses in 1890. The in- 
habitants arc all Shans. ConsiderabI'" supplies are procurable. 

Between this and Ta Hsang Lfe are several unimportant ferries : Ta Hpa 
Leng, Ta Paw Kiita, and Ta Hsuppai, which all have a few boats but are 
Ittde used excepL locally. 

Ta Hsang L& is in latitude 19" 8' and longitude 97'^ 34' at an altitude of 
about seven hundred and fifty feet. The ferry is three-and-a-half miles east 
of Man Maii (Ywa-thit), a considerable village in Eastern Karen-ni, The 
ferrv is the starling point for the Ywa-thit boat traffic with Mnulmein via- 
Kyauk-hqyat, and with Hsa Taw via Ta Taw Maw, as well as with vlfc Hawng 
Hsawn via the Me Pai. Travellers going from Ywathit to Hkun Yuorn and 
Chieng Mai cross the Salween at this point. In the dry season theSalween 
is here about two hundred and fifty yards wide. There are usually half a 
dozen boats of various sizes available at the ferry, but many more can be 
collected at a week's notice. The boatmen live at the village on the right 
bank, where therc^werc in 1890 about fifty houses of Shans and Karens. 
There is also a very fine zayat^ built of teak and elaborately carved, with 
an interior area of seventy-five feet by twenty-four feet. There is space 
for encamping on the river bank and here and there in the jungle behind. 
The road from Ywa-thit to the ferry is good ; for the first three miles the 
descent is very gradual, but the last half mile is more or less steep. The 
right bank of the Salwcen is here very much higher than the left. 

From this point to Kyauk-hnyat there are no ferries and no roads of im- 
portance and the Sahvecn itself is constantly navigated by native boats ; 
launches could ply very easily as far as Ta Hwe Pon, certainly and probably 
higher. 

The hydrography of theSalween remains to be studied. In 1865 Messrs. 
Watson and Fedden travelled from a point a little below Man Pan, the capi- 
tal of Maw Hpa, to the Kaw lerry on a bamboo raft, forty-live feet by eigh- 
teen or ninteen feet, with an upper floor, fourteen feet by twelve, raised 
three feet above the lower. Ti.ey were induced to do so bv some riverside 
villagers who told them that " they and their fathers and grandfathers before 
" them, had, ou certain occasions, taken rice in large quantities by rafts down 
''to Taw Kaw, and although there are four or five falls and the noted 
''Three Rocks to pass, yet, under the protection of the «<j/ of the river, 
" they had always gone safely." Mr. Fedden gives a detailed description of 
their journey, which was accomplished safely, though with some discomfort. 
A few extracts will show the character of the journey. "Within twenty 
" minutes after starting we are speeding down the rapid (or fall of about three 
'' feet) and into the boisterous water below, dashing along through great 
" waves that bend about the raft as whalebone, severely testing its strength 
'' and swamping a portion of the upper floor, but everything was well secured 
"and lashed to the raft. At this fall the river is contracted, and the water, 
"reflected from either side, and perhaps from the bottom, meets in the 
" middle and dashes on in large foaming waves as of a chopping sea. We are 
"quickly borne along and are descending the second rapid (the fall is greater 
" and more abrupt, being about four feet) with great waves and roaring sea on 
" below; but continuing on we soon get into smooth water, three hundred and 



lOO 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAL 



'' fifty feet or more broad * * ♦ Our average rate of progress appears, 
" at a guess, to be about six miles per hour * * * \yg [^q^ gQ 
" along very slowly, twirling and circling round and about with the stream." 
Three hours and ten minutes down stream they passed " the largest hat we 
" have to pass, a clear fall of about five feet. The surface of the water has 
" a considerable slope towards the fall down which our raft glides with in- 
" creasing velocity into the chopping sea on below. The upper floor of our 
" raft is again swamped by the foaming billows that toss us about as a wal- 
" nut shell, now in a trough with huge waves on either side, now mounted on 
"the crest of another and descending beyond ; we at last gain more quiet 
•' water but still speed along fast. At the fall the river was about one hun- 
" dred and thirty feet wide, now it contracts to less than a hundred (say 
" ninety) feet, and there are some rocks rising high up, near the right ban k 
''that must be very dangerous during the floods." An hour farther on they 
come to the "Three Rocks " — "the current increases in speed as we ap- 
" proach these noted rocks ; we are passing between them, descending a fall 
*' of nearly two feet. They are, in fact, portions of a great kyauktan, or 
*' reef of rock across the bed of the river, similar to the barrier above de- 
" scribed. The right side of the river is rocky, then thete is a passage of 
" about thirty feet, then a small rock and another passage of thirty feet, then 
" a great long mass of rock rising high (twenty or thirty feet) above the 
" water and then the third and widest passage (some sixty feet or more) be- 
" Iween the mass of rock and the left bank. We took the middle thirty feet 
" passage and it was a close shave for our raft ; indeed we did touch the rock, 
" but no great damage resulted. The water here was not boisterous, but in 
"the broader passage they say they could not steer clear of the rocks, for 
" the current sweeps round the left bank, and is very irregular and disturbed. 
Farther on they rounded " a great rocky mass on ihe right side of the river : 
"the water here is ' bad,' boiling up and in whirlpools and eddies (carry* 
" ing down one side of the raft) with strong under-currents. 1 his bad 
" water continues for some distance, the river winding to the westward." 
* * * " We pass an extremely picturesque cascade, foaming 

•' like srow down the high bank, and encrusting the rocks over which it fallsi 
''with a thick deposit from its calcareous waters." Such incidents were 
repeated in a lesser degree all the way down. Streams entering as catar- 
acts or cascades were frequently seen. At many places people were seen 
washing for gold among the sand and pebbles of the shore, and at two hours' 
distance above Ta Kaw, a pagoda was perched on the top of a high rock, 
insulated during the floods. Tlie passage took two days of about eight 
hours going each day, and was accomplished on the 31st March and ist 
April, that is to say, when the river was low, but nut at its lowest, for on 
the 1st April it rose two feet, no doubt with suow water. 

Thtf conclusion Mr. Feddcn arrived at was " that the Salween is not gi 
•' navigable river for either boats or steamers at this season of the year ; and 
" that when the river is full, and the surface of its water even, the velocity of 
" the current must be so great in parts, that no ordinary steamer could be 
"propelled up it." 

Below 'la Kaw as far as Ta Hwe Pon the river is only very imperfectly 
known. Shans report a formidable obstacle at Tang Kao Tck, near Mdug 
Pan, something in the nature of the " Ihrce Rocks," but otherwise it seems 
that with a little blasting there are no obstructions which would preveat 



SALJ 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



101 



". *'• . -* . • • ' 

the plying of launches of sufficicnf^trwer. * The strength of the current is 

the chief difficulty. There appears to be everywhere water enough to Heat 
a battle-ship. 

The chief tributaries of the Sahvcen after it enters British territory are the 

Nam Yu on the right bank, which enters very close to 
Tributaries. the frontier line ; farther south on the same bank is the 

Nam Noi or Nam Mwe, a fair-sized stream coming down 
from M6ng Ya. Un the left bank a few miles lower down is tiie Hsi Pa 
Haw from Ko Kang, also a short stream. Then a few miles above Kun 
Long, at a point where the Salween makes a sharp bend and runs due east, the 
Nam Nim flows in from the west. Its sources are close to those of the Myit- 
ng&, or Nam Tu, and the width at its mouth is about two hundred feet, with 
about two feet of water. Below Kun Lung enters the Nam Ting, or Hoen Ting 
Kiang, which comes down from the neighbourhood of Shunning I-u, and its 
mouth is about two hundred yards wide and unfoidable. From the mouth 
of the Nam Ting the Salween trends westward for a considerable distance till 
it receives the Nam Kyek, a fair-sized stream down whose banks the railway 
under construction will reach the river. The Salween then resumes a souther- 
ly course and at Mong Nawng, in Kang Hso, receives two rivers Nam Ma, 
one flowing through the Wa country from the Nawng Hkeo neighbourhood, 
the other running down from Loi Sak above Mong Yaw. The next tributary 
is the extremely tortuous Nam Nang, rising in Ngek Lek territory. 

Below this the Nam Kao enters in a cascade in West Mang Lon territory 
and there are then nothing larger than mountain torrents until the Nam Hkaw 
enters on the left bank. This is so far as is known the largest tributary re- 
ceived by the Salween after leaving Tibet. It pours in a great volume of water 
drawn from both the north and the south. 

The Hwe L6n at Ta Kaw, flowing in from the east, is the next affluent of 
any size and just below this the river takes a bend to the south-west and 
continues in this direction as far as Ta Sek for about twenty-two miles. 

This ferry is at the mouth of the Nam Pang, a very large and important 
tributary coming from the north-west. This is the first really large tributary 
of the Salween on the right bank. The Nam Pang, some distance above its 
mouth at Keng Hkam, is four hundred yards wide and unfordable even for 
elephants. It falls into the Salween down a slope which forms a cataract in 
the dry weather, but probably disappears when the Salween is in flood. 

The next important tributary is the Nam Hsim, a river which rises near 
Kengtung and joins it from the east about twelve miles below Ta Sek. Mid- 
way between the two the Mong Pu road to Mong Nai crosses the Salween 
at Ta Pyen [see above). The course of the river now changes to south-east 
and keeps that direction for about thirty mileSj receiving only mountain 
torrents from Mong Pu and Mong Nai territory. In latitude 20*^' 29' the 
Salween is crossed at Ta Hsang by the main road from Burma to Chieng 
Mai and receives here the M6 Sala and the M6 Sili, streams large enough 
to float timber from the east and west. From Ta Hsang the Salween is 
navigable for ten miles as far as the mouth of the M^ Hang, a consider- 
ble stream which comes from Mong Hang, burrowing its way through a 
range of hills. Below this is the formidable obstacle called Tang Kao Tek 
by the Shans, where seemingly a reef stretches across the river with project- 
ing rock. 



102 



.*THt UI»PER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAL 



The river now makes a great Kend Wttt and -has a general course of south- 
south-west for sixty miles. The tributaries here are of no great import- 
ance ; the Nam Pan with the drainage of the Mong Pan State on the left 
bank and the M& Chawt, Mc Hsakun, and Mi: Hsfcon the east. From the M^ 
Chawt to Ta Ong Mu the river flows between steep, rocky hills and is 
generally from one hundred to two hundred yards wide, with a very strong 
current and many rapids. Just below Ta Ong Mu the channel narrows to no 
more than seventy-five yards in the dry season. As noted above, regular 
navigation may be said to commence below this at Ta Hwo P(3n and is car- 
ried on regularly as far as Kyauk-huyal. 

In latitude 19° 52' the Nam Teng joins the Sahveen, coming down from 
the hills in Mong Kiing State in the north-west, through LaiHka, Mong Nai, 
and Mawk Mai States. The mouth of the Teng is for a couple of miles at 
its mouth a simple lasher and quite unnavigable, though boats ply on it for 
long distances above. It is about one hundred yards wide at its mouth and 
though smaller than the Nam Hka, the Nam Pang, and perhaps the Nam 
Hsim, is a very considerable river, and is perhaps the longest of the four. 

The Salween now bends to the south and about fifteen miles below Ta 
HsQp Teng is joined by the Hwe Long and the Hwe Lang on the right and 
left banks respectively. These streams form the boundary between the 
Shan States and Karen-ni. The hill-slopes which close in the river now 
become less steep and better wooded and the scenery, if not more picture^s- 
que, is more varied. 

At five miles below the Karen-ni boundary is Ta Taw Maw and from this 
ferry the busy part of the river hegins and the Salween may be said to be a 
regular trade route for the Moulmein traffic into the Shan States. The 
total distance from Ta Taw Maw to Ta Hsang Lb may be said to be about 
forty miles. The river is generally about two hundred yards wide, but at 
one point narrows to seventy yards. Boats go down in eight or nine hours, 
but takes three days of eight working hours to go up stream. That is to sav 
the average rate up stream is less than two miles an hour while down 
stream it is five and a half miles. The current is for the most part from 
three to four mites an hour. The only tributary of any importance here is 
the M6 Pai from the east, which drains the M6 Hawng Hsawn province and 
is navigable for small boats as far as that town. 

From Ta Hsang L6, where the river is two hundred and fifty yards broad, 
the course is south for about eighteen miles, then west for eight miles, and 
then to the south again. At this second bend it receives the Nam Pwon or 
Ponchaung, the third great tributary on the right bank. This river is about 
one hundred yards across and unfordable. It drains an immense extent of 
the Shan and Karen country but is unfortunately unnavigable. From the 
junction of the Pon with the Salween, that river runs south to Kyauk-hnyat, 
where navigation ceases and the river becomes a succession of rapids. 
From Ta Hsang L^ to Kyauk-hnyat the down journey takes from two to 
four days and the upward journey from six to eight. There are frequent 
rapids and the navigation is by no means easy. A powerful steamer could 
ply the whole way from Ta Hwe Pon to Kyauk-hnyat, a distance of one 
hundred and fifty miles and probably would pav very well. From Kyauk- 
hnyat the trade route to Moulmein goes by way of Pa-hpun and thence 
down the Yonzalin. About fifteen miles below Kyauk-hnyat is Dagwin or 



"iAM] 



THE L'PPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



103 



Ta Ta Fang, the ferry by which the Pa-hpun-Chieng Ma5 road crosses the 
Salween. Fifteen miles south of this the Thaungyin enters from the south- 
east. The Salwecn here ceases to be the houndary between Siam and 
Burma and again becomes a purely Britisli river. Thirty miles lower down 
is Kyo-dan, the great timber dep6t. Here a cable stretched across the 
river catches all the timber, which is then made up into rafts and floated down 
to Kado, near Moulmein, where the revenue is collected. 

The Yonzalln enters the Salween from the right about ten miles below 
Kyo-dan. Boats can ply from Kyo-dan southwards and light draught steam- 
ers ascend as far as ShwegAn, sixty-three miles from Moulmein. 

The Salween is a formidable natural obstacle between the country east 
and west, ft seems probable, however, that long stretches of it may be 
opened to trade. It is certainly no less navigable than the Mekhong. 

SAM A. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 3, Bhamo district, situated in 23° 
46' north latitude and 97° 20' east longitude. 

In i8q2 it contained twenty houses : its population was unknown. The 
headman has two others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of the 
Lepai tribe and Hpunkan sub-tribe. They own five bullocks only. Water 
is scarce. 

SAMA or SUMA — A Kachin village in Tract No 8, Bhamo district, 
situated in 2\° g' north latitude and 97° 30' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained Fifty houses with a population of one hundred acd 
forty-two persons. The headman of the village has no others subordinate 
to him. The inhabitants are of the Maran tribe and Lana sub-tribe, and 
own ten bullocks and four buffa'oes. The village has good camping-ground 
and water-supply. 

S A-ME-GAN-GON. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan 
subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and ten persons and the 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 120. No land revenue was collected in the 
circle. 

SA-.VIEIK. — A village in the Tawma circle. Ku'hna-ywa township, Gangaw 
suhdivision of Pakftkku district, with a population of forty-seven pt^rsons, 
according to the census of i8gi ; the thathameda amounted to Rs. 140 for 
1897-98. 

SA-MEIK-KON. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision, 
and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered five thousand fi\e hnndred and sixty 
persons, the thithameda amour.ted to Rs. 7,410, the State land revenue to 
Rs. 4.804-15-6, and the gross revenue to Rs. 12,214-15-6. 

SA-MEIK KOX. — .\ village in the Samcikk(*in circle, Myingyan township, 
subdivision and district, on the eastern bank "^f the Irrawaddy liver. 

It is a port of call fo* the steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company, and 
has a large trade in beans and cotton. Part of the village is flooded every 
year on the rise of the river. A small bazaar is held every five days. There 
is a d\ik bungalow for ofTic'als and a police /Affwa. The population numbers 
two thousand five hundred and fifty s'x person.s. 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



Natural fea- 
tures. 



SA-MI.-A village in the Laungshe township, Yawdwin subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of two hundred and eighty-six persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 680 in 1897. 

SA-MI-DUN-GYI. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township of Magwe 
district, including the single village of Samidungyi. 

SA-MI-DUN-NGfi. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township of Magwe 
district, including the village of Tedaw. 

SAM K A (Burmese Saga). — A State in the Central division of the Southern 
Shan States, with an approximate area of three hundred and fifty-six square 
miles. It is bounded on the north hy Yawng Hwe, on the east by Hsa 
Htung, on the south by Nam Tfik and Sa Koi, and on the west by Loi 
Long. 

Except that the former Nf^wc'kun-hmushtp of Pong Mu, to the north of 
Sam Ka, has been added, the area of the State is pr<*ciselv the same as under 
Burmese rule. The former Da-hmu of Pong Mu failed to submit to British 
authority and as the territory was quite insignificant in size an^l utterly burnt 
out, it was assigned to Sam Ka in tSSy. [Iron was worked in Pong Mu 
formerly and the tribute from the State was a number of well-tempered das, 
whence the name of Da-hmu.'\ 

Sam Ka practically consists of the valley of the Nam Pilu or Balu chaung, 
and is shut in on east and west by ranges of considerable 
height, only a portion of the slopes of which belong to it, the 
remainder lying in the upland States of Hsa Htung and Loi 
Long. The Nam Pilu is the chief feature of the State and, though it has a 
number of affluents, none are of any size. The Pilu is navigable for country 
boats, but it is only used by craft little bia:ger' than canoes, o>ving to the 
numerous dams and weirs built across it for irrigation purposes. 

There are no forests. The valley is entirely given over to paddy culti« 
vation. and the slopes have long since been cleared of all large tree-growth 
for hill crops. 

Heavy fops envelop the valley till well on towards noon at the end of the 
rains, and Sam Ka has therefore a had name for fever, except for those born 
in the State, or accustomed lo similar conditions. 

The following somewhat inconsequent details are furnished as the State 
History. history : — 

The name of the State is said to be taken from the Sagabin fthe Chairj- 
pak). King Afoka is said to havebtiilt a pagoda in the centre of the State 
with an image of Snga wood. The derivation has the usual [Burmese 
character of the " Diversions of Purley." 

In the year 998 B.E,, 1636 A, D., in the reign of King Thalun Mintaya of 
Ava, Pyinnyabala or Ba-nya Bayan was appointed Myoza of Sam Ka, owing 
to failini? of issue to the preceding Myoza. Ba-nya Bayan had four brothers, 
who ruled one at Hsen Wi, one'Iat Hsi Paw, one at KengtQng and one at 
Lai Hka. The Hsi Paw brother had two sons, and when their father died 
the elder succeeded him and the younger brother Kun Lu went off .ind lived 
with his uncle at KengtQng and married his fi.st cousin, and then was 
appointed Myoza of Keng Hi by his father-in-law, the Ki^ngtung SnjvSwa. 
Kun Lu had issue by this marriage a son called Kun Saing. 



SAM] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



lOS 



I 



Kun Lu went down to Ava to try to get Hsen Wi, but was appointed 
Myoza of Sam Ka instead. 

He ruled for some years and on his death his son Kun Saing succeeded 
and was in turn succeeded by Naw Maing, who was succeeded by his son 
Ne Dun, who left no issue and was succeeded by his brother Kun Pyu. In 
1 136 B.E. (1774), Kun Pyu greatly extended the State and started irrigation 
canals and weirs. 

He was succeeded by his son Kun Ye, whose eldest son was appointed 
Kyem-mong by King Bodaw. The Kycm-mong Kun Kywet nnarried a 
daughter of the Hsi Hkip Myoza and had issue two daughters and one son, 
called Kun Sun. 

The Naw Mong, younger brother of Kun Kywet, married and had a son 
named Kun Noi. 

The /Cyem-moTtg pre-deceased his father Kun Ye, who died in 1200 B.E. 
(1838), and Kun Sun, his grandson, was appointed by the King of Shwebo to 
succeed. Myoza Kun Sun married a daughter of his grandfather, Kun Ye, 
and had issue one son, Saw Sein Bu. 

In 1220 B.E. (1858), the Sam Ka and Mong Sit Myozas had a quarrel and 
the Sam Ka Myoza was dismissed, and the myozaship was given to Kun Noi, 
son of Kun Kywet. 

Ill 1322 B.E. (i860) Kun Noi rebelled against the King of Burma and 
Kun .Sun was reinstated, and the king sent troops to uphold Kun Sun, as 
the St."?te was in an unsettled condition. Kun Noi was defeated and retired 
to Toungoo. Kun Sun then continued to reign in peace and in 1227, 
(1865) he started an irrigation canal from Nawng VVawn. 

In 1234 B.E. (1872) King Mindflnsent an order for one hundred men from 
_ ga m-Ka to go to Hsen Wi to protect the silver mines Jrom Kachin raids: 
as they were not immediately despatched, the Sam Ka Myoza, Kun Sun, was 
dismissed and his State made over to the Hsen VVi Sajvbwa. 

In 1235 B.E. (1873) 1st lasok of Tasaungmon (5th November) San Sein 
Bu, son of Kun Sun, was appointed Myoza and ordered to serve the king 
for one year at Mong Y6k and in his absence a Burman, Maung Pu, was 
appointed to the charge of Sam Ka with the title of Sifke while Saw Sein 
Ku was detained by the king in Mandalay. In 1238 B.E. (1876) the 
inhabitants of Sam Ka fell out with Maung Pu and killed him, whereupon 
Saw Sein Bu was dismissed and Kun Noi appointed again. 

In 1245 B E. (1883) Kun Noi died and his son Kun Pwin succeeded. 

In 1247 B.E. (18S5) Kun Pwin and the inhabitants fell out and Kun 
Pwin left the Stale and on the gth la^ok of Natdaw 1247 B.E. (30th De- 
cember 1885) Saw Sein Bu returned and was received as Myoza by the 
people. When the British Government annexed Burma, he was among the 
first of the Shan Chiefs to submit and was confirmed as Myoza of the State 

Saw Sein Bu has retained charge ever since and is one of the most loyal. 
Myozas and has received the decoration of " T. D. M." 

Antiauilies There are no edifices, historically or archaeologically, 

worthy of note. 

The three pagodas of Maw Pi, Ta Kawng and Loi Noi have annual feasts, 
but are only of local repute. 1 

14 



P< 



"k. 



io6 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tSAM 



Both irrigated paddy and taungya are extensively cultivated and far ex- 

Acr'culture ceed the local requirements: though of late years the 

crops are said to have suffered from scanty rainfall. The 

average yield is thirty-five to forty-fold. Hill clearings are largely worked, 

and in most cases the yas are prepared by hand. 

The groundnut is extensively cultivated in the L6n Kan circle on the 
west bank of the river, and the cultivation is extending, otherwise the en- 
tire area of ^£' lands produce paddy. There is also a large area under 
garden cultivation, producing plantains, pine-apples, sugarcane, Indian-corn, 
tobacco and cotton, little or no vegetables being grown. 

Groundnut-oil is used for culinary purposes, instead of sessamum, which 
is nearly all imported. 

The following are the prices of paddy and rice : — 











Rs. 


A. 


p. 


While paddy, per lOO baskets 


... 




• •■ 


80 








White rice, do. 


... 




•«• 


250 








Red paddy, do. 


... 




••• 


70 








Red rice, do. 


... 




■ * * 


200 








Groundnuts unshelled per loo 


baskets ... 


Rs. 


100 to 


SO 








Stock— 














Ruffaioes 


• •• 


Rs. 


Soto 


100 








Bullocks 


• •• 


Rs. 


60 to 


80 









The population is said to be rapidly increasing, owing to the just rule of 
Population. *^^ Myoza and the present security of life and property. 

The figures given below may be accepted as approxi- 
mately correct. 

Male. Female. Total. 
Adults... ... ... 4,80a 5,965 10,767 

Non-adult» ... ... 3,49^ 2,991 6,487 



Total 



"7.254 



Raets— 








Number 


Shans 




... 


... 


... 6.808 


Taungthus 




«t* 


. 


. 


.:. 5,010 


Inthas 




•M 


. 


. 


... 4.711 


Taungyos 




... 


. 


. 


»43 


Danaws 




... 


. 


, 


lo 


Red Karens 




... 


. 


t 


152 


Gaungtos 




... 


» 


. 


237 


Burmese 




... 


. 


* 


85 



Total 



17.256 



Besides Sam Kat town there are 34 villages wortliy of mention. The 
Chief towns attached statement shows the name of circle, the Village 

the number of houses and the race of resident. 



SAMl 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



107 



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loS 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ISAM 



Trade and indus 
tries. 



Five-da]' bazaars are held at Sara Ka, Maw Kfin, Lon 
Kan, Nantaung and Winsin. 

Trades and manufactures are insignificant. Iron is extracted from the 
Loi Lik (Iron hill) in ihe Banpyin circle in a very small way and since sufTi- 
cient profit is not made from mining, miners work paddy-fields in addition. 
Small quantities of cotton cloth are manufactured, but tlicy are fast being 
driven out of the market by Manchester goods; kamauks, leather sandals, 
baskets and bags are made in the district, besides very fair pottery. 

Copper is said to orcur in the hills opposite Sam Ka; but has not been 
worked for a couple of centuries. The old shafis are visible. 

Revenue — Rs. a. f, 

Tkiithameda ... ... ... 11,555 o o 

Fishery ... ... ... ... 300 o o 

Faddy revenue .„ .,, ... 1,000 o o 



Revenue and 
administration. 



Total 



12.855 



The Slate is divided into eleven tracts or circles for revenue purposes, 
the thathameda assessment varies according to tracts and ranges from Rs. a 
to Rs. 15 per house. The average assessment is under Rs. 5-8-0 per house- 
hold. Each circle is in charge of a Kyesa who, with the aid of tlie village 
headman, is responsible for the collection of the revenue. 'V\it Kyesas art- 
paid 10 per ficnt. commission. 

The administration of the State is conducted by Saw Sein Bu, T D.M.| 
the Myoza, aided by Amats, a Myo-sa-ye, Kyesas and village Kyans. 

The Myoza appoints his own officials and pays an annual tribute of Rs. 
9,000. 

SAM PU.— A small circle in the Northern Shan State of North Hsen Wi. 

It had in 1898 only one Kachin and one Palaung village, with twenty 
houses and a population of about one hundred persons. It is situated on a 
small range of hills running p.irallel with the Nam Tu, some four mites 
from the right bank of that stream, and about thirty miles below Hsen WI. 
it consists of round grassy hills, slightly wooded. 

The headman's village has eight houses of Lahtawng Kachins and a 
population of forty persons, and is situated on the northern slope of this 
range of hills. The people are poor and have to depend on hill cultivation 
in a by no means rich soil. 

SAM PUM (SAN-P6N).— A village in theTalawgyi circle of Myitkyina 
district. 

It contained in 1890 twelve Chincse-Shan houses. The estimated popu- 
lation was forty eight persons. 

SA-MUN. — A village of one hundred and thirty-five houses in the Pado 
township of Sagaing district. It lies twenty-one miles north-west of 
Sagaing and had formerly Civil and Military Police posts and was the 
headquarters of a township. 

It was the scene of more than one encounter with the rebels in Annex- 
ation times, especially of a sharp light in July 1886. Salt is manufactured. 
The village has declined a good deal since the withdrawal of the police 
post and the tranquillizing of the district. Villagers who had come here 
for protection have now returned to their former homes. 



K 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



109 



SAMYAUL. — A village of Chins of the Tash6n tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies near Khoppwel on the right bank of the Manipur river and 
can be reached by the road that leads to Khoppwel. 

In 1894 it had twenty houses : Parr Perag was its resident chief. The 
villagers are Ngus and pay tribute to Falam. They arc related to the 
Tasht^ns of Nomwell, Tunvvel and Shinslii. 

SAN-DA. — A revenue circle in the Legayaing township and subdivision 
of Upper Chindwin district, containing six villages. 

SAN-DA-LA-ZU. — A village in the Pakokku circle, township, subdivi- 
sion and district, with a population of two hundred and three persons 
according to the census of 1891. 

The ihathameda amounted to Rs. 290 for 1897-9S. 

SAN-DAN. — A village in the Myintha circle, Pak6kku township, sub- 
division and district, wiLh a population of two hundred and twenty-one 
persons, according to the census of 1S91. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 760 for 1897-98. 

SAN-DA-PU-RI. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura township and sub- 
division of Mandalay district. 

It is the only village in the circle and is situated twelve miles east south- 
east of headquarters. It had a population of one hundred and twenty 
persons at the census of 1891 and paid Rs. igo thaihamcda-ia.%. The 
land revenue from the circle amounted to Rs. 64. 

SANGA — A village in the Myitkyina district with thirteen houses of 
Marip and Maru Kachins, who came fifty years ago from I'asang Pum. 
The villagers wash gold lour days' march north of the village, but get very 
little. 

A road leads east via Long Pukap, a Shan village, to Nankalam. 

SANG HON. — A daing on circle in Mong Long sub-Slate of Hsi Paw, 
Northern Shan States, in charge of a nebaivg. I be circle is bounded on 
the north-east by Nam Hpan and Taw Hsang, on the east and south by 
Man Kang, on the south-west by HsaPavvng, on the west by Kwan Mawk, 
and on the north-west by suburbs of Mong Long town. 

It had in 1898 a population of five hundred and seventy-one persons in 
one hundred and forty-five households and six villages. 

The net revenue paid amount'd to Rs. 1,160-8-0, with about two hun- 

i<Jred and thirty-eight baskets of paddy. Some tea revenue is paid, but it 

is included in that of Wan Kang. The villagers are l^alaungs and Shans. 

The Palaungs work tea around Sang Hun and the Shans paddy along the 

Nam Kavval. 

SANGUAR. — A village of Lai Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It lies 
between Lunta and Burma, and can be reached from Gaiigaw, eighteen 
miles, and from Tonwa. In 1894 it had ten houses: Tangling was its 
resident chief. Ihe village was founded by Kapi and Lunta; it is stockad- 
ed and has limited water-supply, but plenty of camping-ground. The 
T6nwa chiefs have influence over the village ; which was partially disarmed 
in 1895. 

SAN-PAING. — A village in the Talawgyi circle of Myitkyina district. 

It contained ten Chinese-Shan houses in 1 Sgo. The population numbered 
forty persons. 



no 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAN— SAP 



SAN-YAUNG.— A village in the Sanyaung circle, Pakokku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and forty-two 
persons, according to the census of 1S91. 

The thathavieda amounted to Rs. 280 for 1897-98. 

SAN-YVVA. — A village in the Yaw township, Yawdwin subdivision of 
Pakokku district. 

The thathanieda amounted to Rs. 340 for 1897-98. 

SAN-YWE, — A village in the Shwe-gyetyet revenue circle, in the 
Amarapura township and subdivision of Mandalay district, three miles 
soulli-west of headquarters. 

It had a population of one thousand five hundred and sixty persons 
at the census of 1891 and paid Rs. 2,790 thatharneda-idkiL. There is a bazaar 
and a railway station in the village. 

SAN-ZWfi. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with an area of two square miles of attached lands. 

There are one hundred and seventy-four inhabitants and ninety-eight 
acres of cultivation. Paddy and jaggery are the chief produce. The thu' 
thameda revenue for jSgC-g? amoanted to Rs. 650. The village is sixteen 
miles from Ye-u and is under the Paluzwa thugyi. 

SAO PAWN.— A, circle in the Northern Shan State of North Hscn Wi. 
It is situated some eighteen miles south-east of Nam Ukam, on a range of 
mountains running south from the Shweli, and consists of well-wooded 
hills and a long oval valley, at the bottom of which is a large area of most 
excellent paddy-land. 

In 1898 it had twelve Kacliin, two Palauug and two Shan villages, with a 
population of about one thousand persons. 

The duwa's village contains fifteen Kacliin houses, with a population of 
eighty persons, and is situated on a high ridge, close to the road from VVying 
Hseu Wi, to Nam tlkaui. It has a small bazaar, 

SAO PAWN or KAWNG HPA.— A Kachin (Lawkhura) village in North 
Hsen Wi, Northern Shan States. 

It contained one hundred houses in 1894, with a population of tvpo hun- 
dred and eighty persons. The revenue paid was one rupee per household 
and the people were paddy, maize and opium traders by occupation, and 
owned ninety bullocks, forty buflaloes and eighty pigs. The price of paddy 
was eight annas the basket. 

SAO PONG.— A Lepai Kachin village in North Hsen Wi, Northern Shan 
States, in Ho Tao circle. 

It contained seventeen houses in 1894, with a population of one hundred 
and five persons. The revenue paid was three rupees per household and 
the occupation of the people was paddy and maize cultivation. They 
owned thirty bullocks, twenty buffaloes, two ponies and one hundred and 
seventy pigs. The price of paddy was eight annas the basket. 

SA-PA-Dl. — A villagein the Tbz^ township, Ye-u subdivision of Shvv'ebo 
district, with a population in 1891 of three hundred and forty-.lve persons. 

The chief erop is paddy ; the ihathamcda revenue for 1896-97 amounted 
to Rs. 360. The distance from Ye-u is forty-sevcn-and-a-haU miles. 



SAP-SAT ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



Ill 



SA-PS:.— A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of PakAkku 
district, with a population of s^ix hundred and twenty-one persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 189T, and a revenue of Rp. 1,040. 

SARAK or HARAK.— A village of Chins of the Kanhow tribe in the 
Northern Chin Hills. It lies south of Lenacot and between Lenacot and 
Kwiinkum (l.umpil's village), and is r'»ached by the route leading to the 
Lenacot, and thence five miles south to the village, 

It had ten houses in 1894 : the resident chief "as Kulzan. The people 
are Thados and are subordinate to Howchinkup. The village has been 
disarmed. Water is obtained from water-holes, but is scarce. 

SARAW,— AKachin villasrcin Tract No. 40, Myitkyina district, situated 
in 26'^ 39' norili latitude, and 96^ 23' east longitude. 

The headman has seven others subordinate to him. 

The village is surrounded hy a strong stockade of giant bamboos packed 
closely together and standing fifteen feet out of the ground, strongly inter- 
laced and panjied at the top and bottom. The main entrance faces south 
and has a massive teak door, six inches thick. Inside, all round the stockade, 
is a shallow entrenchment with the earth thrown up against the stockade, 
deep enough for men to sit in with perfect safety. The hill is cleared for fifty 
yards all round and is bounded on the east by an almost precipitous descent 
to the TarOn chaung. The hill on which Saraw stands is about three hun- 
dred feet above the level of the valley. The villacre is visible from VValup, 
a quarter of a mile to the south-east and separated from the foot of the hill 
by paddy-fields. The hill itself is densely wooded. The road from VValup 
leads through a gate in a low palini? at the foot of the hill, and ascends a 
path eight feet broad, with the jungle cleared for thirty yards on each side, 
and bordered by dense forest ; the road terminates at the south-west corner 
of Saraw. The low paling at the bottom of the hill probably extends all 
round the base. 

SARAWKONG.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 22, Bhamo district, 
situated in 24° 29' north latitude and 96° 56' east longitude. 

The number of bouses in 1892 was twelve and the population numbered 
forty-two persons. The headman of the village has no others subordinate 
to him. The inhabitants are of the Lepal tribe and own twenty-fire buffa- 
loes. 

SARENGCHE T. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 40, Myitkyina district, 
situated in 26° 40' north latitude and 96° 38' east longitude. In 1892 it 
contained twenty houses : its population was not known. The headman of 
the village has no others sub'^rdinate to him. The inhabitants are of the 
Sassan tribe. 

SASSAKYET or S.\CHAKYET.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 22, 
Myitkyina district, situated in 25° 29' north latitude and 97° 50' east longi- 
tude. 

In 1892 it contained fourteen houses, with a population of fifty-four per- 
sons. The headman of the village has no others subordinate to him. The 
inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Sadan sub-tribe. Water-supply is 
limited. 

S.\TAWN.— A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It 
lies eighteen miles east of Lotaw, on the road to Riw-ywa, and can be 
reached via Raw-ywa. 



112 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ SAT 



III 1894 it had sixty houses. Tatso was Its resident chief. The village 
has stockades at the ejatcways, and there is a fair camping-ground and 
water-supply. Tatso is related to Munk6n of Shurkwa. It was partially 
disarmed in 1895. 

SA-THA-GON. — A village in the Indaing township, Tantabin subdivision 
of Shwebrt district, on the Paung-thwe stream, forty-six miles from Ye-u. 

The population in i8go numbered one hundred and ninety-three persons, 
mostly paddy cultivators. The tkathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted 
to Rs. 270. 

SA-THEIN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pakfik- 
ku district, with a population of ihrcc hundred and seventy-eight personsi 
according to the census of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 1,650. 

SA-TI-HSU.— .y^e under Chatzu-Shu, 

S.\T-KIN. — A village eight miles north-west of Wundwin, in the Northern 
subdivision of Meiktila district, with an agricultural population of six hun- 
dred persons. 

There are several small tanks in the village filled from the Thinbon 
stream. The pagodas were built by private benefactors, A small bazaar 
is held and Goverumeut fees derived from it. A good deal of weaving is 
carried on. 

SA T-KYQ. — A circle in the Natmaw township of Magwe district, about 

ten miles to the south-enst of Pin. 

A hill close to Sat-kyo, and bearing the same name, was the scene of several 
fights between dacoits and the police in the years 1887 to i88g. There is 
very good grazing-ground which is said never to fad, even in years of 
drought. 

SA-TON. — A revenue circle in the Salin-gyi to^^usllip of Lower Chindwin 
district, including nine villages, with two thousand seven hundred and thirty- 
four inhabitants. It is situated on level ground on the right bank of the 
Chindwin river. 

The revenue of the circle for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 5,718-7-0. The 
villages in the circle are Sa-t6n, Natset, Tansin, Kye-bindon, Hkaungg6n, 
Ywa-tha, Tawgyaung-taung, Tawgvaung-myauk, and Letsan-gyun. There 
js a Government bazaar at Sa-ton village. 

SATON.— A village of Chins of the Whenoh tribe in the Central Chin Hills. 
It lies between Kopishi and Dibwcl and is reached via Klao, Khwanglum, 
and Dartati. In 1894 it had twenty-seven houses. Rao Ta-um was its 
resident chief. It pays tribute to l'"alam. Water is available fron> a spring. 

SAT-PYA-GYIN — A circle in the Myingun township of Magwe district, 
including the single village of Ya-be-gwe. 

SAT-TEIN. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and sixty-five persons 
and the thathameda anmunted to Rs. 945. No land i-evenue was collected 
in the circle, 

SAT-THE. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of Shwebo 
district, six miles from Ye-u. 



8AT-SAW ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



»i3 



There are two hundred and ninetoen inhabitants and sixty-one acres under 
cultivation, chit* fly of paddy. There is also a considerable industry in the 
manufacture of clocks, or wooden sandals, and bamboo water baskets, A 
good deal of se-ye, bits of pith and stalk mixed with tobacco, is prepared 
for Burmese cigars. For 1896-97 the thathameia revenue amounted to 
Rs. 560. 

SAT-THA-WA. — Once the headquarters of the township of that name, a 
village in the Taungdwingyi township and subdivision of Magwe district. 

The village itself is small, but a considerable bazaar is held every five 
days. The surrounding land is fertile and it is situated on a country road. 
By this it is connected with the river and with Taungdwingyi. 

SAT-THWA — A village in the Tha-bye circle, Ye-za-gyo township, Pa- 
k6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and twenty- 
three persons, according to the census of 1 8g i . 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 480 for 1897-98. 

SAUAUNG. — A Kachin villag'' in Tract No. 40, Myitkyina district, situ- 
ated in 26" 14' north latitude and 96° 35' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained fourteen houses : its population was unknown. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The tribe to which the inhabit- 
ants belong is not known. 

SAUK-TAVV-WA. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura township and 
subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It includes two villages. The land revenue amounted toRs. 257 in i8gi. 

SAUK-TAW-WA. — A village in the revenue circle of the same name in 
the Amarapura township and subdivision of Mandalay district, eight miles 
east-south-east of headquarters. 

It had a population of eight hundred and twenty-five persons at the census 
of 1891, and paid Rs. 1,515 thatltameda-tix. 

SAUNGTE. — .\ village of Chins of the Tash6n tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies two-and-a-half miles east of Faiam post, and can be reached 
by a Chin track. 

In 1894 it had one hundred and thirty houses : its resident chief was Lyen- 
mon. The village consists of a group of three villages: Rareng, Khotarr, 
and Kwangpun. The inhabitants are Tashons proper, like the people of 
Falam. Water is brought in troughs from the west of the village. 

SAUNGTYA. — A village of Chins of the Ilaka tribe in the Southern Chin 
Hills. It lies twenty-rfhree miles south-west of Haka and can be reached 
from Ilaka via Kusa. 

In 1894 it had ninety houses : Tinkarr was its resident chief. The village 
is stockaded, and there is fair camping-ground on the west. It pays tribute 
to Lyen Mo of Haka. 

SAW. — A village in the Saw circle, Laungshe township, Yaxvdwin sub- 
division of Pak6kku district, with a population of seven hundred and 
eighteen persons, and a revenue of Rs. 1,620, according to thugyi's census 
rolls for 1897. 

SA-WA-DI. — A village of seventy-four houses on the left bank of the 
Irrawaddy river, a few miles north of the mouth of the Moyu chaung in the 
Bhanio subdivision and district. 



»5 



114 



•THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SAW 



Fifty-one of the houses were assessed to thathameda in 1893. The 
villagers own a few cattle and cultivate a very small area of mayin land, 
but the majority of them live as brokers, Sa-w:i-Ui being the river terminus of 
the important Nam Hkam trade route. The main imports are letpei the 
price of which is sixty rupees for the hundred viss, letpet chauk, a hundred 
rupees the hundred viss, groundnuts, one-and-a-half to two rup'^es the bas- 
ket, and rice, two hundred and fifty rupees the hundred baskets. The 
price of each of these articles of import was considerably less in 1891 than 
it is now (1893). The letpet comes from LwelAn and Taungbaing (Tawng 
Peng), and the rice from the Nam Hkam country. 

A Public Works Department rest-house and a police guard have been 
built in the village. Sa-wa-di was formerly under the Kaungton Myolhttgyi 
and the Bhamo Wun, who controlled also Nammapwe, Inbyin, Thagaya, 
Moyu, Myalc, Kyetsha-gyun, Thiisftn, Hantct, Manmakauk, Gwe-gyi, Man- 
w&n, and KAnbfin, The office was yoya, hereditary, and was held by the 
family of one Maung Pe until be was removed by Colonel Adamson in t886. 
The village was attacked twice by dacoits in 1889-90 and completely burnt 
to the ground, but it is now recovering. 

Anderson, Mandalay to Momein^ describes it in 1875 as — 

" A miserable village of about forty houses, though formerly containing 
five times that number. Continual inroads of Kachins had reduced it to 
these scanty dimensions. It was then under the protection of the P6iikham 
Kachin chief, who also, for a yearly payment of salt, protected the village 
of Ywathit, situated about three-quarters of a mile to the north on the high 
bank of a small stream, called the Theinlin, which flows into the Irrawaddy 
between high alluvial banks. The village of Sa-wa-di was in 1875 de- 
fended by a double bamboo palisade, and a similar fence ran along the 
narrow path dividing the two rows of houses. As a further protection boats, 
corresponding to the number of houses, were moored to the river bank and 
nightly the inhabitants retired to them for sleep to secure themselves 
against the not infrequent nocturnal attacks of the Kachins. The Kachins 
during the day bought fish and salt at the village bringing bamboos to be 
floated down the river. Around the village stretches a vast alluvial swamp, 
bounded on the east by the hills, and profusely covered with forest and 
jungle, sometimes of underwood, sometimes of dense grass, fifteen feet 
high." 

SAW-LON. — The capital of the state of Gantarawadi, or Eastern Karcn- 
ni, and the residence of the Myoza of the State. It is situated on a small 
plateau, on the slope of the range which parts the N^m Pawn from the Sal- 
ween, and is about half a mile from the former stream. 

It is surrounded by a wooden stockade with two gates on the eastern and 
western fronts. There are only three short streets, but some of the houses 
are substantial and solidly built of teak timber. Channels of water run 
down the sides of all three streets and are carefully boarded over. These 
are diverted from the fair-sized stream which runs through the town and is 
crossed in each street by a substantial bridge. There are a few street 
lamp posts dating from the time of Sawlapaw. The surrounding hill-slopes 
are covered with plantain gardens, A very fine hpOngyikyaung and nayat 
stand to the extreme south of the town, balancing the ha-v of SawTapaw, 
which was on the north, but has fallen into disrepair and is partially de- 
molished. Cocoanut and areca palms and betel-vines grow luxuriaatly oa 



: 



SAW-SED ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ns 



all the upper slopes. There is a good spring outside the town. There is 
a higher plateau, where also Sawlapavv built himself a palace. The stream 
between the two plateaux falls in a picturesque cascade. There were in 
i8go about one hundred houses in the town, with a population composed in 
loughly equal numbers of Shans, Red Karens, and Yangtalai. 

S;\W-Mfe. — A village in the Shwc-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with nine square miles of attached land. 

The population in 1891 numbered forty persons, and there were sixty-two 
acres under cullivation, Paddy and jaggery are the chief produce. The 
village is ten miles from Ye-u and paid 72 rupees thalhameda revenue for 
1896-97. 

SAVVTHl. — A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills, 

In 1894 it had ten houses. It lies three miles west of Kaw-ywa and can 
be reached from Kaw-ywa, crossing the stream : Ya Kwit was its resident 
chief. The village is entirely under the influence of Kaw-ywa. It is not 
stockaded but has a good water-supply, and there is camping-ground on 
the north. 

SA-YE. — A village of one hundred and fifty houses in Padu township of 
Sagaing district. 

Saye is a station on the Mu Valley railway and is nine miles north of 
Sagaing, in the centre of a fine wheat country. 

SA-YE-WA. — A revenue circle in the Taungdwin-gyaung township, Min- 
gin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district, including a single village. 
The revenue in 1897 amounted to Rs. 240. 

SA-YIN-GON. — A village in the Nga-mya circle, Ye-za-gyo township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of seventy-eight persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 170. 

SEA-AK or SEYAT.— A village of Chins of the Whenoh tribe in the Cen- 
tral Chin Hills. It lies three miles south of Punte village, and can be reach- 
ed via Punte, Shurbum, and Lyenhnga, 

In 1894 it had seventy houses. Tinbun w.is its resident chief. It pays 
tribute to Falam, and has been disarmed. There is a good water-supply. 

SE-BIN-G YI. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of one hundred and twenty-seven persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 340. 

SE-BIN-ZU. — A village in the Palano circle, PakAkku township, subdivi- 
sion and district, w'ith a population of one hundred and sixty-two persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 410, included in that of 
Palano. 

Sfe-DAW. — A village and revenue circle in the Patheingyi township, 
Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, sixteen miles east of head- 
quarters. 

It had a population of eighty persons at the census of 1891, and paid Rs. 
160 thathameda-ta.'m. Siickw lies near the head of the Nadaunggj-a stream, 
whose waters are here dammed and diverted into the AungbinI6 canal. 

S£-DAW. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of Shwe- 
bo district, twenty- five miles from Ye-u. 



Ii6 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ISED— S£H 



There are three hundred and thirty-two inhabitants. AH are paddy culti- 
vators. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 460. 

SE-DO. — A village seven miles west of Ma-hlaing in the Northern sub- 
division of Meiktila district, with about a hundred houses. 

There is a small bazaar. 

S£ EN. — A Mong or township of the Northern Shan State of North 
Hsen Wi, lying in the extreme south-west corner of the State, and border- 
ing on Hsi Paw. The Government cart-road to Lashio traverses a part of 
it. 

S6 En is administered by a htamdng. The population is chiefly Shan, 
with a sprinkling of Palaungs in the hills, and one or Iwo small villages of 
Kachins. A wooden bridge on the cantilever system has been thrown over 
the Nam Ma at the htamdng s village and carries carts. It was constructed 
by Mr. Martindell, Assistant Engineer. 

Sfi EN.— A Shan village in the North Hsen Wi, Northern Shan State, in 
the circle of Sfe En. 

It contained fifty houses In 1894, with a population of one hundred and 
eighty persons. The revenue paid was four annas per household and the 
occupation of the people was paddy cultivation. They owned thirty bul- 
locks, four buffaloes and four ponies, The price of paddy was eight annas 
the basket. 

SE-GYI. — A village on the Nabu chaung, a tributary of the Kaukkwe, in 
the Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The village stands on high ground and is stockaded. It has thirteen 
houses of Shan-Burmese. Mayin is worked regularly and taungya inter- 
mittently. The village was settled from Naungpyit, which was attacked 
and destroyed by Kachins in 1886. 

S£-GYI. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with an attached area of two square miles. 

There arc ninety-six inhabitants, and a cultivated area of tlilrty-se\en 
acres. The principal products are paddy and jaggery. The thathameda 
revenue amounted to Rs. 410 for 1896-97. S&-gyi is twelve miles from 
Ye-u. 

Sfi-GY!. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with three-and-a-half square miles of attached land. 

There were one hundred and seventy-eight inhabitants in 1891 and three 
hundred and fifty-six acres of cultivated land. Paddy and jaggery are the 
chief products. The village is ten miles from Ye-u. The revenue from 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 370 for 1896-97. The village is under the 
Chaungna thugyi. 

S£ HI.— A village in the Nam Hkam circle of the Northern Shan State 
of North Hsen Wi, situated close to the Nam Mao (Shweli) river in the 
midst of the paddy plain. 

There were forty-six houses in the village in February 1892, with one 
hundred and eighty inhabitants, all Shan-Chinese. There is a ferry a 
the village. The people cultivated the paddy-fields indiscriminately on 
either side of the river and mixed up ine.xtricably with those of the in- 
habitants of the Chinese side of the border. The whole plain here is 
fiecjuently six feet deep under water during the rainy season. The people 



5BH-SEt] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



117 



go from house to house in boats, and artificial mounds are constructed at 
frequent intervals as refuges for the cattle. There is a pCngyi kyaung 
in the village, with four monks. Three traders are settled in Sfe Hai, but 
the bu!k of the people are rice-cultivators. 

S£ HI.— A township in tht Kawn Kang or Mid Riding of Mang Lon 
West, Northern Shan State. It lies west ol the Nam Pang, south of Pang 
Kut, in the huge elbow here made by the river. 

It had eleven villages, with one hundred and five houses in 1892 and 
consists of bare rolling downs, with a little more uncultivated ground than 
the neighbouring township and some scattered uncultivable hills. Here 
and there is a little wet paddy-land, but the great bulk is upland. The 
bazaar at Kat Taii is largely attended and there are thirteen caravan traders 
in the township. Sugar is produced for export. 

S£ HI. — A village in the Kawn Kang or Mid Riding of the Northern 
Shan State of Mang L6n West. 

It is the residence of the htamdng in charge of the circle of the same 
name, which is situated in the elbow made by the Nnm Pang to the south 
of Loj Tawng. The /i/amdngha.s altogether twelve villages in his charge, 
most of ihcm of no great size. In the main village itself there were in 
April 1892 eight houses, with a population of fifty-nine persons, all Shans. 
The villagers cultivated a little irrigated land and some sugarcane, but 
their chief crops were dry. The village stands at a height of three thousand 
six hundred feet. 

SEIK-CHE. — A village in the Seik-che circle, Maing township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and sixty-one per- 
sons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathameila amounted to Rs. 720 for 1897-98. 

SEIK-KWA. — A village in the Seik-kwa circle, Pakokku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of seven hundred and thirty- 
three persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,390 for 1897-98. 

SEIK-PYU. — A township of the PakAkku subdivision and district, is 
bounded on the north by Pauk township, on the east by Pakokku township, 
on the south by Minbu district, and on the west by Laung-she township. 

It has an area of three hundred and sixteen square miles and includes one 
hundred and nine villages, with a population of twenty-three thousand four 
hundred and fourteen persons. There are twenty-nine revenue circles, which 
pay an aggregate cissessment of Rs. 53,740. The headquarters are at 
Seik-pyu. 

SEIKPYU.— A village in the Seikpyu township, Pakokku subdivision 
and district, with a population of six hundred and fifty-four persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891. The thathameda amounted to Rs. 3,340 for 

1897-98. 

SEIK-THA. — A revenue circle in the Taungdwing-gyaung township, 
Mincin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes a single village and paid Rs. 630 revenue in 1897. 

SEIK-THA. — A circle in the Myingun township of Magwe district, includ- 
ing the village of Seiktha only. 



ii8 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ SEI 



SEIK-THA. — A village of fourteen houses, on tbc right bank of the 
Sctkala chaung in the Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The village was founded in 1893 from Katha. It owns twenty-eight 
buffaloes and cultivates some may in paddy. 

SEIK-THA-SU. — A village in the Indaing township, Tantabin subdivision 
of Shwebo district, on the Mu river, forty-seven miles from Ye-u. 

The population in 1891 numbered one hundred and thirty-nine persons, 
all rice cultivators. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to 
Rs. 150. 

SEI K -THAT. — A village in the Kunlat circle, Myaing township, Pak&kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and twenty-two 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 310 for 1897-98. 

SEIK-THIN-BO. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of 
Shwebo district, thirteen miles from Ye-u. 

The population numbers sixty-one persons, and thirty-two acres of paddy 
land are cultivated. For 1896-97 the thathameda revenue amounted to 
Rs. 150. 

SEIN-BAN-G.AN. — A revenue circle in the Natogyi township, Myingvan 

subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand one hundred and fifty- 
five persons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,206. No land revenue 
was collected in the circle. 

SEIN-BAN-GON. — A village in the Chindaung circle, Seikpyu towrnship, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of twenty-five persons, 

according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 210 for 1897-98. 

SEIN-DON. — A villaj;e in the Shwe-gyet-yet revenue circle, Amarapura 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, three miles south-west of 
headquarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and fifteen persons, at the census of 
1891 and paid Rs. 430 l/iathameda'tax. 

The Shwe-gyet-yet and Shwc-gyet-kya pagodas are famous for their 
p'ioh, which last from the first of the increase of Kaaun (May) until the full 
moon. 

SEIN-GAN.— A village in the Sein-gan circle, Myaing township, Pakdkku 
subdivision and district, with a population of forty-seven persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. ggo for 1897-98. 

SEIN-GON. — One of the quarters of Sagaing town. 

SEIN-NAN. — A revenue circle in the Taz^ township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with a population in 1891 of one bundf^d and ninety-eight 
persons. 

The principal crop is paddy, and for 1896-97 the thathameda revenue 
amounted to Rs. 310. The \illage is lifty-two and-a-half milfs from Ye-u. 



SEI-8BK ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



119 



SEINTONGorSEINGTON.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 18, Mylt- 
kyina district, situated in 24° 54' north latitude and 97- 56' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-five houses 1 its population was unknown. 
The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of 
theYawyin or Lishaw tribe. Water is plentiful, but forage scarce. The 
poppy is very extensively cultivated. 

SEINTONG. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 38,Myitkyina district, situ- 
ated in 25° 52' north latitude and 97° 42' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses ; the population was unascertained. 
The inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe. 

SEIN-ZEIK-GAN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Fak6kku district, with a population of four hundred and forty-nine persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 300, included in that 
of Thanbya-aing. 

SEIT-KUN. — A village in theShwebo township and district, seven miles 
from Shwebo town, noted for its silk manufacture. A large quantity of silk 
paso and tamein are sent to Lower Burma. In 1891 the population num- 
bered two thousand one hundred and seventy-eight persons, composed in 
equal numbers of silk-weavers and cultivators. The yearly revenue amount- 
ed to Rs. 5,550. 

SEIT-THA. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of Man- 
dalay district, north of Letkaung-gyi. 

It has seventy houses and its population numbered in 1892 two hundred 
and fifty persons, approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

Sfi KAN. — A circle in the Northern Shan State of Hsi Paw, in the 
Eastern subdivision. 

It included twenty villages in 1898 and had a population of four hundred 
and fifty-four persons. It is in charge of a nebaing and is bounded on the 
north by Hsawng Hk&. on the west by Nam Yang, on the south by Nam Lan, 
and on the east by Hsawng Hk6. In the same year it paid Rs. 1,156-8-0 
net revenue and supplied one hundred and ninety-seven baskets of paddy. 
It had no revenue-paying thanatpet trees. The population is engaged in 
paddy-cultivation, both lowland and upland. A. great deal of scssamum is 
grown, especially round Na Ung village, but very little cotton is produced. 
Shan paper is also turned out. 

SEKSEKYO CHAUNG. — .\ stream utilized for irrigation purposes in 
the Ko-ywa circle, Pyinmana subdivision of Yam^thm district. 

It rises in the south-west of the Posaung range and eventually joins the 
Ngateik stream near Milaung-g^n in the Ko-ywa circle. The irrigation 
embankment is on the upper waters of the stream, near the old village of 
Kanla. It trickles out of rocks near its source and for this reason is called 
the Seksekyo, or water dropping stream. 

SEK TU. — A village of lifteen houses on the Sinkan chaung in the Shwegu 
subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The stream is easily fordable here. The villagers own eight buffaloes 
and work Ic. Sektu was formerly protected by the Lathein Kachins, dis- 
tant one day to the south-east of Sektu. 



120 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ SEK-S£L 



SEKURR.— A village of Chins of the Yahow tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies on the side of a hill east of the Klairon stream and half a mile 
south of Yatlier, and can be reached vid Shunkla, twelve miles. 

In 1894 it had sixty houses: Tansow was its resident chief. Sekurr is a 
Yahow village, subordinate to Vanul, and pavs tribute to Falam. It is sur- 
rounded by a strong hedge. There is good camping-ground on the north- 
east, but water is two hundred yards distant. 

Sfe LAN. — A circle in the Northern Shan State of North Hsen Wi. 

It had in i8g8 twenty Shan, eight Palaung and three Kachin villages, with 
a population of about six thousand persons. It is situated along the valley 
of the Nam Mao or Shweli river, above Nam Hkam, which circle it adjoins. 
It consists of paddy plains and low hills, many of which are quite devoid of 
timber. 

The Myoza's village contained one hundred Shan houses, with a popu- 
lation of about six hundred souls. It is situated on a piece of high ground, 
flat on top and with precipitous sides, about half a mile from the left bank 
of the Shweli. It has a very fine Bhuddhist monastery, a few pagodas, 
and a small bazaar. S^ Lan, which was once the capital of the old Hsen VVi 
kingdom, still shows signs of its former greatness, in the shape of old walls, 
gateways, and on the south a dry moat ; the gates, of which there are four, 
are still kept up and regularly locked each night ; the walls enclose a space 
of about half a mile square, about which the present village is scattered. 

The district extends from the Nam Paw, where it breaks from the hills, 
to about half way down the valley of the Nam Mao, and holds half of the 
southern portion of the island formed by the junction of the Nam Paw 
with the Nam Mao, but the frontier line is not yet demarcated. Probably 
over half of the area of Se Lan lay in the bills which formed the southern 
boundary of the valley, but all that is valuable lies along the river where 
nothing is cultivated but paddy. There are a number of bullock traders 
in the district. The Myoza's town lies nearly opposite and only a few 
miles distant from M§ng Mao, the capital of the Chinese-Shan State of 
that name. 

S6 Lan was al war with Nam Hkam in 1887 and suffered a good deal in 
the fighting, but has now recovered and is in a flourishing condition. 
All friction between the two districts has ceased. The Shan-Chinese 
villages are all in the plain or on the lower slopes of the hills and are all 
devoted to rice-cultivation. The fields flooded by the Nam Mao and the 
Nam Paw, which technically join in Mu Se, but do not actually unite till 
within a few miles of Nam Hkam, give the heaviest harvests in the North- 
ern Shan States. The yield iu the so-called island, is specially large. The 
relations between Mong Mao tM^ngmao)and Sc Lan (or as it used to be 
called, Pang Hkam, from one of the most flourishing villages in the district) 
have now been very good for many years. Formerly frontier raiding used 
to be incessant, and the late Myoza of S& Lan was once made a prisoner 
and sat in the Mong Mao bazaar for a considerable time with a canaue 
round his neck. 

In the hills to the south there are many Kachin villages of the four sects 
of Maru, Lahtawng, Lepai and Lashi. They were formerly rather trouble- 
some, though the Shan villages were much too strong to be black-mailed 
and the chief annoyance was that the hillmen were exceedingly backward 



8BM— SET] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



191 



in paying tribute and cherished violent blood feuds with other Kachin settle- 
ments on the Chinese side of the border. Most of these Kachin settlements 
have now been formed into separate circles. 

SE-MIN-DAW.— A village in the Tawma circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, 
Gangaw subdivision of Pakokku district, with a population of one hundred 
Jlnd twenty-seven persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 310 for 1897-98. 

Sfi MUN.— A circle in the Northern Shan State of Hsi Paw, In the 
Eastern subdivision. 

It included thirteen villages in rSgS and had a population of eight hundred 
and thirty- seven persons. It is in charge of a nebaing and is bounded on 
the north by Lot Mawk, on the west by T6n Pfe, on the south by Nam Lan, 
and on the east by Nam Yang. In the same year it paid Rs. 1,758-8-0 net 
revenue. It had also four hundred and forty-four revenue-paying thanatpet 
treps, for which Rs. 50 were rendered. The population is engaged in 
paddy cultivation, both lowland and upland. Shan paper is turned out. 

SEN-GAN. — A circle in the Natmauk township of Magwe district, in- 
cluding the villages of 0-hmedan and Sitha. 

SENGLENG. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 40, Myitkyina district, 
situated in 26° 25' north latitude and 96° 41' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained fourteen houses: its population was unknown. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The tribe to which the in- 
habitants belong has not been ascertained. There are large paddy fields. 

SENG TUM. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 40, Myitkyina district, situ- 
ated in 26° 22' north latitude and 96° 43' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-five houses; the population was not known. 
The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of 
the Marip tribe. 

SE-O-BO. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura townsliip and subdivision 
of Mandalay district. It is the only village in the circle and is situated 
eight miles south-south-west of headt|uarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and twenty-five persons at the census 
of 1 89 1 and paid Rs. 430 thathameda'\.&\. The land revenue amounted to 
Rs. 199. 

SEPI.— A village of Chins of the VVhenoh tribe in the Central Chin Hills. 
It lies south of Botung and can be reached by Kwungli, Dihai and Kyin- 
gyan. 

In 1894 it had sixty-five houses: Longlyen was its resident chief. It 
pays tribute to Falam. Water is available south of the village from a 
stream. 

SET-KA-RA. — A village in the Taung-by6n Ng&-anauk circle, Madaya 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, south-west of Pinya. 

It has forty houses : its population numbered in 1897 one hundred and 
sixty persons, approximately. The villagers are cultivator". 

SfiTON HUNG. — A Palaung village of twenty-eight houses in Tawng 
Peng State, Northern Shan States. 

16 



US3 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER, 



[ SET-fiBY 



There is an excellent plank monastery. The villagers cultivate tea, and 
own twelve cattle and eight ponies. The population numbered thirty-nine 
men, forty-five women and fifty-six children in 1897. 

SET-TAW. — A circle in the Mawlu township, Katha subdivision and 
district. It lies along the M^za and Ledan streams, and is bounded on the 
north by Mawtcik circle, on the east and south by the Manid, and on the 
west by the Banmauk townships. 

The inhabitants of the circle are Kadus of the same clan as the Mawteik 
Kadus, and like them came from Maha-myaing and settled on the swamp 
here. They live by manufacturing salt. and working gold. 

The tract they live in was obtained partly by parchase and partly by con- 
quest. 

The name Settaw is said to be derived from the Burmese el-dato, " a 
swampy place," which in process of time was changed to Settaw. 

The headquarters of the Settaw tbugyi are at Tabaw. After the British 
occupation Settaw circle was divided into the two circles of Upper Settaw 
in Banmauk township, and Lower Settaw is Mawlu township. 

SET-TEIK. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, one mile west of the Shweta chnung. 

It has fifty houses and its population numbered in 1897 two hundred 
persons, approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

Sfi U.— .A. former mong, or township of the Northern Shan State of 
North Hsen Wi, ruled by a resident amat, who is accountable to the 
Sawhwa ouly for the general condition of his charge. It includes the circles 
of Mong Fawng and Nam Sarap and occupies that part of the Hsen Wi 
valley which lies east of the capital, and, like it, is mostly in the valley of 
the Nam Tu or Myit-ngfe, which here, however, is considerably narrower and 
at the eastern extremity is little better than a gorge. 

The hills to the north, south and east are inhabited entirely by Kachins, 
and the circle of Na Ti to the east occupif^s both banks of the river. The 
population of Sfe U is Shan, with the exception of one village of Palaungs. 
Rice cultivation is the only industry and trade is now non-existent, though 
formerly, when the circle was thickly populated, there was a considerable 
volume. 

SE-WA. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pakokku 
district, with a population of fifty-five persons, according to the census of 
i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 120, included in that of Pyinchaung 

Sfe-YWA. — A revenue circle in the Pagan township, and subdivision of 
Myingan district, 

In 1895-96 the population numbered eight hundred and forty-five persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,306. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

S£-YWA.— A village in the Maw State, Myelat district of the Southern 
Shan States. It is about one mile away from Myo-gyi, on the north bank 
of the Zawgyi stream. 

In 1897 '*^ ^^^ ninety-seven houses, with a population of 366 persons, and 
paid Rs. 1,280 annual revenue. The fields are fertile and well irrigated 
by canals from the Zawgyi and yield rice, onions, garlic and beans. 



SEV-SHA 1 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



I3«. 



Sfe-YWA. — A village in the Myintha circle, Pakokku township, subdivi- 
sion, and district, with a population of two hundred and seventeen persons, 
according to the census of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 450, included in 
that of Tandawgyi. 

SE-YWA CHAUNG. — A valley running in a general north and south 
direction between the Mahudaung and Pondaung hills in the west of I^ower 
Chindwin district. The Patolon chaun^ follows the valley. Formerly 
there were ten villages in the valley under one headman and it was known 
as the S6-ywa chaung or ten-village valley in contradistinction to the Shit* 
yvva chaung or eight-village valley, which lies to the south of it. 

SHA-BIiN. — A revenue circle in the Kindat township and subdivision of 
Upper Chindwin district,' including a single village, with an approximate 
area of one-and-a-half square miles. 

The population in 1891 numbered four hundred and forty-seven persons, 
and the revenue amounted to Rs. 1,459, 

SHA-BIN. — A village in the Nonbo circle, Pakokku township, subdivi- 
sion, and district, with a population of one hundred and thirty-four persons, 
according to the census of 1891. 

The MflMawff/fl amounted to Rs. 260 for 1897-98. 

SHA-BIN-GAING.— A village in the Nga Kyan circle, Pakfikku town- 
ship, subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and twenty- 
seven persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathamcda amounted to Rs. 490 for 1897-98, 

SHA-BIN-HLA — A circle in the Magwe township and district, including 
the villages of Shabinhia and Sugauksan- 

SHA-BIN-YE. — A village in the Fauk township and subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of two hundred and tweuty-three 
persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 750. 

SHA-DAW. — A revenue circle in the Mylngyan township, subdivision, 
and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three hundred and ninety-five per- 
sons, and the thathanieda amounted to Rs. 584. No land revenue was 
assessed in the circle. 

SIf A-DAW. — A village in the Nyaungla circle, Pak6kku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of two hundred and thirty-five 
persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 510, 
included in that of Nyaunghla. 

SHA-DAW. — A village in the Tingat circle, Pakokku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of one hundred and ninety- nine 
persons, according to the census of 1S91. 

Jht thathameda amounted to Rs. 580 for 1S97-98. 

SHA-DAW. — A village in the Seik-che circle, Myaing township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of sixty-four persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 230, included in that of 
Seik-che. 

SH.\-DAW. — A village in the Daungb6n circle, Tiiabeitkyin township 
of Ruby Mines district, about two miles south of Sulcg6n. 



134 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tSHA 



It has a population of one hundred and fifty Burmese. 

SHA-DU. — A village in the Shadaw circle, Pak^kku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of two hundred and twenty-two 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thatharneda amountedto Rs. 250 for 1897-98. 

SHA-GON. — A revenue circle and village in the Budalin township, 
Lower Chindwin district, with one hundred and tifty-two inhabitants. It 
lies on the right bank of the Mu river. 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 450, from thatharneda, 
SHA-LA. — A village in the Shala circle, Seikpyu township, Pakokku sub- 
division and district, with a population of three hundred and eight persons, 
according to the census of 1891. 

The thatharneda amounted to Rs. 1,1 10 for 1897-98. 

SHALAOKRAN (.SHATOKRAN).— A Kachin village in Tract No. 18, 
Myitkyina district, situated in 24° 59' north latitude and 97^ 55' east longi- 
tude. 

In 1892 it contained fifteen houses, with a population of forty persons. 
The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of the 
Lepai tribe and Sadan sub-tribe. The poppy is cultivated. 

SHA MAN TON or LOWER MAN TON.— A Chinese village in North 
Hsen Wi, Northern Shan State, in Man T6n circle of Ko Kang 

It contained fifteen houses in 1894, with a population of ninety persons. 
The revenue paid was Rs. 3 per household and the people were paddy, 
maize, and opium cultivators by occupation, and owned twenty bullocks, ten 
buffaloes, and two ponies. The price of paddy was eight annas the basket. 

SHA-MEIN. — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and ninety persons and 
the thatharneda amounted to Rs. 273. No land revenue was collected In 
the circle. 

SHA-MO HTAl (called NAM HWE AWN by the Shans).— A Chinese 
village of twelve houses on the east bank of the Salween river in the Ko Kang 
circle of the Northern Shan State of North Hsen Wi (Theinni), not far frocn 
Mo Htai. 

In iSgathe population numbered fifty-nine persons and they cultivated a 
considerable area with higliland rice, maize and poppy. The village stands 
two thousand and five hundred feet above the Salween, facing the abrupt hills 
of the sub-prefecture of Lungling, which here touches the right bank of the 
river. A few pack animals are kept to carry surplus produce for sale to 
the villages in the neighbourhood. 

SHA-MYO. — A village in Meiktila township, Southern, subdivision of 
Meiktila district. 

The legend accounting for the name of the town is that in 400 B.E. 
(1038 A.D.), when Nawra-hta was King of Pagan, a priest named Shin-ah 
of Thatdn paid him a visit in order to gel permission to preach the religion 
of Gaudama in his kingdom. The King found him to be full of holy zeal 
and expelled one thousand of his own priests from the country. These by 



SHA] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



>3S 



miraculous power formed land in the midst of Meiktila Lake and there they 
lived and establislied the village of Veska-myo, which implies the removing 
of water and the forming of a town. 

SHAN DAW. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, east of Taunggaing. 

It has one hundred and ten houses, with a population of four hundred and 
fifty persons on an approximate calculation in 1897. The villagers are cul- 
tivators. 

SHAN-Dfi. — A village in Meiktila township, Southern subdivision of 
Meiktila district. 

It is said that Shand6 derives its name from the words Shan and /^, 
meaning to stay temporarily, because the village was established by Shans. 

In 1200 B.E. (1838 A-D.), the myothugyis of Meiktila and Yindaw each 
claimed the village and their dispute was settled by King Bodawpaya in 
person. 

SHAN-GAING. — A revenue circle in the Salin-gyi township of Lower 
Chindwin district, including the villages of Shangaing and Pedaw, with 
seven hundred and thirty-two inhabitants. It is situated on the left bank of 
the South Yama stream, in the south-west of the township. 

Paddy, yow;7r, and sessamum are grown. The revenue from thathameda 
amounted to Rs. t,4io for 1896-97. 

SHAN-GA-LE-KYL'N. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura township 
and subdivision of Mandalay district. It is the only village in the circle 
and is situated one mile north-west of headquarters. 

It had a population of four hundred persons at the census of i8gi, and 
paid Rs. 660 thatliameda-\.zx. The land revenue from the circle amounted 
to Rs. 2,583. 

SHAN-GAW.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 8, Bhamo district. 

In 1892 it contained twelve houses, with a population of fortj'-nine per- 
sons. The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are 
of the Lahtawng tribe and own five bullocks and live buffaloes. 

SHANG MAN TON or UPPER MAN TON.— A Chinese village in North 
Hsen Wi, Northern Shan State, in Man I on circle of Ko Kang. 

It contained twenty houses in 1894, with a population of one hundred and 
twenty persons. The revenue paid was Rs. 3 per household and the people 
were paddy, maize and opium cultivators by occupation, and owned forty 
bullocks, twelve buffaloes, eight ponies and one hundred pigs. The price 
of paddy was eight annas the basket (for Middle and Lower Mant6n, see 
under Chung and Sha Mantdn). 

SHAN-MYAUNG-YO.— A village in the Ta!ing-by6n NgJ:-a-she circle, 
Madaya township and subdivision ol Mandalay district, north of In Ma. 

The villagers are cultivators and coolies. There are twenty-six houses, 
and the population numbered in 1897 °°^ hundred and thirty persons, ap- 
proximately. 

SHAN-NAW.— A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It 
lies six miles south of Raw-ywa and can be reached from Raw-ywa, crossing 
several streams. 



ISO 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHA 



In 1894 it had twenty-five houses : Engkyin was its resident chief. The 
villeige is under Rawyvva, and is slightly stockaded. It has a fair water- 
supply, but no camping-ground. 

SHAN-PA-AING. — A viilage in the Way6nbyin circle, Scikpyu township, 
Pakfikku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and 
sixty-four persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Ks. 
460, included in that of Wayonbyin. 

SHAN-SEIK. — \ village in the Ye-u township and Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, on the Mu river, fifteen miles from Yc-u. 

The population numbers fifty-six persons and the area under cultivation is 
28"32 acres. The principal crop is paddy, and tilseed and ponatik are also 
grown. The tkataamcda revenue for 1896-1897 amounted to Rs. 1 74. The 
village is in the Madaingbin Ihugyiship. 

SHAN-SU. — A revenue circle in the Katha subdivision and district, under 
a yvaathugyi. 

It lies close to Katha and is largely inhabited by Shans, as its name implies. 
It contains a single village, with some eighty houses. The only source of 
revenue is thathatnedn, which amounted in 1897 ^° ^^- 1^^- 

SH.\N-T0N. — A village in the Bahin circle, Myaing township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and seventy-four 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 440 for 1897*98. 

SHAN-YWA. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, thirteen miles from Ye-u. 

There are ninety-two inhabitants, chielly paddy cultivators, and the tkti' 
thamcdti revenue for 1897-98 amounted to Rs. 50. 

SHAUK-PIN. — A village in the Yaw township, Yawdwin subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of seventy persons, according to the 
census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 100 for 1897.9S. 

SHAUK-PIN. — A village in the Min-ywa circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, 
Gangaw subdivision of Pakokku district, with a population of two hundred 
and eleven persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thnlhameda amounted to Rs. 430 for 1897-98. 

A ferry is maintained at the expense of the Public Works Department 
during the rainy season. 

SHAUK'PIN-CHAUNG.- A village in the Sabe circle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
ninety persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 180 for 1897-98. 

SHAUK-PIN-CHAUNG.— A village in the Chaungz6n-gyi circle, Myaing 
township, Pakfikku subdivision and disti'ict, with a population of ninety-two 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 180 for 1897-98. 

SHAW-BYU. — A revenue circle in the Natogyi township, Myingyan sub- 
division and district. 



SHA-6HB} 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



137 



In 1895-96 the population numbered two thousand four hundred and five 
persons and the that/iameda dimoixnted to Rs. 3,447. No land revenue was 
collected in the circle. 

SHAW-BYU. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, twenty miles from Ye-u. 

There are two hundred and eighteen inhabitants, who paid Rs. 560 tha- 
thameda revenue for 1896-97. They are all cultivators. 

SHAW-BYU. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of Shwebo 
district, twelve miles from Ye-u. 

There are sixty inhabitants, and one hundred and twenty-five acres of 
land are cultivated, chiefly with paddy. Thatkameda revenue amounting 
to Rs. 360 was paid for 1896-97. 

SHAW-BYU-BIN.— A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, north-west of Bawdi. 

It has twenty houses, and its population numbered in 1S97 eighty per- 
sons, approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

SHAW-BYU-BIN.— A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of seventy-two persons, according to 
the census of 1S91, and a revenue of Rs. 1 80. 

SH.\W-G.\N. — A village in the Northern subdivision of Meiktila district, 
with fifty houses, lying west of Ma-hlaing, on the borders of Myingyan dis- 
trict. 

A good deal of cotton is raised in the neighbourhood. Some resistance 
was shown here by the dacoit, Nyan Nyun of Myingyan, after the Annex- 
ation. 

SHAWLAN.— A Palaung village in the Sailein circle, Kodaung township 
of Ruby Mines district, giving its name to the portion of the Sailein circle 
which lies on the north side of the Shweli river. 

Shawlan was the scene of much strife between the Kachins and Palaungs, 
arising from a petty quarrel, in 187S. Eventually the Kachins drove out the 
Palaungs and destroyed their villages, but subsequently allowed them to re- 
turn, and they have since lived peaceably together. Shawlan is at the ex- 
treme north-east corner of the Kodaung. 

SHA-ZI-GYET. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, cast of Lctkaungyi. 

It has twenty houses, and its population numbered in 1897 ninety-three 
persons. The villagers arc cultivatois. 

SH6. — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of Pak6kku dis- 
trict, with a population of two hundred and twenty-nine persons, according 
to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 410. 

SHEIN-MA-GA. — A township in the Shwebo subdivision of Shwebo dis- 
trict, with an approximate area of one hundred and seventy-six square miles. 
It is bounded on the east by the Irrawaddy river, on the west from Sadaung- 
gyi village by a straight line southwards to Thalaing village and thence to 
the village of Ta-gyi, on the north by the southern boundary of the Shwebo 
township, and on the south by a line from Ta-gyi village to Nga-singaing vil- 
lage and the northern boundary of Sagaing district. 



128 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHE-SHt 



The township consists of two revenue circles, Inbc and Thayaing. 
The following table shows tl>e revenue and the population of each circle 
in 1897; — 











K 










Circle. 


1 

1 


i 

V) 


>< 

f« 

1 


i 

'5 


IS 


c 
-a 




1 


.0 

"a 
0. 


0. 




Rs. 


Rs. A. p. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. A. p. 




Inbe 


9,960 


41 3 


• «« 




266 


... 


... 


5.2P6 


Thayaing ... 


14.500 


i3« 4 


f«» 


... 


133 


... 


386 9 


6,918 


Total ... 


24,460 


17a 7 


... 




399 


... 


386 9 


12,214 



SHEIN-MA-GA. — The headquarters of the township of that name of 
Shwebo district. It is situated on the eastern slope of the Mimvun range, at 
a distance of thirty-two miles from Shwebo. 

Sheinmaga is the second most important river station in Shwebo district. 

The population in 1891 numbered one thousand five hundred and thirty 
persons, and the revenue amounted to Rs. 4,072. 

SHELPE.— A village of Chins of theSAkt& (Nwcngal) tribe in the North- 
ern Chin Hills. It is situated seventeen miles south-west of Tiddim, and the 
easiest route is vid Losow, Pumperim ford and Kapyal. 

In 1894 >' ^^d sixty-seven houses. The resident chief was Powkawoon. 
The villagers are Kanhows and are subordinate to Howchinkup. The village 
was disarmed and destroyed in 1893. '^ '^ not stockaded. Water is sufli- 
cicnt in a stream on the south-east of the village and there is good camping- 
ground close by. 

SHEMPI.— A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It lies 
four miles north-east of Lungno and can be reached by the Lungno-Lostaw 
road, thence by a path leading south-east. 

In 1894 it had sixty houses. Ain Ton and Lckya were its resident chiefs- 
The village is influenced by the Lungno chiefs and was partially disarmed in 
1895. It is stockaded and has fair water-supply with plenty of good camping- 
ground. 

SHERRWE. — A village of Chins of the Haka tribe in the Southern Chin 
Hills. It lies two miles north-west of Rimpi and can be reached from Haka, 
crossing the Tonvarr and several other streams. 

In 1894 it had twenty houses, Hoidun was its resident chief. The village 
pays tribute to Lyen Mo. 

SHIELMONG. — A village of Chins of the Kanhow tribe in the Northern 
Chin Hills. It lies twenty-three miles from Tiddim and east of the Tiddim- 
Lenacot road. !t is reached by a road running west along the side of the 



gHIJ 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



129 



hill, for half or three-quarters of a mile, joining the main road which leads 
through Lcnacot old post, then turning south and dropping gradually down 
hill. 

In 1894 it had four houses. The village has no resident chief. The in- 
habitants are Yos under Howchinkup. The village has been disarmed. 
Water is obtainable from a small stream. 

SHILLAM. — A village of Chins of the Whenoh tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. In 1894 it had thirty houses. Wahninshwe was its resident chief. 
It lies two miles south of Sea-ak and can be reached thence. It pays tribute 
to Falam. There is a small water-supply. 

SHILONG. — A village of Chins of the Yahow tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies south of Taunghwe and west of Shingnai, and can be reached 
vid Taunghwe and then south. 

In 1894 it had thirteen houses. The name of the resident chief was 
Ya-mong. 

It is subordinate to Vannul and pays tribute to Falam. 

SHIMPL— A village of Chins of the Tashfin tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills, It lies in a valley on the south slope of the hills north of the Pan river, 
half a mite east of Y6nmwel, and can be reached viil Minkin, thikwel, 
Lyenhai, and Y6nmwel, distant twenty-six miles. 

In 1894 it had thirty houses. The resident chief was Nahli. 

Shimpi is a Kweshin village and pays tribute to both Haka and Falam. 
There is no camping-ground in the village, but sufficient water is obtainable. 

SHIMU. — A village of Chins of the Klang-klang tribe in the Southern 
Chin Hills. It lies five miles south-east of Tunzan, and can be reached from 
Haka via Shopun. 

In 1894 it had fifteen houses. Hlwen Tan was its resident chief. 

Shimse is under Ywahit. There is no camping-ground and the water- 
supply is bad. 

SHIMYAUL. — A village of Chins of the Yahow tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills, It lies between Dihai and Lyendu, and can be reached via Ljendu. 

In 1894 it had twenty houses. Lycn-hnyel was its resident chief. 
It is subordinate to Vannul and pays tribute to Falam. 

SHIMYAWL.— A village of Chins of the Tashfin tribe in the Central 
Chin Hills. It lies two miles west of Lunbum and can be reached vid Parrt6 
and Kullyam. 

In 1894 it had thirty-eight houses. The resident chief was Song Kup. 

Shimvawl is a Shunkia village, paying tribute to Falam. There is plenty 
of water in a stream one mile west off and below the village. 

SHI-NAN. — A village in the Ywe-kyubauk revenue circle, Amarapura 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, six-and-a-half miles south of 
headquarters. 

It had a population of two hundred persons at the census of 189 1 and paid 
Rs, 400 thathameda-iaiX, 

SHIN D.\W-K6N. — A village in the Yc-gyi revenue circle, Pathein-gyi 
township, Amarapura subdivision Mandalay district, twelve miles north-east 
of headquarters. 

17 



130 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHI 



It had a population of three hundred and twenty-five persons at the census 
of 1 891 and paid Rs. 600 ihathameda-ta.x, 

SHINGAI. — A village of Chins of the Yahow tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies twelve miles west and slightly south of Botaung, and can be 
reached via Dotaung and thence by a path. 

In 1894 i* had twenty-five houses. The resident chief was Raw-yatung. 

Shingai is subordinate to Vannul and pays tribute to Falam. 

SHINGOP or SENMAKOR.— A mixed Chinese and Yawvin village in 
Tract No. 20, Myitkyina district, situated in 25'' 2o' north latitude and 97" 58' 
east longitude. 

In iSga it contained sixteen houses, with a population of forty-two persons. 
The headman has no other villages subordinate^ to him. The villagers own 
five bullocks and five ponies and mules. Senmakor is the Chiuese name. 

SHIN-HLA. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, north of Hin-tha-g6n. 

It has one hundred and twenty-five houses, with a population of five hun- 
dred persons on an approximate calculation made in 1897. The villagers are 
coolies and cultivators. 

SHINKWON.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyina district, 
situated in 25^53' north latitude and 97° 54' east longitude. 

In 189a it contained twenty houses ; the population was unknown. The 
inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe. The headman has no others subordinate 
to him. 

SHIN-MA-GAN. — ^A village in the Nga-kyan circle, Pak6kku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of seventy-three persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 189 1. 

The revenue from thafhameda amounted to Rs. 140 for 1897-98. 

SHINSHI.— A villageof Chins of the Tashfin tribe in the Central Chin Hills. 
It lies twenty-four miles north of Lomban village and can be reached by a 
good path from Fort White. 

In 1894 it had ninety-five houses. The resident chief was Twehmin. 

The people are Tash6ns, commonly called Norns, and are tributary to 
Falam. Shinshi village consists of four subordinate hamlets : Vayang, Inral, 
Yawlu, and Shielshi. The group was two-thirds disarmed in 1893. There 
is excellent water-supply and caaiping-ground below the main village. 

SHIRAWKONG.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 18, Myitkyina district, 
situated in 84° 59' north latitude and 97'' 49' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained forty-three houses ; its population was unknown. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of the Marip 
tribe, and cultivate the poppy. 

SHIRKLAI.— A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It 
lies six miles west-north-west of Lotaw and can be reached via Lotaw. 

In 1 894 it had one hundred and fifty houses. Maung Baw and Taing Baing 
were its resident chiefs. Shirklai is a well-built village, but it is not stock- 
aded and is easily approached. There is good camping-ground on a large 
stream half a mile below the village, which was partially disarmed in 1895, 



SMI-SHU ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



I3» 



SHIRSHI.— A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It 
lies two miles east of Satawn and can be reached v/d Shirklai. 

[n i8g4 it had twenty houses. Munpu was its resident chief. Shirshi is 
not stockaded and has a small camping-ground with indifferent water-supply. 

SHIT-YWA CHAUNC.—.\ valley to the east of the Pondaung range in 
Lower Chindwin district ; through it flow the headwaters of the north Yama 
chautig, and it took its name from the eight large villages which in Burmese 
times had been formed on the banks of that stream. 

It was in this valley that most of the rebels under the Shwe-gyobyu Prince 
collected in the rebellion of October 1S87 and were defeated at the fight at 
Chinbyit. 

SHON-SHI. — A village in the Min-ywa circle, Kuhna-ywa township, Gan- 
gaw subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population of one thousand and 
forty-five persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 2,670 for 1897-98. 

SHOPUN. — A village of Chins of the Klangklang tribe in the Southern 
Chin Hills. It lies ten miles north-north-west of Klangklang, and is reached 
from Haka viii Lonzert. 

In 1894 it had thirty houses. Turn Klin and Nam Hai were its resident 
chiefs. Shopun was once strongly fortified, but the defences are now in 
ruins. It is under Ywahit of Klangklang. Water is very scarce, but there 
is a good camping-ground. 

SHl'MSHUM.— A village of Chins of the Haka tribe in the Southern Chin 
Hills. It lies four miles south-west of Rumkiao and can be reached from 
Haka, fifteen miles, by the road to Rumkiao. 

In 1894 it had fifty houses. The resident chief was Sarnghe. Shumshum 
was built in 1893 by settlers from Kotarr, under the protection of Lyen Mo. 
There is good camping-ground with fair water-supply. The village is not 
stockaded. 

SHUNKLA.— A village of Chins of the Tashon tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills, It lies on the side of a hill running down to the .Manipur river and on 
the south of it, and can be reached by a Chin track from the north-west to 
Falam post, about six miles. 

In 1894 it had two hundred houses. The resident chief was Klan Mung. 
The people are Ta3h6ns, subordinate and paying tribute to Falam. There 
is good camping-ground with plenty of water on the north-west of the 
village. There is water also at the fourth mile. Shunkla could best be 
attacked by following the ridge of the hills and dropping down from the west 
or south-west- There are many fences and hedges inside it. 

SHURBUM.— A village of Chins of the Whenoh tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies two-and-a-half miles south-west of Puntfe and can be reached 
via, Puntfi. 

In 1894 it had thirty-nine houses. Eng Bi was its resident chief. It pays 
tribute to Falam. Shurbum has been partly disarmed. Water is available. 

SHURGNEN.— A village of Lawtu Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. 
It lies five miles south-east of Aibur and can be reached from Haka by a 
path leading in a south-easterly direction across several ravines and a 
tributary of the Yatfe stream. 



'132 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tSHU-SHW 



In 1894 it had one hundred and fifty houses. I hvAn Mong and Tai K6k 
were its resident chiefs. The village is heavily stockaded and difficult to 
enter from the north, but is undefended from the south. It was partially 
disarmed in 1895, There is camping-ground on the stream below the vil- 
lage on the road to Aibur, but the space is somewhat confined. 

SHURKWA.— A village of Chins in the Southern Chin Hilts. It lies 
forty miles south of Haka and can be reached from Haka in a southerly 
direction via Paiz6n, across the Boinu river and three other small streams, 
and from Min-ywa, across the stream and ascending steeply for two-and-a- 
half miles into the village. 

In 1894 it had two hundred houses Mfinkon and Lyense were it resident 
chiefs. Shurkwa is a strongly posted village : its northern entrance is 
heavily stockaded, but the southern portion is undefended. The village 
surrendered after resistance in 1890-91. There is no good camping-ground 
near the village, where water also is scarce, but a good camp may be found 
two-and-half-a miles away on the road to T6nwa. Shurkwa was partially 
disarmed in 1895. 

SHWE-BAN. — A village in the Myothit township, Taungdwingyi sub- 
division of Magwe district. 

The soil is very fertile and cutch-boiling is a considerable industry. 
Shwcban was the headquarters of a dacoit band under Buddha Yaza until 
the beginning of 1890. 

SHWE-BAUNG. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, east of the Irrawaddy. 

It has forty houses and a population of one hundred and twenty persons, 
on an approximate calculation made in 1897. The villagers are cooliesand 
cultivators. 

SHWE-BE. — A circle in the Kyi-daunggan township, Pyinmana subdivi- 
sion of Yamfethin district. 

It was first settled in 1848. One of King Bodaw's elephants, called 
'Zawana' fell sick here while the king was on a tour to Toung. A local 
doctor named San Bu succeeded in curing it and was rewarded with a fee 
of five ticals of gold. The village has therefore been called Shwebe ever 
since. 

It had thirty-two houses in 1897. "^^^ neighbouring village of Einsauk 
had flfty-sevcn inhabitants. 

SHWE-BO.— A district in the Sagaing division with an area of eight 
thousand three hundred and seventy-six square miles, and a population of 
two hundred and thirty thousand seven hundred and seventy-nine persons. 
It is bounded on the north by Katha, on the south by Katha and Lower 
Chindwin, on the west by Upper and Lower Chindwin, and on the east by 
Ruby Mines and Mandalay districts. The Irrawaddy river forms the divi- 
ding line on the east The boundaries differ from those that existed under 
Burmese rule, Wuntho then forming part of Shwebo. 

The physical features of the district vary considerably. The Minwun 

range runs down the whole eastern side, skirting the 

Natural features. i„.awaddy and gradually sinks until at Sheinmaga, it 

is little more than a bank of elevated ground ; to the north it is a genuine 



5HW1 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



»33 



hiH rangp, rocky and crossed with difficulty: it -maintains this character as 
far as Kabwet at the foot of the Lower First Defile. It is for the most 
part ansuitcd for any kind of cultivation. West of the Mu river there 
is a gradual ascent to the hills which divide the district from Upper 
Chindwin. Between these ranges and on both sides of the Mu is a plain 
unbroken except for some small isolated hills in the north-east and north, 
and for the low Sadaunggyi range in the south-east, enclosing the south 
Nga-sin circle. The greater part of this plain, with Uie exception of the 
forests described below, is a rice-growing tract : on the higher ground, 
where the soil is more or less sandy, grow in the uncultivated state sparse 
bushes. Maize, millets of various kinds, sessamum, cotton, and peas 
are raised throughout this part. The tart'^aim grows well and supports a 
palm-sugar industry. The whole district, but especially the plain on the 
south-west and south, is liable to a short and capricious rainfall and to fre- 
quent drought as instanced by the numerous and extensive old irrigation 
works. Vegetables of various kinds and many kinds of fruit are cultivated. 
The Irrawaddy river runs along the eastern side of the district, whilst 

... .. ,, the Mu separates the eastern and western subdivisions. 

Rivers: the Mu. ,. ^ , ., . iu r» • ■ .^l ti- 

lts course is from north to south. It rises in the Wun- 

tho subdivision and falls into the Irrawaddy a little above Myinmu in Sa- 

gaing district. It is navigable for about three months in the year — ^June, 

July, and August — during which time its current is very swift. Its average 

velocity is from two to three miles an hour. Navigation is attended with 

some risks, even in the height of the rains, owing to the number of snags 

and rapids and especially on account of the capricious rapidity with which 

it rises in flood. There are, however, no rocks in its bed. During the dry 

season it is fordable at nearly every point of its course. 

The Daungyu forms the north boundary in the direction of Wuntho, 
whence it comes. 

The Thaw is a tributary of the Daungyu. It rises in the Minwun range 
and runs with a generally westerly course through the Nagasin circle, 
dividing Shwebo and Katlia districts, and the Pintha circle into the Daungyu. 
Like the Daungyu, it is rather a mountain torrent, liable to spasmodic 
floods, than a perennial stream, though it is perhaps hardly ever quite dry. 
Salt occurs along its lower course. 

The Teinnyin and the Indaw rise in the Sadaunggyi hills and flow south- 
west into the Mu. They are liable to torrential floods, but at other times 
can be forded at all seasons of the year. They formed the great difficulty 
in making the Mu canal, Burmese engineering being unequal to the task 
of carrying the canal across them. 

The Bawdi chaung rises in the same hills and also flows south-west into 
the Mu. 

Further south smaller torrential streams similarly take their rise in the 
Minwun range, or its subsidiary hills, and find their way to the Mu, when 
not intercepted and stored in tanks for the irrigation of the dry plain inter- 
vening. 

The Zin chaung rises in the Sadaunggyi hills and flows south-east into 
the Irrawaddy through a cleft in the Minwun range, just above the Lower 
Defile. 



134 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHW 



East of the Mu are the Halin (or Thayaing) lake, the HIadaw (or Pinzin) 
lake, and the Kadu lake. These are little more than 
Lakes. tanks, though covering considerable areas, and owe tlieir 

existence partly to art, embankments and escapes having 
been constructed to make their water storage qualities more complete. 
They lie in the southern part of the district, and catch the drainage from 
the streams above mentioned as well as the water from the Mu canal. They 
are rarely ever dry and, on the other hand, except when quite full, sel- 
dom have much depth of water. 

The Thamantha lake in the south-west stands in the same category. 
In the Ye-u Subdivision west of the Mu are the Tabyin and Ta-ze lakes ; 
these are of very minor importance and are partially dry during the hot 
weather. 

The only tract worth notice under the head of marshes in the district 
is the Mudcin, mentioned below as a forest. 

The district has black cotton soil and clay, more or less sandy, which 
constitute the bulk of the rice land. The liigher lands 
Geologfy. in the plain are generally sandy and in parts unsuitable 

for any kind of cultivation. Along the Mu and in the 
Mudein, however, where there is alluvial deposit, the soil is specially favour- 
able for the cultivation of peas of different sorts, sessamum, maize, miscel- 
laneous millets, and even wheat. Cotton could be grown in the south if a 
short rainfall could be depended on, and is extensively cultivated in the 
Ye-u subdivision. 

Salt, coal and limestones are the chief mineral products. Salt is found 
in wells in the Pintha myothugyi^h]^ in the north, and at several places in 
the Shwcbo subdivision ; south of .Shwebo the salt tract runs principally 
along the railway. The manufacture is carried on as a domestic industry. 

Sandstone and clay are found west of the Mu. 

Gold in small quantities has been got from washings at In-gyi and Hkin- 
bin, and also in the Seinnan and Nanwindaw circles of theTaze township. 
Mr. Noetling, the Government Paleontologist, who visited the neighbour- 
hood some years ago, gave it as his opinion that the geological formation 
rendered it improbable that much gold would ever be found. 

Petroleum, gypsum and saltpetre are found in small quantities, chiefly 
in the Shwe-gyin township. 

Coal is worked at Kabwet and has been reported to exist at Udaung and 
at Nyaungbinyo in the Indaing township, but it is believed to be lignite 
and not anthracite bituminous coal. 

The forests of the eastern part of the district are almost confined to the 
belt which adjoins the Minwun hills. A great part of this 
Forests. is indaing, sandstone soil only, with no trees but the in 

on it. To the north, however, teak at \T\itr\i\s, tngyin, 
bamboos and almost every sort of forest tree grow luxuriantly. Small 
alluvial bottoms are found at intervals, on which rice is or has been grown. 
There is also a forest tract in the old bed of the Mu known as the Mudein, 
but no timber of much value is known to grow there. Cutch grows freely 
throughout the district, but not very thickly nor to a large size. 



SHW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



»35 



One thousand and fifty square miles is estimated to be the area of pro- 
tected forest east of the Mu in the Mu Forest division, and of it two hun- 
dred and ninety-one square miles are teak-bearing. 1 he forests of the 
Ye-u subdivision abound in teak, thitya^ in, ingyin and cutch, and cover 
an area of one thousand and one hundred square miles ; of this area two 
hundred and ninety square miles comprising the forests of — 

Square miles. 

Yebin ... ... ... ... lo 

Pyaungthwfe ... ... ... ... 70 

NIairg-ttun ... ... ... ... 60 

Gariktha ... ... ... "... 15 

Naqkyeiha and ,„ ,„ ... 107 

Manhy.in ... ... ... ... 33 

are at present unreserved; all the rest arc protected. 

The uncertain and scanty rainfall of the district must have made the 
need of irrigation works obvious from a very early date. 
Irrigation. Even now the people speak with awe of the great fa- 

mine which affected Shwebo in 1173 B.E. (x8ii A.D.), 
during the reign of Bodaw Paya, when whole villages were depopulated. 
Thousands of people died of starvation and bands of lawless men roamed 
at will all over the country. 

Previous to the rise of the Alompra (Alaung-paya) dvnasty no serious 
attempt at irrigation works seems to have been made in Shwebo. But 
when this town became the capital the district had special claims as well 
as special needs. Still there were irrigation works of a kind, before this. 

One of the oldest in the district is the Palaing tank, said to have been 
dug and banked by Mingaung I, of the House of Nyaungyan, and King of 
Ava. The Maha-yasa^win, however, makes no mention of the work, nor 
of the founding of the Mahabo and Myohla cities, also ascribed to Min- 
gaung I. No satisfactory explanation is given as to why the King of Ava 
should found cities and strengthen tht-m into fortresses in the Shwebo 
district, nor why he should have constructed the Pal.iing irrigation works. 
The inscription set up by King Mind6n concerning the Maha-nanda lake 
makes mention of this tank as well as of Gyo-gya, but gives no details. 
The canal and the embankment arc known at present as the Mingaung 
canal and embankment. 

The Palaing tank is about two-and-a-half miles square and has now 
fallen into disrepair. It irrigates a large tract in the south of the district. 

On the accesion of Alompra the Shwebo district received special atten- 
tion. He constructed the '' Little Mu," a canal of sixty miles in length, 
running from north to south and irrigating the part of the district that lies 
bi-twecn the Mu and the Irrawaddy. It forms the largest irrigation work in 
Shwebo. The eastern subdivision forms a complete system of irrigation 
works, so Constructed as to rua one into the other and having the Little 
Mu as the main supply. 

After the death of Alompra and during the reigns of his successors, who 
founded capitals in other parts of the country, irrigation was entirely 
neglected until the reign of King Mindon, who seized the throne with the 
aid of the people of the Shwebo district. He showed his gratitude. The 
Little Mu and all other works were set in order and repaired. The e.\- 



136 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ISHW 



perience gained since Alompra's time pointed to the insufficiency of the 
Little Mu tf> supply the whole district with water, owing to the scanty 
rainfall. King Mindon therefore turned his attention to the Mu river as 
the chief water-supply. The Etnshcinin, known as the " War I'rince," 
was deputed to carry out the project and the Mu river near Myin-hkwa- 
daung, north of Myedu, was bunded up and the stream turned into the 
Little Mu. For two years the country had abundant water, and to this 
day the people tell of rafts of timber coming down the streani to the 
Maha-nanda Lake. Then, however, the embankment gave way and the 
Little Mu became once more the main water-supply of the district and 
dependant on the rainfall. 

Since the Occupation a scheme of irrigation-work, partly following King 
Mindon's system, has been drawn up, but actual work has not yet been 
begun. 

The chief lakes and tanks in the district are: the Maha-nanda lake, the 
Gyo-gya tank, the Singut tank, the Palaing tank, the Mingaung canal, 
the Yinba tank, the Hladaw Pinzin tank, the Kyvv6 Zin tank, the Halin 
lake, the Payan tank, and the Kanthaya lank q. v. 

Most of these are so selected as to have a large catchment area and are 
dependent on the rainfall drainage from the adjacent country, none being fed 
from perennial streams. A new scheme to irrigate two hundred and sixty 
thousand acres, with the Mu river as a source of supply, is under consider- 
ation. 

The rainfall follows the valleys of the Mu and Irra- 
waddy and leaves the rest of the district comparatively 
dry. It varies from an average of thirty-one to thirty- 
four inches in Shwobo. 
The average temperaiure is 90° in the hot 'weather and falls to 60'' to 
61^ in the cold season, the maximum and minimum readings being 104° and 
56*^'. Malaria follows in the course^ of the rain, but on the whole the cli- 
mate is good, except in the forest tracts of the north and west. 

The administration of the district prior to the British Occupation seems to 
have been very unsettled. This was in a great measure 

Administration j^g ^^ favouritism. Tliere are instances of portions of 
m burmese times. ^^^ district becoming independent of the civil and mili- 
tary officers at headquarters owing to the appointment of a favourite from 
the Palace. 

The Shwebo town and suburbs had a civil officer called a Afyook, who 
appears to have governed independently of any other local official. The 
rest of the country, with the exception of the Chauk-ywa circle, over which 
an oni:er called Thenat-6k was placed, was under the administration of the 
Myaiik-let Bo, who had civil and criminal powers. 

Later, these arrangements were revised and Bo Byin was appointed 
Governor of the Ninth district, a tract which extended to the north as far 
as Wuntho and to the south as far as Singaing in the present Sheinmaga 
subdivision. 

The following are the designations of the local officers appointed under 
Bo Byin : — 

{a) Bo Byin himself, whose official designation and title in the Palace 
during King Mindon's time was She-windaw-hmu, Yatana-thciitga Myo-xoun 



Temperature and 

climate. 



SHW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



»37 



Min-^yi Maha-mingau7ig Kyawsva. As stated above, he was appointed to 
a division as chief civil and military officer. 

On his appointment the Myauklet Bo, termed Myo-wun, became sub- 
ordinate to him and the post of Shwebo Myook was abolished. 

In King Thibaw's time districts were formed and Bo Byin was appointed 
to the charge of the ninth district, called Nawama Kayaing, with the de- 
signation and title of She wiudaw-hmu, Yatana-thcinga Kayai»g-wun,Thado 
Mingyi Maha Mingaung Yasa. Ail the local officers were techincally sub- 
ordinate to the Windawhmu, but Kyauk-myaung, being outside the ninth 
district, had an independent Myo6k. Bo Byin held civil, criminal, reve- 
nue and military administrative powers and was directly subordinate to 
the Taingda Mingyi. He had powers of life and death without appeal. 
On receipt of the Hlut-davi orders for the colle^rtion and payment of re- 
venue, Bo Byin issued orders to the Sawbiea of Wuntho and to the Wuns 
and Myintat Bos. 

{b) He had a Secretary to assist him in his work, called Kayaing So'yC' 
gyi. He issued all orders and, with the permission of the Windaw-hmu^ 
could try civil and criminal cases. 

(c) Wuntho was under a Wun in Burmese days and so was not on the 
same footing as such Shan States as Hsen Wi or M5ng Nai. The Wun 
having rendered special service during the Padein Mint ha' s rebellion was 
made a Sawbioa. Although Wuntho became a part of Bo Byin's district in 
civil and criminal matters, the Sa-ivbwa had full powers of life and death in 
Wuntho. He had to send the revenue money to Bo Byin and criminals 
demanded by the Windaw-hmu were arrested by the Sawiwa and extra- 
dited. Outside these duties the Sawbwa was independenti though he ac- 
knowledged Bo Byin as his superior officer. 

[d] The Myowuns were next in rank to the Wfndaiv-hmu, but their juris- 
diction did not extend beyond the myo over which they were set in au- 
thority. Myowuns were appointed to the following places :— 

(i) Tantabin and Pyinrala. 

(2) Myedu. 

(3) Kawlin. 

(4) Shwe a-she-gyaung. 

(5) Indauktha. 

Nga-yan& and Kawthandi had a Myoaa, 

The Myowuns possessed full civil powers, but they collected revenue 
only under the orders of Bo Byin, and criminal cases could not be tried by 
them without the permission of the Windaw-hmu, 

[c) The Myintat Bo was chief cavalry officer under the Windaw-hmu. 
His civil, crimmal and fiscal powers extended over all the villages outside 
the jurisdiction of the Myowuns and the Wuntho Sawbwa, He resided 
sometimes in Mandalay and sometimes in the district. His work was car- 
ried out by the Myosa-yes and the Myingaungs during his absence. He 
could not try civil and criminal cases without the permission of the Kayaing' 
wun. 

The duties of all the Myin officers combined those of cavalry and of Civil 
Police. 

18 



iiH 



138 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHW 



(/) The Myinsa-yes were a little more than the mere clerks that the 
name indicates. Their rank was next to the Myintat Bo. They had 
criminal powers only if conferred on them by the Kayaing^wun and, with 
the same authority, could try revenue and other cases. They collected reve- 
nue through the Alyittgaungs. 

(g) The Myingaungs were subordinate officers, who had powers in civil, 
criminal and fiscal matters according to the trust placed in them by the 
Winda-m-'hmut without whose authority they could do nothing, 

(/;) The Myothugyis were in charge of Myo, which might be a single 
town, or a town with its suburban villages. In the latter case these small 
villages had Ihugyis who were under the orders of their myothugyi. Some- 
times a Myothugyi was placed over a large number of villages, not attach- 
ed to any particular township, as in the case of Kyaukmyaung, and then all 
the Yvia-ihugyis in his circle or taik became subject to his orders. As 
elsewhere, Myothugyis received commission on all revenue collections. 
They also had powers to try all petty cases, civil, criminal and fiscal, and 
collected fees for doing so, according to a regular scale. 

(t*) Thugyis or Vifaihugyis had the same powers and privileges in their 
more limited domain. All these nine classes of officers were appointed by 
the king and were the legitimate and generally recognized administrative 
and executive officials. But the system was subject to alteration with the 
royal whim. If the king desired to favour or honour a particular person, 
he never failed to make an appointment for him, if none suitable existed. 
Thus a Thc»at'vk was appointed to the charge of the Chauk-ywa circle, and 
any individual officer might be relieved from subordination to his proper 
chief. 

As elsewhere in Upper Burma, there was prior to King Mind6n*s reign 

Revenue admin- no organized system of revenue collection. In the Pagan 
istraiion in B u r- King's time the lower provinces paid revenue which the 
mcse times. ki„g appropriated in its entirety. The officials who 

collected it received no pay and supported themselves on the fees which 
they demanded from .=uitors. The higher officials were made Myosas, and 
the king divided the revenue of the myo with the Myoza. Upper Burma 
was at I hat time exempt from all taxation, and the annual quittance paid to 
the king from Shwebo as kun-bo was twenty-five viss of silver. 

During King MindAn's reign taxation was first instituted, the reason as- 
signed being the numerous petitions from tlie people that the extortions of 
the local officials were becoming unbearable. Salaries for officials were 
then introduced, and at first thathameda was demanded at the rale of one 
rupee per household. In the following year the demand was raised to 
three rupees from each house. This rate was levied (or about eight years 
and was then again raised to three rupees ten annas. 

In 1228 BE. (1866 A.D.), after the rebellion of the Padein Prince, the 
rate was raised in some villages to eight rupees, in others to ten, and even, 
in the case of some rich villages, to twelve rupees per household. The 
next year ten rupees was fixed as the all-round rate. 

Other sources of revenue were the royal share of one-quarter of the 
outturn from royal lands, royal gardens, irrigations, monopolies, fairs and 
forest taxes. 



SHW ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



>39 



The mode of collection of the thathameda was adopted by us from the 
system introduced by King iMindon. The king's order for collection was 
conveyed to the Windavi-hmn. He in turn issued orders to all the myo- 
wurts and to the ntyintat bo, who passed on the instructions to the Myo' 
thugyis and thugyis. These then submitted the thathameda rolls, which 
technically were checked by the rnyineaungs and myowuns and then sub- 
mitted to the Wittdaw-hmu, who passed them. Then thamadis were ap- 
pointed, and assessment by them and collections by the myothugyis and 
thugyis began. 

Objections to the thamadis assessment were heard and determined by 
the tnyofhugyi or thugyi, from whose decision appeal lay to the myi'ngaung 
or myo7vun. If the thamadi took the oath and stated that the assessment 
was fair, it was never interfered with. The money when collected was paid 
over to the myingaungs and ttiyowuns, who forwarded it to the kayaing- 
wun. It was generally this othcer who deducted and paid the commission 
and the amount due for the salaries of the different officers, including him- 
self, and forwarded the balance to the Akundaw olficc, where it was paid 
in after being passed by the Taingda Mingyi. 

The revenue from royal lands was collected by an olTicer called ledaw-dk, 

appointed by the Hlut-daw. He was subordinate to 

Royal lands and (|!,g knyaing nun and myowuns and took his orders from 

'* ' " "' them. The title was changed to that of le-sa-ye when 

the king demanded iiYigation tax. The le^dawok, the thugyi, and the. ywalu- 

gyi estimated the probable outturn and submitted the statement to the wuns, 

who checked it. The statement thus passed was forwarded by the kayaing 

wun to the le-yoii in Mandalay, and this department conveyed the orders 

of the king as to the disposal of the revenue. Sometimes the revenue was 

sent up in coin and sometimes in kind; occasionally orders were received 

to give the paddy collected to the pongyis. The same course was adopted 

with regard to the irrigation>tax by the le'Sa-ye, the only difference being 

the submission in the first instance by the thugyis of the statement of lands 

irrigated. This was checked by the le-sa-ye. The tax was collected by 

the thugyi and paid to the ie-sa-ye. The kayaing wun then proceeded 

in the manner shown tor royal lands revenue. 

The principal fisheries and ferries of the Shwcbo district arc on the Irra- 

Flsheries, ferries, waddy river and in the Kyaukmyaung circle. This circle 

forest tax, and mo- was independent of the Myin-mye, the jurisdiction of the 

iiopolies. kayaing wun, and dealt directly in civil, criminal, and 

fiscal matters with the court in Mandalay. 

The revenue derived from the above four sources was known during 
Burmese rule as the a-sut and a-kyauk tax. The last-named consisted 
chiefly of cart-tax, boat-tax, and commission agency tax. 

The niyothugyi o\ Kyaukmyaung invariably had the monopoly of these 
four taxes from the Revenue oHice in Mandalav, and paid for them a fixed 
sum of Rs. 2,400, rendered in half-yearly instalments. He in turn sub-let 
them to others. The tax realized by the niyothugyi was a fluctuating one, 
dependent upon the state of the river and the rainfall. 

The forest tax was fixed at the rate of one rupee per dha. 



140 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



Among the monopolies cart-tax was fixed at two annas for every cart 
used for purposes of trade. The boat-tax varied from one rupee to four 
annas per boat, according to tlie articles traded in. There were four com- 
mission agencies, one at each of the following places : Kyaukmyaung, Yedaw, 
Malfe and Sha-gwe. The tax realized by the myothugyi from the agencies 
varied according to the prosperity of the year. These four sources of reve- 
nue were of no great importance, yielding comparatively small amounts. 

The fisheries on the Irrawaddy were until King Minddn'stime claimed 
and worked as bobabaing or private property, belonging to the families of 
the original fishermen. King Mindon, however, issued a rescript clainving 
the fisheries for the crown and from that date they became royal pro- 
perty. 

The royal gardens never paid taxes to the Revenue office in Man- 
dalay. The gardens were generally assigned to favour- 
Royal gardens. ite Queens and Princesses for their use for life. The gar- 
deners were all appointed by the king and were invested 
with the powers of a thugyi. They looked after the garden as well as the 
village, when one was attached to the garden, and periodically presented 
the royal lady to whom it was granted with a portion of the produce. 
The office of gardener was hereditary. There were nine royal gardens 
in the Shwebo district. 
The principal tax was derived from the glaze used in the manufacture. 
The original potters were Talaings from Pegu, brought 
Pottery. • to Upper Burma and established in villages in the 
locality where the clay suitable for the manufacture was 
plentiful. Their settlement in Shwebo is said to have dated from the 
time of Alompra. One of the potters was selected by the king and ap- 
pointed 0-gauug^ with the powers of a thugyi over the village, as in the 
case of the royal gardens. The office was hereditary. The potters' villages 
paid no special tax. During Burmese times they were liable only for the 
thathameda. Since the Annexation they pay a license tax to the British 
Government. 

p^j There are three large lairs held in the Shwebo dis- 

trict, and these brought in a small revenue. These are — 

(i) the Ingyindaw fair; 

(2) the Myedu fair; and 

(3) the Thihadaw fair. 

The collection of the dues from the Ingyindaw fair fell originally to the 
Kayaing Wun, from the Mycdu fair to the Myedu Wtin, and from the Thi- 
hada fair to the Wun of Thihadaw. Latterly this system was changed and 
the Mandalay Revenue office farmed out the collections to contractors, who 
undertook to pay a fixed sum for the license to take the fees. The licen- 
sees, besides paying a fixed rent to the Mandalay treasury, had to bear 
all the expenses of the fair, such as building stalls, holding p-wes, and 
feeding the ofBcials who attended the fair. The average receipt from each 
fair, after paying all expenses, seems to have been about three hundred 
rupees. In its best days the Ingyindaw fair yielded about five hundred 
rupees beyond expenses. The receipts from the fairs were often given to 
p6ngyis by king Minddn. 



SHVV] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



I4f 



The collection from the bazaar stalls depended upon the goods offered 
for sale. Each trade-cart had to pay eight annas. 

The revenue realized from thathameda amounted during the time of the 
Burmese Government to about Rs. 2,10,000. The amount of the minor 
revenue and miscelJancons taxes cannot be so exactly ascertained, but the 
following are approximate figures:— 



Irrig.'ition tax 

Royal lands (Tantabin) ... 

Royal lands (Shwebo) 

F"airs 

Fisheries and ferries 



Total 



Rs. 

5,000 
4,u(>o 
2,000 
1, 000 
4,<x)o 

16,000 



For purposes of administration, the Shwebo district is now divided into 
three subdivisions and ten townships. The northern 

Since the Annex- or Tantabin subdivision includes the three townships 
^'^'*'"' of Myedu. Male, Indaing. The southern or Shwebo sub- 

division includes the Shwebo, Kyaukywa, and Shcinmaga townships ; the 
western or Ye-u subdivision, thcjYe-u, Taze, Shwegyin and Mayagan town- 
ships; the whole containing one thousand two hundred and eighty villages. 

The revenue of the district from all heads amounted for 1896-97 to 
Rs. 6,36,153 and the cost of administration to fifteen lakhs. There are 
fifteen Courts of Justice, the presiding offices being entrusted with revenue 
as well as judicial duties. 

The Civil Police consists of five hundred and three officers and men 
nearly all Burmans, under a European District Superintendent and two 
Assistant Superintendents. These are distributed throughout the district 
at selected places. Besides this force there are four hundred and forty-one 
Military Police, natives of India under British officers, who are distributed 
over six posts at headquarters and in the interior of the district. 

The unit of administration is the thugyl or headman of each village or 
group of villages, who holds executive, revenue, criminal and police powers 
of a limited class. 

It appears certain that the population during King Mindon's reign must 
have been a great deal larger than it is now. During the 
Population. latter part of King Thibaw's reign there was a very 

large exodus to Lower Burma owing to disturbances 
with the Shansi the prevalence of dacoities, and the demands for military 
expenses. There was a further emigration after the Occupation, and this 
only ceased with the cessation of dacoities. Men from almost every village 
of Shwebo may still be found in Lower Burma. With the completion of the 
irrigation works and some more favourable seasons a fair percentage of the 
emigrants have already returned, and others will follow as progress con- 
tinues. 

The chief communications are the Irrawaddy river, navigable by large 

steamers the whole year round, and the Mu river, up 

Communications, which only native craft can ply during the rainy season 

and which falls to a fordable level along nearly its whole 

course ia tbe dry weather. 



142 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHW 



Besides the waterways there is the Mu Valley Railway, running through 
the heart of the district, linking Myitkyina, the northern most district of 
the province, with Mandalay, and roads maiiitairK^d liy the State between 
the principal towns and villages of the district, the main communications 
running in conjunction with those of adjacent districts. 

A metalled road runs from Kyaukmyaung on the Irrawaddy to Shwebo, 
a distance of sixteen miles miles, and this is continued without metal twenty- 
four miles westward to Ye-u : here the system is carried into communi- 
cation with each township headquarters, and there is a junction with a road 
to M6nywa, the headquarters of the Lower Chindin district. 

Northwards from Shwebo and running parallel to the railway for some 
thirty miles is the broad bund of the Mu canal, which is used for traffic. 
Ye-u is itself connected with the railway at Kinu by a metalled road 
fourteen miles long, Mal6 on the Irrawaddy is connected with the rail- 
way at Zig6n by a metalled road of twenty-seven miles, Sheinmaga being 
similarly connected with the Paukkan station. 

In the dry season the railway is easily approached from all directions 
and communications are generally good. 

Seven ty-fivc/^r cent, of the population are cultivators, but owing to scanty 

rainfall many have frequently to supplement their liveli- 

Industries. hood by other !abour. In years of bad rainfall large 

numbers migrate to Lower Burma for the harvest season. 

The ordinary staples of produce are rice, cotton, peas, gram, millet, oil- 
seed, tobacco and beans. 

The following are the average prices of stock and produce :— 



Plough bullocks ,., 
Buflaloes ... 

Ponies 
Slaughter cattle ... 



Rate per 100 baskets. 



Rs. 
65 
.30 



Rs. 

Kice «.. *.« ... ... ik. 3^5 

Cotton ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Peas ... ... ... ... ». 300 

Gram ... ... ... ... ... 206 

Millet ... ... ... ... ... 300 

Oil-seed .,, .„ ... ... 420 

Tobacco, per 100 viss ... „, ... ... 40 

Beans, per loo baskets ... ... ... ... 130 

The trading classes are confined mostly to Shwebo town and to the 
riverine stations. The principal industry in the southern part of the dis- 
trict is the extraction of salt. 

Mats, baskets, combs, and cart-wheels are manufactured to a consider- 
able extent. The manufacture of glazed jars is very local and is confined 
almost entirely to the river bank, in the villages of Nwe-nyein, Shwegun, 
and Shwedaik, near Kyaukmyaung. The only peculiarity in the manufac- 
ture is the method of glazing. This is done with a substance called' 
kyaw, which is the residue left after the silver has been extracted from 
the ore. It is brought for sale from the Shan States, formerly from the 
Bawdwingyi mines in Tawng Peng Loi Long, latterly from Maw Son. 



SHW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



143 



A good deal of silk cloth is woven in some of the villages, but the silk is 
all purchased outside the district. There are no silk-worm breeders. 

Coal of very good quality has been found on the banks of the Irrawad- 

. dy near Kabvvet, and there arc several outcrops in stream 

beds. The area is being worked by a company, but the 

best quality of coal probably still remains tu be extracted. Good limestone 

is found in the southern subdivision. 

History (aj before The history of this district begins with the history 
the Annexation. of Alaung-paya, the founder of the last Burmese dynasty. 

At the time when the Talaings were at the height of their power and 
when all Upper Burma was in their hands, a man, Aung-zeya, raised the 
standard of rebellion and murdered the Talaings who came to administer 
the oath of allegiance. Three hundred men were sent to quell this revolt 
and punish its leader. Aung-zeya placed his men in ambush near Halin-gyi 
and when the Talaings came up they were atlackcd suddenly and a great 
many killed. This success of Aung-zeya brought liim many recruits and 
before long he was able to openly take the iield against the Talaings. 
What then happened is the history of the foundation of the Alaung-paya 
dynasty and the subjugation of the Talaings, 

Shwebo has, therefore, ever since been a favoured district with Burnnans. 
And though capitals were founded in more convenient places for the ad- 
ministration of the country by the descendants of Alaung-paya, yet Shwebo 
was always held in high honour by the kings of Burma and was known by 
five separate names. 

(t) Yatana-theinga, the place of the Ten Precious Thiags. 

(3) K6n-baung, derived from a ridge of hills running north and 
south for miles and now called Mwe-yolan. 

(3) M6tsobo-lan, in commemoration of the birth there of Alaung- 

paya. 

(4) Yan-gyi-aung, in memory of the repulse and eventual subju- 

gation of the Talaings. 

(5) Shwebo, a title probably adopted in order to suppress the word 

motso or hunter, an o<'cupation repugnant to Buddhism. 

A song peculiar to Shwebo and called Kun-baung-bwe is still suncr in 
honour of the founder of Shwebo. It is sung to the accompaniment of 
two large drums, more barbaric than musical. 

The song begins thus : — 

c^scooScaco- 

This is simply a jingle of the five names of the town, which, as being the 
birth-place of the founder of the dynasty, is safe from all hazards nf fortune 
or of foes. Alompra is reported to have been born in Musobo village, the 
site of which is where the Shwe-gycttho pagoda now stands, within the limits 
of the present town of Shwebo. His birth-name was Aungzeya. Tradition 
states that the last King of Burma, who was carried off by the Talaings 
and beheaded at the Shwedagon pagoda, was called upon to interpret a 
dream of the Talaing King, who saw in a vision a fish without any head, 
but with a tail which shook very vigorously. The Burmese King said 



144 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tSHVV 



that he himself was figured in the absent head and that the people of the 
country represented by the tail would rise against their conquerors. He 
added that he remembered an old prophecy which told that one of the 
three Bos (Musobo, Nagabo, and Otbo) would send out flames. Local 
memories do not point to Aiing-zeyaas having been a hunter, or even as 
having been fond of sports. The name of his village existed long before 
his birth and is not derived from the fact, true or false, that he was a 
hunter. Alompra's grave is still to be seen near the Public Works 
Department office. Some of his relations are said still to live in Mingdn 
village, about half a mile outside the town of Sliwebo. 

Alompra fortified Shwebo, dug a moat and built a wall, and made it his 
capital. He is believed to have carried out the Maha-nanda irrigation 
work. 

After Alompra's death none of the Kings, his descendants, appears to 
have taken much interest in Shwebo till Prince 1 harrawaddy rebelled 
against Ba-gyidaw and seized the throne with the aid of men from the 
Shwebo district. In return for the aid rendered, King Tharrawaddy 
accepted the name of Kdnbaungwt'w. 

The next appearance of the Shwebo people as king-makers was when 
King Mind6n seized the throne. Shwebo then became once more the 
favoured district. 

The last attempt at king-making, during the rebellion of the Padein 
Prince, failed signally. 

When the British troops first marched into Shwebo the chief ofTicial in 

the place, Bo Byin (the ruler of the East IVindau'), whom 

(b) Since the an- ^^^ ^^^^ Burmese Government had appointed under the 

nexntion. title of Kayaing IVun, joined the British flag with all 

his subordinates. They rendered great service to the 

British Government in putting down dacoities and, as a reward for the 

loyalty he displayed. Government awarded a pension to Bo Byin and placed 

two of his sons in Government service. His son, Maung Tun, has been 

granted the title of " K. S. M." 

For the first five years after the Annexation the district was in a more or 
less disturbed state from organized dacoities, but since then it has enjoyed 
complete tranquillity. Shwebo is a district which should prosper. The 
country, when it is completely brought under irrigation, will be very fertile 
and nearly the entire area is cultivable. The Mu Valley Railway runs 
through the centre of the district from north to south and thus every 
facility is offered for the export and import of produce. The rainfall seems 
always to have been rather scanty : at any rate it has been latterly : but the 
irrigation system now completed should ensure plenty. 

The principal nats of the district are — 

(i) Aung-swa Mingyi or Bodawgyi, who has eight 
Spirit worship. lesser spirits under him, who all live in Shwebo town. 
These are — 

Ye U Saw, who haunts the neighbourhood of the Th6n pagoda. 
Shwe-pyj Shin, found north of the Sudanu Byi pagoda. 
Thawna Rayin, east of the Sudanu Byi pagoda ; 
Myinbyu Shin, north of the Shwe-taza pagoda. 



SHW ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



»45 



Sin Byu Shin, south of the Shwe-tiza pagoda. 

Bo Mingyi, east of the Shwe Kyin-the pagoda. 

Shin Than-sin, west of the Shwe Kyin-the pagoda. 

Shin-byu-dwa, north of the S6ng6n quarter. 
It is the custom for all who are about to become Shin (to enter a 
monastery), and all who are going to be married, to go to the temple of 
Bodawgyi with a band of music, on the day before the Shinpyu or the 
marriage, for the purpose of conciliating this nat, Bodawgyi was also 
[ifopitiated in times of war with great ceremony. His active power is 
not believed to extend beyond the limits of the town and its suburbs. 

(2) Indaw Ashingyi. This spirit lives in the village of Zidaw and has a 
shrine built for him there. He is believed to have a spirit wife in the 
village, and through her all offerings should be made. He is particularly 
worshipped at times of sickness and also every year just before Lent. 
The offerings arc sweetmeats, or a measure of rice and a four-anna bit. 

(3) The most famous nat on the Ye-u side of the Mu is that worshipped 
by the people of the Indaing township. This is the Salinmaw nat. (Salin 
is the name of the King: mavi means spirit). In his lifetime this spirit, 
who was of Shan lineage, was King of Mogaung and Mo-hnyin, in about 900 
B.E. (the early part of the sixteenth century). An annual tax of four and 
and a half tikals of gold had to be paid to him, when he was king, by the 
Indaing townships which then was ruled hy a Sa:chwa subordinate to him. 
It is rtlated that this Mogaung King came down to fight the Ka-le Sawbwa 
who had neglected to pay the annual tax, but was defeated by the Sawbwa 
and killed on the summit of a hill called Amyauk faung, where the king 
had stationed his cannon. This hill is in the Upper Chindwin district 
and is now the abode of the king, in the person of the Salinmaw nat. 
The people of all the villages in the Indaing township build a nat-sin, or 
spirit shrine, to this spirit twice a year, once at the beginning and again at 
the end of the rains, and on this shrine each householder has to place a 
cooked fowl and some rice as an offering. There is a tradition in the 
township that a terrible sound, like the firing of heavy guns, is beard 
whenever a king dies or is dethroned in the capital. It is related that 
when the Myingun Prince was about to rebel against his father in 1866, 
this sound was heard, and again came from the hill on the morning of the 
day when Mind6n Mi'i: died, and finally was heard on the day that the 
British troops entered Mandalay. 

These are the three most important nats^ but man}' villages have locally 
celebrated spirits of their own. 

The chief food of the Shvvebo villagers \s pegyi and hkaingye, beans, and 
tamarind boiled in water. Hence the taunt ol Lower Bur- 
Social customs. ^^ against Upper Burma A nya-tha pe-gyi-sa, pet letmynw 
is particularly applicable to the people of this district, if indeed it was not 
the number of immigrants from Shwcbo which prompted it. More money 
and a larger production of rice due to improved irrigation now admit of a 
more generous indulgence in superior kinds of food. 

There is a customary law as to mortgages which seems worth noting. No in- 
terest is charged on the money loaned. The mortgagor or his descendants to 
the tenth generation may redeem at any time he can. There is no foreclosing, 

«9 



146 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHW 



or fixed time beyond which the mortgagor may not redeem. The advantage 
to the mortgagee is that he enters into possession of the land and if the mort- 
gagor own many plough cattle the mortgagee may use these to work the 
land, taking to himself three-quarlers of the crop and giving the remainder to 
the mortgagor. There is thus a sort of resemblance to the form of pledge 
known to English law as a Welsh mortgage. 

The Korfbaung-bwe has been already alluded to. There are two drum- 
mers each with a large bungyi slung round his neck. These are beaten 
lightly to the time of the man who sings the words and clashes a pair of 
cymbals at the same time. Two young girls at the same time dance a mea- 
sure. Tune, mdhsic and dance are peculiar to Shwebo and to Alompra's 
national air. The song recounts the feats of Alompra and also tells of the 
Mahananda lake with its lotos, flowers, and feathered game. 

SHVVE-BO, — A subdivision and township of the district of the same name, 
is bounded on the north by the Tantabin subdivision, on the east by the 
river Irrawaddy, separating it from Mandalay district, on the south by Sagaing 
district, and on the west by Lower Chindvvin district and the Mayagan and 
Ye-u townships of Shwebo district, from which it is separated by the Mu 
river. It includes the townships of Shwebo, Chauk-ywa, and Sheininaga, 
with headquarters at Shwebo, Kinu, and Sheinmaga respectively. 

SHWE-BO. — A circle in the township, subdivision, and district of the same 
name. 

It comprises Shwebo town, the headquarters of the district subdivi- 
sion, and township. It has an area of 59,910 acres and had in 1891 a popu- 
lation of seveteen thousand nine hundred and fifty-two persons. 

The Paungdaw-u pagoda, situated on the north-cast corner of the city 
wall, is of great reputation. There is also a wooden monument, standing 
over the grave of King Alompra, which is situated in a most conspicuous 
place between the Court-house and the Public Works Department Office. 

Dr. Richardson describes Shwebo in 1831 as "a walled city of two miles 
" square : the walls principally of bricks, partly of a kind of slate, are still in 
" pretty good repair, though the city was at one time, since Alompra, en- 
"tirely abandoned, and has only of late years been reoccupied. It is said 
" to contain one thousand houses, which I should think rather under than 
"over the true estimate, though there are extensive paddy-fields (amongst 
" which many of the descendants of Alompra are living by their labour) to 
"the northward and westward, between the inner brick walls and the 
"outer wall, or earthen mound, round which is the ditch. To the southward 
" there is no earthen wall and the ditch is close to the brick walls. The inner 
" small post, or rather palace enclosure (for it is without flanking defences 
" of any sort, as indeed is the large one to any extent), is entirely with- 
" out inhabitants, the old palace nearly all down, and over-grown with long 
" grass and creepers. It must have always been confined, as the Lh^vottau 
"{fflut-daw) and platform for the gong for striking the hours are divided from 
" it, within the same enclosure, by a brick wall. The large pagoda called 
"Shwetaza or Nae-wadi See Thoo Koung-Mhoodau {Naya-wadi-sithu 
" Kaujighmu-d a"ii<) is of considerable size, but no gilding is now visible on it. 

izh. 30m, start and at 1 h. 25m. pass out of the Kathee gate of the outer 
" wall ; the ditch, which oa the south side is empty, and might be crossed 



SHW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 1 47 



" without notice, is here in tolerable repair, and between the gateways 
" to the right full of water. I was told that the ditch could at any time be 
" filled from the Kan-daw-gyee, or great royal lake, which lies about two 
" or three miles to the north-east." 

SHWE-BO. — ^The headquarters township of the Shwebo district, with an 
approximate area of four hundred and fifty square miles and extending from 
the Irrawaddy on the east to the Mu river on the west. 

The boundaries are as follows : On the north from Mayagan village 
in a straight line to Leppanhia village, thence south along the Mu canal 
bund to the village of Bidankaung ; thence in a straight line to the east to 
the village of Maw on the Irrawaddy river ; from Wunzi village in a straight 
line to the east of the village of Yegamo on the Irrawaddy river. 

The township consists of five circles: Shwebo, Kyaukmyaung, Halin, 
Thal6n, and Kawywa. 

The following statement shows the revenue and the population of each 
circle in 1891 : — 



148 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ISHW 



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1 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



149 



SHWE-BO. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, south of Hio-tha-gon village. 

It has thirty-two houses, and a population of one hundred and twenty- 
five persons, on an approximate calculation made in 1897.' The villagers 
are coolies and cultivators. 

SHWE-BON-THA. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of two hundred and thirty-one persons, 
according the census of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 510, included in that of 
Saban. 

SMWE-BON-THA.— A village of eighty-three houses in the Kyaukyit 
township, Myinmu subdivision of Sagaing district, five miles from Kyaukyit. 

It was under a Thwe-thauk-gyi in King Thibaw's reign. Its products arc 
many kinds of peas. 

SHWE-BON-THA.— A village of thirty-one houses on the left bank of 
the Irrawaddy river, in the Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The villagers own no buffaloes and live for the most part by fishing. A 
little tobacco and some vegetables are grown, 

SHWE-DA. — A village in the Kun-ywa circle, Pakdkku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of eighty-eight persons, according 
to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 321 for 1897-98. 

SHWE-DA. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of Shwcbo 
district, ten miles from Ye-u town. 

The population numbered only sixteen persons, and the area under 
cultivation is 5'36 acres. The chief crop is paddy Rs. 40 thathameda reve- 
nue was paid in 1890. The village is in the K6n6n thugyiship. 

SHWE-DA-GAN. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, sixteen miles from Ye-u. 

There are fifty inhabitants engaged in paddy cultivation. The thathameda 
revenue for 1896-97 amounted Rs. 120. 

SHWE-DAUNG, — A village on the royal road to Myingyan, in the North 
em subdivision of Meiktila district, about four miles north of Payabyu, 
which in Burmese times was an outpost built to protect the road. 

There was then at Shwedaung a Myinsi under the Taungbo Myin- 
gauftff. His family opposed the British forces at the Annexation, but he 
was taken after some resistance and sentenced to a term of imprisonment. 

The population numbers about two hundred and fifty persons, who live 
entirely by cultivation. There are a few pagodas built by private bene- 
factors. 

SHWE-DAUNG. — A village of one hundred and eighty-six houses in the 
Myotha township of Sagaing district, five miles south-east of Myotha. 

Its name is said to be taken from a small hill, crowned with a pagoda, 
where was once found a lump of gold, about the size of a hen's egg. 

Shwedaung was the home of the dacoit leaders Maung Thin and Maung 
Shwe Yan, who were captured and hanged in the village. Nga Lin of 
Kyazwfe and Shan Gyi of Taung-talon used also to infest the neighbouring 



ISO 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHW 



hills with their bands until their capture. The dacoit leader Bo Po T6k 
burnt the village in l8Sg. He and his followers were chased with cavalry 
from Myolha but managed to escape. He was subsequenly killed by one 
of his own gang whilst hiding in a hut in the toddy jungles near Ta-gyaung 
village. 

SHWE-DAUNG-GYUN.— A village in the Sithi circle, Yezagyo town- 
ship, Pakokku subdivision and district with a population of one hundred 
and eighty-three persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue 
of Rs. 360. 

SHWE-DON. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, with an area of attached lands of one square mile. 

The population in i8gi numbered ninety-five persons, and there were 
fifty acres of cultivation. The principal products were paddy and jaggery, 
Shwed6n is sixteen miles from Ye-u and paid Rs. 390 tkathameda revenue 
for 1896-97. The village is in the Shwegu ///«^/ship. 

SHWE-DWIN. — A revenue circle in the Uyu township, Lega-yaing sub- 
division of Upper Chindwin district, including twenty-six villages. 

SHWE-GA. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan circle, subdivision, and 
district. 

In 1895-96. the population was five hundred and forty persons and the 
tkathameda amounted to Rs. 686. No land revenue was collected in the 
circle. 

SHWE-GE.— A village in the Ngfe-do revenue circle, .\marapura township 
and subdivision of Mandalay district, two miles south-south-west of head- 
quarters. 

It had a population of nine hundred and forty persons at the census of 
1891, and paid Rs. 1,215 thathameda-taji. The village is locally reputed 
for its silk. 

SHWE-GE-BYAN. — A village of sixty houses in the Sagaing subdivision 
and district. 

In Burmese times it was under the jurisdiction of the thugyi of Aing- 
daung. 

SHWE-G6N-DAING.— A village in the Nga Singu township, Madaya 
subdivision of Mandalay district, south of TSngyi. 

It has one hundred and sixty houses and a population of six hundred 
and fifty person.";, on an approximate calculation made in 1897. The vil- 
lagers are fishermen and cultivators. 

SHWE-GU. — A subdivision and township of Bhamo district, is hounded 
on the north by the southern boundary of Myitkyina district, from the 
junction of the Kaukkwe and Nam Ko streams to the watershed betweea 
the Mosit stream and the Irrawaddy ; on the east by that watershed to a 
point on the Irrawaddy opposite the mouth of the Sinkan stream; thence 
the boundary runs along the left bank of the Irrawaddy as far as the mouth 
of the Sup5k stream above Kaungl6n and along that stream to the boundary 
of the State of Mong Mit. On the south and west the subdivision marches 
with the Mdng Mit State and Katha district 



SHW] THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 151 

Shwegu is the headquarters of the subdivision, which is divided into two 
MyotAugyish\fs, the Shwegu MyoiAugyishlp, comprising the portion south 
of the Irrawaddy, and the Mo-hnyin MyoiAugyiship, the country to the 
north. The Kaungt6n township has, since the 1st April 1897, ^^^i^ added 
to the subdivision. 

The Shwegu area is more richly cultivated than the Mo-hnyin side. The 
villages on that side are almost all situated on the river and depend mostly 
on their fisheries, but as the fear of Kachin raids has now ceased new ones 
are springing up in the interior and lands which had hitherto been left 
fallow are now producing large quantities of paddy. The following are 
the most important villages in the subdivision: — 



<52 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHW 



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154 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER, 



ISHW 



According to the prelimiuary census returns of 1891, the population of 
the Shwegu subdivision was twelve thousand seven hundred and fifty-six 
persons. Later additions to the administrative area and a marked increase 
in the population of late years probably make this now a considerable under- 
statement. 

SHWE-GU. — A township of Bhamo district \v. Shwegu subdivision]. 

SHWE-GU. — The headquarters of the subdivision and township of the 
same name of Bhamo district. 

It is rather a series of adjoining but distinct villages than one large village. 
The congeries of hamlets which compose it — Shwegu Myomay SaingSu, 
Ming6n, and Myog6n — lies on the left bank of the Irrawaddy river. In a 
line with these villages, but separated by a gap of about a quarter of a mile 
and more clearly divided off, are Maulamyaing, Ywa-thit, Aukkyin, Zcdigfln, 
Papugan, and Konhkan. 

Shwegu is a forest revenue station and the headquarters of a Forest 
Officer. It is noted for the excellence of its pottery. 

The station stands on high ground and is healthy, and at the river's edge 
there is generally a cool breeze at night. Shwegu is said to take its name 
from the Shwekugyi pagoda. 

The Myothugyiship was formerly known as the ',Twenty-six villages of 
Balct [Balet-hnits^-chauk-ywii) and was a part of Mo- 
History.^The hiaing, tributary to Chc-nhAn. The heir apparent of the 
ees'of^Balet ' ^ ChenhAn Sawbzva established the Kingdom of Momeik, 
and his younger brother, who hated and feared him, fled 
from the court to establish a kingdom of his own. On his way he passed 
through Shwegu to Mosit, now one of the largest villages in the Mo-hnyin 
Myothugyiship. Here he made rcsisiance to the advance of his father, who 
had followed him with the intention of effecting a reconcilation. Hence 
the name Mosit {i.e. Mong Set) " the city of resistance." The prince, how- 
ever, was not able to keep up his resistance and continued his retreat to 
the north-west, where he eventually founded the Shan Kingdom of Mo-hnyin, 
now in Katha district, but which lormerly included the territory in the Mo- 
hnyin Myothugyiship of Shwegu. 

Uf Mohnyin, the local etymologists give varying interpretations. One 
^ . . party style it Mong Yang, " the city of rest," the other 

Mo-hnyin. j^j ^^^^ yan, " the city of the paddy-bird." The first main- 

tain that the name indicates the satisfaction of the prince and his following 
in at last finding a settled home; the others declare that a paddy-bird was 
seen to settle on the spot and this being considered a good omen, led to the 
foundation of the city. 

The old Saichwa Chenh6n sent men after his son in vain, but while waiting 
for their return, he happened one nis^ht to look towards 
the island of Kyundaw, just above Shwegu, and saw a 



The island of 



pagodas. 



mysterious light upon it. He vowed that if he saw this 



three nights running, he would build a pagoda. He did see the light on 
three successive nights and accordingly commemorated the event and fulfill- 
ed his vow by founding the Shwebaw-gyun pagoda on the island. After 
this he returned to Chenh('\ii. Ever since, the island has been a popular 
place of pilgrimage for people from the Northern Shan States and it is now 
entirely covered with pagodas, packed as closely together as possible, in the 



aHw] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



'55 



Shan fashion. They display little variety, but have given occasion for the 
settlement on the island of a village of masons. The ciislomary contract 
rate for the building of pagodas hns been fixed by them at ris. 75 per four 
square cubits at the base. There is however, one pagnda which is distinctly 
singular. It represents the death-box of the Buddha Gautama. He lies at 
full length, much like a buried crusader, and the bier is surrounded by v?eep- 
ing women, wearing curiously shaped coifs and with sashes draped across 
their shoulders after the fashion of salwe. The name of the architect has 
not been preserved. The main pagoda is a.bout sixty feet high, enclosed 
on two sides by a richly carved zayat of teak with an elaborately carved 
roof and a cornice of small niches, containirg seated marble Buddhas. Two 
bro-id paved ways, one known as the Shwegu and the other as the Bhamn 
entrance, approach the pagoda, which is three-quarters of a miles distant 
from the river. Numerous sayats duster round the central shrine, piled to 
the ceiling with Bliuddhislic figures in metal, wood, and while marble, offered 
by the worshippers who throng this hofy place sanctified by the footprint 
of Gautama. Three milts above the island ij the entrance to the second or 
middle defile of the Irrawaddy. 

SHVVE-GU. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
ShM'ebo district, with an area of two square miles of attached lands. 

There were fifty-six inhabitants, according to the preliminary census of 
1891, and a cultivated area of eleven acres. The thathamedn revenue for 
1896-97 amounted to Ks. 220. The village is fourteen mihs from head- 
quarters. 

There are two notable pagodas, the Shwegu and th"^ Ayadaw. The 
Shwegu pagoda was built upon a cave by King Naniani Sitliu,on his arrival 
on board his royal barge at Shwegu village. It was afterwards enlarged by 
the villagers. Ihe annual feast occurs on the full moon oi rjiadin-gyui 
(October). The Ayadaw pagoda was founded by the same monarch on the 
spot where the roval female elephant knelt down. This pagoda was also 
enlarged by the people. The annual feast takes place on the full moon of 
Tasaungmun (November). 

SHWE-GU. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with three square miles of attached land. 

Thf> population in 1891 numbered ninety-six persons, and there were 
Ihirlyeight acres of cultivation. Paddy and jaggery are the chief produce. 
The village is eleven miles from Ye-u and paid Rs. 102 thathamedn revenue 
for 1896-97. It is under the Ywama thugyi. 

SHVVE-GU-GA-LE.— A village of fifty-six houses on the left bank of the 
Irrawaddy river in the Shwegu subdivision of l^hamo district. 

The villagers own ninety-three buffaloes and nine bullocks. MayinvinA 
kankkyi are cropped and there is a little taungya cultivation. 

SIIWE-GUN-DOK. — .\ revenue circle and village in the Amarapura 
to.vnship and subdivision of Mandaiay district. 

It had a population of one thousand six hundred and thirty persons, aud 
paid Rs. 1.340 t/iat/iamci/a-tax in 1891, 

SHWE-GY.\UNG. — A. circle in the Pyintha township, Maymyo subdi- 
vision of Mandaiay district, including two villages. 



* 



»56 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SHW 



Shwe-gyaung is situated four miles south-east of Pylnlha and liad a 
population of two hundred and twenty persons, at the census of 1891. The 
tkathamcda paid by the circle for i8g5 amounted to Rs 520. The people 
are y/i-cultivators and pack-bullock owners. 

SHVyE-GYAUNG.— A village in the Kywe-di: circle, Pakokku township, 
subdivision and district, with apopulation of three hundred and sixty-seven 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The revenue is included in that of Kywe-d£. 

SHWE-GYAUNG. — A village in the Nyaung-zauk circle, Yeza-gyo town- 
ship, Pakukku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred 
and thirty-seven persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs 6x0 for 1897-98. 

SHWE-GYAUNG. — A village in thc|Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, one mile west of the ShwetacAff»/w^. 

It has ninety houses and the population numbered in 1897 three hundred 
and fifty person approximately. 1 he villagers are cultivators. 

SHWE-GYET-YET. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura township and 
subdivision of Mandalay district including six villages. 

The land revenue amounted to Rs. 208 for i8gi. 

SHWE-GYIN. — A township of the Ye-u subdivision of Shwebo district, 
is bounded on the north by the Ta-ze township, on the east by the Ye-u 
township, on the south hy the Mayagan township, all of that district^ and 
on the west by Upper Chindwin district. 

It has its headquarters at Tamadaw. There are one hundred and thirty- 
four villages and the population numbers thirteen thousand eight hundred 
and forty-five persons. 

SHWE-HLE. — A village in the Ywa-she circle, Nga-Singu township, 
Madaya subdivision of Mandalay district, north of Chaungwa. 

The village has forty-seven houses and a population of two hundred and 
thirty-five persons, on an approximate cultivation made in 1897. '"^^ 
villagers are cultivators and fishermen. 

SHWE-IN, — A village on the east bank of the Irrawaddy river in Myit- 
kyina district, containing twenty-one households of which three are Kachin. 

The villagers work taungya and tobacco, and fishermen have rect-ntly 
been coming up from Bhamo in the cold weatlier to gel riga-lhaiug. The 
village has never kept any cattle, owing to the floods. It was founded 
eight years ago by Falwewa, a Lahtavvng Sawbwa. Two of the Kachin 
households are Lahtawng and one is Maran. 

SHWE-KA-DAW. — A village in the Ta-ze township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with apopulation in 1891 of four hundred and twenty-six 
persons. 

The principal product is paddy. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 1,1 10. There is a large pagoda of the same name as the 
village, which is fifteen miles from Ye-u. 

SHWE-KOiN-DAING.— A village intheTilin township, Pauk subdivision 
of Pak6kku district, with apopulation of ninety-seven persons, according to 
the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 170, 



SHW1 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



'57 



SHWE-KU-ANAUK.— A village in the Pakokku circle, township, and 
subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population of six hundred and forty- 
five persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathamedn amounted to Rs. 720 for 1897-98. 

SHWE-EvU A-SHE. — A village in the Pak6kku circle, township, and sub- 
division of Pak6kku district, with a population of five hundred and seventy- 
persons, according to the census of iSyi, aud a revenue of Rs. 780, includ- 
ed in that of Shwe-ku-anauk. 

SHWE-KYI-NA.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 6, Bhamo district, situ- 
ated in 24° 18' north latitude and 97° 16' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained eighty-one houses: its population was unknown. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are Shan- 
Burmese, Shan, and Burmese. 

SHWE-KYU. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of Shwebo 
district, eight miles from Ye-u town. 

There are ninety-fivc inhabitants, and eighteen acres under cultivation, 
chiefly of p.iddy. The thathamcda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to 
Rs. 370. 

SHWE-LAN. — A village in the Myezun circle, Ycza-gyo township, PakOk- 
ku subdivision and district, with a population of six hundred and six persons, 
according to the census of i8yi. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,470 for 1897-98. 

SHWE-LAN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of one hundred and sixty-seven persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 280. 

SHVVE-I.E. — A village in the Sagaing township and district, on the Mu 
river. 

It has two hundred and seventeen bouses. 

SHWE-LE-GYIN. — A village in the Shwe-le-gyin circle, Laung-she town- 
ship, Yaw-dvvin subdivision of PakAkku district, with a population of seventy- 
three persons and a revenue of Rs. 140 in 1S97, 

SHWE-Ll. — A circle in Ti-gyaing township, Katha subdivision and dis- 
trict, including Sadwin village. 

It is said that gold-sellers lived here once and the place «as hence known 
as Shwtthf-, which has since been changed into Skweli. In Sadwin village 
there was a large salt tract, whence the name was derived. 

The thugyi lives at Shweli village, which has eighty-eight houses. The 
inhabitants are mostly Shans. There are kaukkyi fields, and the people 
occasionally cultivate taungya also. 

SHVVE-LI. — The Shwoli river, called Lung Kiangor Lung-ch'wan Kiang 
by the Chinese and Nam Yang by the Shans until it reaches the Chtifang 
plain where it takes the name of Nam Mao rises in China, fifty or sixty miles 
to the north or north-east of T^ng-Yiieh (Momein) and flows in a south- 
westerly direction past Mong Mao and Nam Hkam and finally reaches the 
Irrawaddy between Katha and Tigyaing, at Inya, twenty miles south of 
Katha Below Hsup Hkam, near Nam Hkam, were it enters the Kachin 



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country, it is a rapid stream about one hundred yards wide, flowing through 
hills. It is navigable for dugouts between Man Ping in Ch^fang territory 
and Hsup Hkam below Nam Hkam, hut below the Hsup Hkam ferry it be- 
comes narrow and numerous rapids prevent navigation. 

The following are the principal ferries on that part of the Shweli which 
passes through the Kachin country : — 

Nawng Kham. 



Hsup Hkam. 

Ta Kye (Hsai L6ng). 

Aoka. 



Tali. 

Pang Hka. 

Hpyi Paw. 

Man Sak or Loi Song. 

Nawng Hkam is the main ferry on the Bhamo-Nam Hkam road. The 

P . river is two hundred yards wide in January, running in 

a channel three hundred yards broad. Animals are swum 

across. Men and baggage are crossed by five dugouts, each holding ten to 

fifteen men. There are camping-grounds on either bank. The ferry is 

about two miles from Nam Hkam. 

At Hsup Hkam the ferry is not used by caravans ; the river can be 
crossed here, but not so easily as at Nawng Hkam, as the current is more 
rapid. Both ferries are in British territory. 

Ta Kye near Hsai L6ng, is the main ferry between Mong Wi and Bhamo. 
There is said to be one boat there regularly. 

Aoka is on the road from Sheolan to Hsao Lam in Mong Mit. Th^re 
is no boat; a raft has to be made. The crossing is difficult in the rains. 
Aoka is a Palaung village of twelve houses on the right bank, one-and-half 
miles off the river. 

Tali is a Palaung village of ten houses, one-and a-half or two miles off the 
river on its right bank. There is a raft, but the crossing is dilTicult in the 
rains. 

Pang Hka is a Palaung village of twenty houses, two-and-a-quarter 
miles from the right bank of the river. The ferry is on the main road from 
Bhamo to Tawng Peng. The river is one hundred yards wide with a rocky 
and sandv bottom, and is eight feet deep in March, the deepest part being near 
the right bank. It here runs in a valley a mile wide, the liills coming close 
down to the water on the right bank and lying a mile away from the left. 
There is room to camp on either bank. The ferry is served by one boat, 
which will hold ten men besides the boatmen. Animals are swum across. 
The current is fairly strong, and in the rains it might be diflRcult to swim 
them across. The boatmen live in a small village three hundred yards from 
the left bank. 

Hpyi Paw is a Kachin village, two miles off the left bank of the river 
below Pang Hka, There is a raft here, but no boat. 

Man Sak is a Palaung village on the right bank. The river can be 
crossed by making a raft. This ferry is on the T6n Hiing-MOng Hkak 
road. 

Near the deserted village of Nan Twe the river can be crossed by making 
a raft. 

The Shweli enters the ChSfang plain through a narrow valley in the hills 
which divide Chcfang from Mong Yang, the State which gives its name 



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to the upper course of the river. A defile three or four miles long separ- 
ates the Ch/^fang from the M6ng Mao plain, which is entered at Mong 
Ka. Eight or ten miles below this and east of Mfing Mao the Shweli splits 
up into two channels and runs thus through the Meng Mao, Nam Hkam, 
and Sfe Lan districts. The two channels reunite at Hke Hkam, just above 
Nam Hkam. The definition of the boundary between British and Chinese 
territory in this loop is not yet completed. Of the two branches, the 
northern was formerly the main river and has the broader bed, but latterly 
it has been steadily drying up and the southern channel grows correspond- 
ingly. Opposite S6 Lan the southern branch is one hundred and Fifty yards 
wide and quite unfordable, while the water in the northern arm is thirty or 
forty yards wide and one foot deep in January, though the channel is very 
wide. 

The Shweli Is not fordable in any part of its course that is known. On 
the road from T^ng-Yiich (Momein) to Ta-li, it is s.panned by an iron sus- 
pension bridge of one span, fifty yards across, supported by eleven chains 
below and two above. The mountains on each side of the river here end in 
very gentle slopes. 

The Ming Mao-Nam Hkam plain is about thirty miles long, narrowing 
towards each end and with a maximum breadth of twelve miles. It is 
thickly populated, but half of the total area is still uncultivated. Its altitude 
is about two thousand four hundred feet above the sea and during the rains 
the greater part of the plain is frequently under water. Boats are there- 
fore very numerous, but they are not ordinarily used for any other purpose 
than for ferrying. The river winds so much that it is quicker to go by land, 
even down stream. There are teak forests along the Shweli in its lower 
course through the Irrawaddy plain. Population, however, is very thin and 
the river is hardly usfd, though it is quite navigable. The total length of 
the Shweli is about two hundred and sixty miles. 

SHWE-LIN-ZWE. — A village in the Shwelinzwfc circle, Myaing township 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
seventy-nine persons^ according lo the census of 1S91. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. J, 166 for 1897-98, 

SHWE-LUN.— A village in the Ng&-do revenue circle, Amarapura town- 
ship and subdivision of Mandalay district, two miles south-south-west of 
headquarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and five persons at the census of 
1891 and paid Rs. 360 t hath anted a-i2.\. 

SHWE-M6K-TAW. — A pagoda in Mahlaing town, headquarters of the 
Northern subdivision of Meiktila district. 

It is one hundred and twenty cubits in circumference and thirty in 
height. Tradition ascribes its erection to Thiri-dhamma Thawka Alin, 
in the third century of the Burmese era (about the eleventh century of our 
era). The pagoda was enlarged several times, until it has reached its 
present proportions. It is said that the original was one of the eighty-four 
thousand pagodas built during a total eclipse of the moon. At the same 
time eighty-four thousand wells and eighty-four thousand tanks were dug 
in different parts of the country to minimize the calamities threatened by 



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the portcat. Tlie annual festival of the Shwe M6ktaw was pretermitted 
for some years after the Annexation, but is now revived and largely attend- 
ed. It falls on the full moon of Thadingyut (October). 

SHVVE-MYAUNG.— A village of fourteen houses north of the Tapin 
chaung, in the Bhamo subdivision and district. 

It was formed in iSgL by settlers from Myothit village. 

SHWE-MYO. — A village in the Kyidaunggan township, Pyinmana sub- 
division of Yam^thln district. 

In II20 BE. (1758) a man named Maung Twa obtained permission from 
Alaung Mintayagyi to restore the old towns and villages which had been 
deserted for years in this neighbourhood. There was an old city with walls 
fifty tas square to the west of the present Shwemyo, and Maung Twa 
settled here first and called the place Si-gyi-swe-»/^o, because there were 
hives of bees hung on the city walls. The country was, however, very dry 
and the people soon moved, owing to the de.'cient rainfall, to the present 
Shwemyo, which was settled in 1778 and has been kept up ever since. 

It had ninety-eight houses in 1982. The railway station village was 
established in 1888. It had forty-seven houses in 1892. The people boiled 
cutch and earned their livelihood as traders. There are a number of other 
considerable villages in the neighbourhood, but no particulars are given of 
them. 

SHWE-NYAUNG-BIN. — A revenue 'circle in the MogAk township of 
Ruby Mines district, with one hundred and thirty-three houses and a popu- 
lation of nine hundred and twelve persons. 

Shwenyaungbin, the chief village of the circle has a police-station. It 
also possesses a Public Works Department bungalow. 

SHWE-P.\N. — A village of nin^ty-two houses in the Kyaukyit township, 
Myinniu subdivision of Sagaiug district. It lies seven miles from Kyaukyit 
on the left bank of the Chindwin river. Its villagers are chiefly traders. 

SHWE-PAN-GYIN or A-YNA-KADIN-— A village in the Saw circle, 
Laung-she township, Yawdwin sul)division of Pakdkku district, with a popu- 
lation-of one hundred and thirty-five persons, and a revenue of Rs. 2S0. 

SIIWE-PAUK-PIN. — A revenue circle of one hundred and sixty-four 
houses, nine miles west of Myinmu in the township of that name of Sagaing 
district, on the Irrawaddy river. It was first named Paukpin and washings 
for gold on the bank led to the alteration to Shwepaukpin. 

SHWE-P.'MJK-PIN. — A village in the revenue circle of Ma-gyi-gaing, 
Amarapura township and subdivision of Mandalay district, ten miles by 
road from headquarters. 

The population in 1897-9S numbered fifty-two persons, ^othathameda 
was paid for 1896-97, owing to drought. 

SHWE-PU (SHWE-PYE).— A Kachin village in Tract No. 15, Bhamo 
district, situated in 24° 37' north latitude and 97° 12' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained nineteen houses, with a population of eighty persons. 
The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of 
the Lcpai tribe, and own sixteen buffaloes ; the water-supply is small. 



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SHWE-PYI. — A village in the circle of the same name, Nga Slngu town- 
ship, Madaya subdivision of Mandalay district, east of Taung-in, 

The village has thirty houses and its population numbered in 1897 one 
hundred and fifty persons approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

SHVVE-PYl. — A village in the Kanbyin-chauk-ywa revenue circle, Pa- 
theingyi township, and Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It had a population of one hundred and seventy persons at the census of 
i8gr. It is by road twenty-one miles north-east of Amarapura. 

SHWE-PYI-NGA-YVV.\. — A revenue circle in the Pathcingyi township 
and Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district. 

The circle has six villages. It paid land revenue of Rs. 7,704 and thathO' 
meda-ia.x of Rs. 2,090 for 1896-97. ' 

SHWE-PYI NYI-NAUNG.— i"^.? utider Madaya. 

SHVVE-SI-SWB;. — A noted pagoda in the Wundwin township, Northern 
subdivision of Meiktila district. 

It stands about ten miles north of Pindalft town and is one hundred and 
twenty cubits in circumference. Its name is said to be derived from a 
large si, or drum, which Nawra-hta Minzaw hungup in 379 B.E. (1017 
A.D.) bv the side of the repaired pagoda. A festival is held every year 
on the full moon of Waso (about the beginning of July) and is largely at- 
tended. 

SHWE-TA-GYI.— .\ village in the Tazfe township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with a population in 1891, of three hundred and ninety- 
five persons. 

The princpial crop is paddy and the thathameda revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 7,491. There is a pagoda of the same name as the village. 
The distance from Ye-u is twelve miles. 

SHWE-TAN-DIT.— A village in the Kun-ywa circle, Pakfikku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of seven hundred and sixty- 
eight persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue amounting 
to Rs. 1,930. 

SHVVETAUNG or SHE-DAUNG,— A Kachin village in Tract No. 2, 
Bhamo district, situated in 23° 48' north latitude and 97° 4' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained eighteen houses, with a population of seventy per- 
sons. The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants 
are of the Lepai tribe and Kara sub-tribe, and own twelve bullocks. 

SHWE-THA-MIN CH AUNG.— The Burmese name of the Nam Yang 
(7. t; ). 

SHWE-YIN-HMYAW.— A pagoda in the Thazi township, Southern 
subdivision of Meiktila district. 

On the site of this pagoda Thiri-dhamma Thawka Min is said to have 
erected a golden p.igoda, nearly a cubit high. Many years afterwards when 
Nawra-hta Min was passing through the country, he encamped about a 
thousand ta (two-and-a-half English miles) from the pagoda. When he 
was about to move his camp his white elephant refused to be saddled. He 
asked his ministers what this might portend and they told him that the 

31 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



t-SHW 



white elephant wished to worship at the pagoda built by Thiri-dhamma 
Thavvka Min. The King then ordered the white elephant to be let lo^se, 
and followed it himself. About forty bamboos' length from the pagoda the 
elephant entered a dense thorn jungle, which the King caused to be cut 
down. When the pagoda was reached, a golden bee flew out and cauglit 
the King's eye. He therefore called the pagoda Shwe Yinhmyaw from the 
flight of the bee. The bee flew on till it reached In-An village and there 
it rested. A pagoda was therefore buill at ln-6n and is known as the 
Shwe Yin Saing. 

The Shwe Yinhmyaw has since been much increased in size. It is 
greatly reverenced and a huge festival is held every year in the month of 
Tabaung (February), when people come from all parts of the country to 
make offerings. 

The following history of the pagoda is inscribed on a tablet in the para- 
toaing: 

When King Anauradwa-dewa made a progress though his dominions 
in the year 379 B.E. 1017A.D., with thirty-six white elephants and five 
nat horses and a retinue of 8,400,000 omats and chamberlains, he built a 
pagoda of pure sambuyit gold in the Shwe Tha Min region ; this was dis- 
covered by King Thiri-dhamma Thawka, who enshrined in it relics of the 
Buddha and built a pagoda over an image or Buddha made of one lakh of 
ticals' weight of pure gold. Shin Gaudama was represented sitting on a 
throne undera^aa^^/ tree, with Tharipotara Mawkalan in attendance. King 
Thiri-dhamma Thawka himself was shown holding an alms-bowl, and the 
King of the Thagyas sounding a shell trumpet held in his left hand, whilst 
the image of the Myamma King held in the right hand a golden umbrella. 
The King also devoted Nga Pyiwa and Nga Nyogyi, with forty families 
numbering two hundred souls, to the charge of the pagoda. In the reign of 
Alaung Sithu four thousand labourers were set aside to the charge of the 
pagoda, on the dedication of a piece of land bounded on the cast by Kyauk- 
ko Pindava, on the south by the Shwe-ta-chaung Ya-naung country, on the 
west by Okta-petka town, and on the north by Thagaya. That monarch 
also dedicated a yearly revenue of a thousand rupees from paddy fields, 
palm trees and sessamum gardens to defray the cost of repairing the sur- 
rounding brick walls, and of purchasing the bricks and lime needed for the 
improvement of the pagoda. 

In the reign of Sinbyu-Ngasishin, in the year 704 B.E. (1342A.D.), that 
King devoted the P')ndaung myozas, Nga Kyaukgyi, together with four 
hundred souls, to the charge of the pagoda. In the year 959 B.E. 1597A.D., 
the reigning monarch left Nyaungyan and arrived at Thidawgan, where he 
proposed the dedication of the unoccupied land called Yindawta sisa and 
Kammata sisa to the use of the pagoda. 

Accordingly, in the year 961, he dedicated the Kamma-m) Inta j/ja land, 
measuring three hundred by four hundred tas, together with the Yin-daw- 
ta Jijfl land, measuring five hundred by one thousand two hundred tas, to 
its use. 

SHWE-YIN-MA. — A village in the Taung-u circle, Ye-sa-gyo township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
forty-six persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 270. 



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163 



SHVVE-ZA-YAN. — A circle in the Amarapura township and subdivision 
of Mandalay d'strict, including two villages. 

SHWE-ZA-YAN. — A village in the circle of the same name, Amara- 
pura township and subdivision of Mandalay district, sevcnteen-and'a-half 
miles south-cAst of headquarters. 

It had a population of one hundred and ninety-five persons at the census 
of iSgt, and paid Rs. 380 thathamedii-ia.x. It is noted for its mangoes. 

SHWE-ZA-YE. — A village in the circle of the same name, Budalin town- 
ship of Lower Chindwin district, with three hundred and sixty-six inhabit- 
ants. It is situated on the left bank of the Chindwin river, in the south- 
west of the township. 

The village is noted for a species of smaK fish, which is only found in 
the neighbouring reaches of the Chindwin. It is from an inch to an inch 
and-a-half long and very thin, somewhat resembling white bait, and is known 
in Upper Burma as the '' Shwezaye fish." It is caught in the waters of the 
gorge of the Chiud\Ain in nets of white cloth, no ordinary net having meshes 
small enough to take it, and is generally dried in the sun and fried before 
being eaten. 

The Shwezali pagoda in this village is said to have been built by order 
of Asoka, King of Patna, about the year 300 B.D. (938 .\.D.) 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 570 from thathamsda. 

SHWE-ZIiT-TAW. — A very sacred pagoda in the Minbu district. 

It is related that in the year 758 A.D., the Buddha came to Burma and 
rested at a place now called Legaing Kyaungdawya. Thence he proceeded to 
site of the Shwezettaw pagoda and left there his two footprints, one on the 
lop of a hill and the other in the M6n stream. The latter footprint is said 
to have been made at the request of a Naga or dragon, who was named 
Pflnanda. The footprint on the hill was left on the prayer of a monk named 
Thitsabanda. This monk, according to the legend of the shrine, had been a 
hunter and supplied no fewer than ninety-nine customers with venison. 
His chief hunting-ground was a stream where the deer came down to drink. 
One day a thagya, a king of the nat country, came down in the shape of a 
little old man to the place where the hunter was. He had a small bow and 
arrow which he asked the shikari to hold for a short time, while he went 
away. The hunter tried to string the bow, which was quite a toy to appear- 
ance, but with all his strength he could not do it. When the thagya came 
back he asked the hunter if he had tried to string the bow, and was told 
that he had but could not do it. The thagya then strung it without an 
effort and afterwards told the shikari that he must promise to shoot none 
but stags 00 one day and none but hinds on another day about. The 
hunter solemnly promised that he would do so and the thagya disappeared. 
Next day the hunter resolved that he would shoot nothing but bucks, but on 
that day none but does came down to the stream. On the following day 
when he was to shoot docs, he saw nothing but bucks. This went on day 
after day and the hunter could get no game. He therefore turned to religion 
and put on the yellow robe. There are two pagodas on the hill near Shwe- 
zettaw (the golden footprints), one named Yazudaing, where the hunter put 
up his platform to watch for the deer, and the other Tha-ye-gyet, the place 
where he used to tan the skins. 



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In 248 B.E. (886 A.D.) Alaung Sithu, the King of Pagan, came to Shwe- 
zettaw and dedicated a stretch of land in the Padein township to the pagoda, 
to cover the expense of vlluminating it. These lands are bounded on the 
east by the Mon stream, on the south by the Myitpya stream, on the west 
by the Pauk stream and the Kya Yo and on the north by the Kye stream. 
He also set apart for the pagoda lands in the Sagu township, bounded on 
the east by the Began Bclan pagodas, on the south by the M6n stream, on 
the west by the Ngayan stream, and on the north by the Yew6-!eik Taung 
Kan-yo. 

In 427 B.E. (1065 A.D.) King Patama Mingaung dedicated in the same 
way as lettagan lands in the Ngap& township, bounded on the east by the 
Myinku stream, on the south by the Tamaye Unyet stream, on the west 
by Nga-kfe Kyauk-sin and on the north by the MAn creek. 

The Local Government has now assigned lands yielding two thousand 
rupees annual rent to the Shwezettaw, and one thousand rupees annual rent 
to the Kyaungdawya pagodas. The former lands are ail in the Kontba 
circle. The funds are administered by duly appointed trustees. 

SH WE-ZI-GON. — A very sacred pagoda in the Wundwin township, North- 
ern subdivision of Meiktila district 

It stands two hundred and fifty ta south-west of Pindalfe town and is the 
scene of an annual festival on the day of the full moon of the month of 
Tasaungmon (about the end of Uctober or beginning of November), which 
is attended by visitors' from Mandalay, Kyauksfe, Myingyan, I'akukku, the 
Chindwin, the Myelat and the Shan btates, Magwe, Taungdwingyi and 
Taung-u. The founder is said to have been Prince Saw Lu, a son of 
Nawyata Minzaw, who \ isited Pindalfe (then called Minta-hle) in 421 B.E. 
(1059 A.D). Five years were spent over the brick-work of the pagoda 
alone. Its circumference is two hundred cubits and height seventy cubits. 

It is told that a monk named Buddiuguya Mahati dreamt a dream at the 
time when the famine came to Pindalt;. The dream was that Shin Gautari^a 
when a aamayi, in one of his previous existences, spent the greater part of 
his bird life on the spot where the pt^goda now stands. The pongyi io\A 
his dream to the Prince, who was thus influenced to build the pagoda. 
When the Prince Saw Lu was about to put the hti or umbrella on the spire, 
he was called away on some important State matters to ihe Palace and died 
shortly after he got there. His adopted brother, Kyanyittha, mounted the 
kti'xn 430 B.E. (1068 A.D.) and the pagoda was named Mingala Zig6n, a 
name which was later changed to Shwezig6n. 

In 1200 B.E. (1838 A.D.) a tremendous earthquake brought down the 
top of the pagoda and it remained thus dilapidated for tifty-one years 
when it was restored by the liberality and piety of Payataga U Myit and 
his wife, Ma Kyin Tha, who gave money and raised sulscriplions for the 
purpose. The pilgrimages, which had been dropped after the carthijuake, 
then began again. 

SHWUMPE.— A village of Chins of the Sokte (Nwengal) tribe in the 
Northern Chin Hills. It lies four-and-a-half miles east of Hole, and is reached 
by crossing four small streams after leaving the old site of Hele. 

In 1894 it had lifty houses. The name of the resident chief was Mangen. 
It is inhabited by people of the Kai Maung family of the Sokte tribe. 
Sbwunpe was destroyed in 1893, but has been rebuilt on the original site. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



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It is unstockaded and disarmed. There is good water-supply at the village 
and camping-ground above it. 

SHWUNGZAN or LUNOI.— A village of Chins of the S6kte (Nwengal) 
tribe in the Northern Chin Hills. The village is situated soulh-west of Tid- 
dim, south of Kaptyal, and west of Fort White. It is reached fmmTiddim 
viaSaiyan, Molbem ford, and up the Shieltui spur. 

In 1894 it had fifty-one houses. The resident chief was Howkatung. It is 
inhabited by people of the Chintung family of S6ktes. Shwungzan is nomi- 
nally subordinate to D6ktaung-, but in reality Howktaung is independent. 
It is surrounded with a strong thorn fence, somewhat dilapidated. The 
best camping-ground is to the south of the village, and water is found in 
two large streams on the north and south. The village was disarmed in 1893, 
but not destroyed, There is easy heliographic communication with Fort 
White. 

SI-BA. — A revenue circle in the Budalin township of Lower Chindwin 
district, including Siba, SegSn, Tet-hlaing, Ywa-she and Aing-paung-gyaung 
villages, with five hundred and fifty-three inhabitants. It lies some two 
miles to the north of Budalin. 

The revenue in 1896-97, amounted to Rs. 1,720 from thathameda. 

SI-DAING-GAN. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision 
of Mandalay district, south-east of Thandvvin. 

It has twenty houses and its population numbered in 1897 eighty persons 
approximately. The villagers are cultivators and coolies. 

Sl-DI. — A village of seventy-four houses about five miles di-;tant from 
Sagaing, in the Sagaing township and district. 

It is so called because, during the reign of King Thalun-mindaya-gjyi, 
the villagers were appointed to beat the drums kept in the Kaunghmudaw 
pagoda. 

JSI-DOK-TA-YA. — A township of the Salin subdivision, of Minbu district 
is bounded on the north by Pak6kku district, on the east by the Nwama- 
daung Hills, on the south by Ngapc township, and on the west by the Arakan 
Yoma. 

The M6n river flows through the entire length of the township, which is 
notorious for malarial fever of a most virulent type : it is almost impossible 
to find any Burman from the plains who can endure the climate. 

Irrigation is carried on by means of small canals fed from the M6n river. 

The people who inhabit the M^'U valley are Burman-Chins. They have, 
however, by dint of long intercourse with the Burmans of the Salin and 
Kyabin townships, lost most o( their distinctive characteristics, and each 
year they approximate more closely to the ordinary Burmese type. The 
thins are of the tribe known as Chinboks. Their women tattoo their faces 
and paint them black. It is said that this was done originally to prevent 
tliem from being carried off by the Burmese, but the measure of anxiety 
prompting such a precaution seems hardly justified by any beauty in the 
women themselves. 

A large portion of the township consists of forests, the most important of 
them being the M6n West Fieserve. To the west of the township the 
mountains rise to a height of 6,500 feet above sea level. 



1 66 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



(SID-SlK 



SI-D6K-TA-YA. — The headquarters of the township of the same name 
in the Salin subdivision of Minbu district, lies on the right bank of the Mon 
river, at the head of a long cultivated vallCy. 

It has little trade ; It is inhabited by Purmans and Chins from the hills on 
the west border of the township. 

Sl-GAUNG. — A village of fifty-two houses in the Myotha township, of 
Sagaing district, eight miles north-west of Myotha. 

Coal is found in the circle near Sigaung and Thanatsil. An application has 
been made for a prospecting license. There are six villages in the Sigaung 
thug)'i jurisdiction. The principal onus besides Sigaung are Nabe-gyin, 
sixty-one houses, and Thanatsit, sixty-two houses. 

Sl-GYAUNG. — A village in the Si-gyaung circle, Laung-she townsliip, 
Yawdwin subdivision of Pak6kku district, x^ith a population of one hundred 
and forty Iwo persons, and a revenue of Rs. 340, in 1897. 

SI-GYI. — A revenue circle in the Budalin township, of Lower Chindwin 
district, including the villages of Si-gyi and Aiug-yc, with three hundred and 
fifty-five inhabitants. It lies on the north boundary of the township. 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 570, from thathamcda. • 

SI*HE. — A village of thirty-one houses, north of the Nainsin chaung, in 
the Bhamo subdivision and district. 

The villagers own thirty buffaloes and get an annu.il yield of some sixteen 
hundred baskets of kaukgyi: a little maYt'n paddy is also worked. Sihe, 
aloncf with Manhpa, K6kyin and Kabani^ was founded from Si-in and 
Pinthet, three generations ago. 

SI-HE T.~-A village of sixty-four houses, north of the Taping chaung, in 
the Bhamo subdivision and district. 

The villagers own fifty-six buffaloes and work tnayin and kaukkyi paddy. 
There Is a large area of culti\able land in the neighbourhood. 

SI-KAN-GA-LE. — A village of eight houses, off the Sinkan ck/jutt'^, in 
the Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The villagers own ten buffaloes and work ie : there is an extensive paddy- 
plain on the south and west of lh»- village. 

SI-KAN-GYI. — A village of eleven houses, near the Sinkan chaung^ in 
the Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

Two of the households are of Kachins 
bufTaloes and work li. 



The villagers own twenty 



SI-KAW.— A village and circle In the Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo 
district. 

It was formerly ruled by the Lwch'in duwa from Lw^ldn, one day to the 
north-cast, and he owed nominal allegiance to the Mong Mit Snw/iwa. It 
is said that, about 1850, there was a duiva at Sikaw also, the brother of 
the Lw&16n duwa, but every village was actually under the protection of a 
more or less independent Kachin chief. Thus the Saga Kachins looked 
after Sikangyi, Sikanga-le and Nanhan : the Lvvelon Kachins aftt-r Sikaw 
and Kyunbiniha; the Lwesaing Kachins after Munsin and Siu ; the Paka 
Kawng Kachins after Kugyin ; and the Chauktaung Kachins after Sitha 



SIK-SIM ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



167 



and Sieing. The recognized mode of protect? m was for the Kachins to 
leave a few men in each of the protected villages, but they seldom took the 
trouble to do so. 

The dttwa of Sikaw died in 1851 and the villagers elected Ma Naw, a trader 
of Lw^weia, Paivinaing, and in return he was given the free labour of the 
villagers in the cultivation of his fields, Sikaw and Kyunbintlia were the 
only villages with which he bad anything to do. In 1247 ^■^- (1885 AD.) 
Kan HIaing, the claimant to the Sa7i<bii.ui?,\i\^ of Mong Mit, established himself 
in the Sinkan valley, and put in Ma Naw as atnaf of all the villages from the 
Irrawaddy upwards to Siu village, and placed him in charge of the three 
Kayaings of Chingnia, Lalhang, and Siu. In 1889 the three kayai»g-6ks fled, 
and in November 1887 Ma Naw was appointed MyoAk of the Sinkan 
township. 

The village now consists of two groups of houses, east and west, the 
eastern group standing in high ground and the western coming undt-r flood 
in the rains. Le and It-pdk are cultivated. 

Sl-KAW. — A village of thirty-three houses on the Taping fA<i;<«^, in the 
Bhamo subdivision and district. 

The villagers own seventeen buffaloes and work mayin paddy. It is said 
that Chinese lived here from 1848 to 1863, in which year the floods came up 
the valley and forced them to move to Myothit : there they were attacked by 
Kachins and so they retired to Mannaung. 

The village is under water in the rains. T here was a high flood in 1875 
which swept the Taping valley and put a large area out of cultivation. 

SI-LAUNG. — A village in the Myotha circle, Myaing township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and sixty-two 
persons, according to the census of iSgi. 

The thatkaineda amounted to Rs. 470 for 1897-1898, 

SUMA. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of Shwebo dis- 
trict, eleven miles distant from Ye-u town, with a population of eighty-one 
persons, and a cultivated area of 9632 acres. 

The chief crops are paddy, tiisced and /t'«flM^. The thaihameda reve- 
nue amounted to Rs. 84 for 1896-97. Sima is in the Madaingbin thugyi- 
ship. 

SI-MA. — A Kachin village in Tract No, 17, Myitkyina district, situated in 
85° 2' north latitude, and 97''44' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained sixty houses. The inhabitants are of the L^pai 
tribe and Sadan sub-tribe. Sima took part in the 1892-93 rising, when half 
the village was burnt. 

S1-M.\W. — A village of twenty-four houses, south of Shwegu town, in the 
Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The villagers own a hundred and twenty bulTaloes and work l^gya only. 

SI-MI-GAUK. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of 
Shwebo district, six miles from Ye-u town. 

The population numbers thirty-nine persons and there are 35'6 acres 
under cultivation. The chief crop is paddy and the thathijtneda revenue for 
1896-97 amounted to Rs. 80, 



1 68 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SIM-SIN 



SIMSING.— A village of Chins of the Tashfin tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills It lies south of Kole and north of Lomban and can be reached by 
a Chin path from Lomban village. 

In 1894 it had eighteen houses. Yong Sung was the resident chief. Sim- 
sing is a Shunkla village tributary to Falam. Water is got from a stream 
and is brought into the village in leads. 

SI-NW-DAUNG — A village in the Mayagan towrnship, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, thirteen miles from Yc-u. 

There are two hundred and thirty-one inhabitants, mostly paddy culti- 
vators. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 430, 

SlN-AlNGorTHON-DAUNG.— A circle in the Pyintha township, May- 
myo subdivision of Mandalay district, on the Mandalay-Lashio main road. 

It is the only village in the circle and lies five miles north-east of Pyintha: 
it had a population of five hundred and sixty persons at the census of iSgi. 
The thathnmeda paid for 1896 amounted toRs. 700. Near the village are 
a Public Works Department inspection bungalow, and a Civil Police post. 
The people are Burman _yrt-cultivators. 

SIN-AUNG-GON— A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of 
Shwebo district, ten miles from Ye-u town, with a population of seventy-five 
persons, and i8'3 acres under cultivation. 

Tilseed and paddy are chiefly prown and the thathameda revenue for 
1896-1897 amounted to Rs. 160.' The village is in the Madaingbln thugyi- 
ship. 

SIN-BAUNG-Wfe.— A township in the Minhla subdivision of Thayetmyo 
district, in the Minbu division. 

In the time of the Burmese Government it was called Myedfr and was 
divided into four circles or taiks, namely : Myoma, Tat-dawya, Hkaw- 
thanmi and Anauk-bet. After the Annexation, in 1886, Sinbaungwi wns 
divided into ten circles as follows : — 



Myoma-laik. 

B&vf'faik. 

Ank-taik. 

Hkawkma-/ai'^. 

T&ung-taik. 



A\h-taik. 

Kyauksaungsan-Zfl/*. 
San-aing-/fl/>fe. 
Kan-chaung-/di/7'. 

L^sin. 



The Anauk-bet taik was transferred to the Minhla township west of the 
Irrawaddy. 

The following history of the place is given by Maung Shwe Da, the Sub- 
divisional Officer of Minhla. In 1093 AD. (B.E. 455) 

f^}f^V^.Z. -X Thiri Tari Bawan Ditra Pawara Pandita Thudhamma 
torv : the meaning ^^ 1, • .- k7 ^- c-.i m- l r fr • 

of Siiibaung-w4, Kaza-dlupati Nara-pati bithu Mmgyi, nephew of Hti- 

laing-Shin Kyanyit-Min, reigned in Pawkka Rama. He 

went travelling about his kingdom and in logO arrived at Pathein (Bassein) 

whore he left some of his queens and went in his thekkadan barge to visit 

the Kyun-u Sambu t ha bye tree. On his way back he came across a violent 

whirlpool at Sinbaungwft, and past this the barge had to be dragged by a 

thousand men and a hundred elephants as far as the village of Lunchi, about 

a mile north of the present village of Sinbaungwfe, where it was made fast 



SIN J 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



169 



The 
circle. 



with ropes. At this spot the Iting built the pagoda called Paungdaw-u. The 
village of Lunchi lias retained that name, because of the fixing up of the 
barge, and Sinbaungwfe is so-called because elephants and men together 
dragged the royal barge past the whirlpool {sin, elephant ; paung, together ; 
let', a whirlpool). 

In the year 1852, at the end of the Second Burmese war, and after the 
boundary had been marked out and the pillars set up between British and 
Burmese territory, the tnyofhugyi o\ Myedfe, Maha-Zeya Kyawgaung U Bo, 
removed his headquarters to Sinbaung^wt; and was before long raised to 
the rank of Myowun, which he retained till the time of Mind6n Min, when 
he was succeeded by his son Maha-Mintin Yazathu U Lat, as myolhugyi. 

The Tat-dawya taik has a much more elaborate historv. The town of 
Karachi on the Persian gulf was formerly called Kalein- 
Tatdawya karit. Four sons of the king of that place, called Min 
Naung, Min Pyaung, Min Yaung and Min Naga and 
their sister, M& Saw, left their father's country and came to Burma with 
a large force. They eventually camped on the spot now known as 
Tatdawya. The eldest brother became king of Taungdwingyi, but the 
youngest, Min Naga, and his sisier Me Saw remained at Tatdawya. 

There Min Naga built a tahindaingnan (a maiden palace) for his sister, 
and she had her food taken to her daily by a man called Nga Kya. The 
two fell in love and fled together. Min Naga pursued and caught them on 
the ridge north of old Nga-zingvaing and he cut his sister and her l&man 
into three pieces. Ever since the place has been known as ' M^saw Thon 
Paing KyaThdn Paing ' [mlsaw, three pieces, and kya, three pieces). Then 
Min Naga was seized with remorse- He was also afraid of his elder brother. 
So he fled to Taungngu and ser\ed the King, Mingyi Nyo, whose daughter 
he eventually married. The King of Taungngu then opened up communi- 
cations with Min Naung, the King of Taungdwingyi, and that monarch 
granted Min Naga his old place at Tatdawya, with the following boundaries : 
on the east the Taungngu ridge ; on the south the Kyoni stream, which rises 
in the Bwfebin hills ; on the west the Kyawtha watershed ; and on the 
north the Mfesaw-Thon Paing, Kya-Th5n Paing forests. Min Naga therefore 
settled here with the title of Pyiso and maintained himself independent. A 
village was built on the site of Mfe Saw's former palace and was called 
Tabindaing which was afterwards changed into Takundaing. Min Naga's 
descendant's succeeded him in regular line down to modern days and always 
retained the name of /'jy/jo instead of Taikthugyi. In 1852, however, Tat- 
dawya taik was added to Myedfe. 

The Kawlhanmj taik preserves the following historv : In the time of Alaung 
MIntaya-gyi a fort was built in Myed& when there was 
war with the Talaings and many of the people round 
took refuge in it. The whole neighbourhood suffered 
from famine. A husband and wife with one child lived in Thayaung clos'* 
by. One day, while his wife was away, the man S)ld the child to a soldier 
from Tatdawya for five rupees ; when the wife came back and heard of it 
she immediately set off to get her child back again and the husband went 
with her. After they had gone a longdistance the man said the child was 
within shouting distance, which proved to be true, so the place has been 
called Kawthanmi ever since. When the war was over there was a new 
division of circles and Kawthanmi was one of them. 



The 
circle. 



Kawthanmi 



170 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SIN 



When the boundary between Burmese and British territory was settled in 
1852 about a third of Kawthanmi became British soil and the remainder 
was called Kawthanmi X&kyan taih. After Upper Burma was annexed in 
1886 the name of Kawthanmi was given up and L^sin substituted. 

The Shwe Sit Aung pagoda stands about a mile north of Sinbaungwfei 
p J near Lunchi. It was built by King Duttabaung. the 

founder of Prome, on his return from Pyithado. where he 
had gained a victory over Queen Pantwa. A Thariya (relic of the body 
of Buddha\, mounted in precious stones and s^t in a gold casket, is enshrin- 
ed in it. An annual fair is held in Tasaunom^m (November). 

The Shitpinsakvo pagoda is situated about ten miles below Sinbaungw&, 
to the east of Kanhla village. It was built by King Arim^ddana Anawrahta- 
saw, of Pawkka Rama (Pagan) in commemoration of the fact that it was 
here that he met the thirty divisions of the Buddhist scriptures brought 
from ThatSn to Pagan. 

The Shwemudaw pagoda is about four miles below Sinbaungwfe, near 
Incha village in the Raw tail-. It is claimed to be one of the eighty-four 
thousand pagodas built by King Thiri-dhamma Thawka. 

The township as a whole is hilly and forest-covered, but there are no very 

Kt . ,r prominent hills The Sanpfin hill on the banks of the 

Natural features. T ,, . , ^, '^,, t. ^ • ^ -i 

Irrawaddy river at Nga-pyetba, about nineteen miles 

below Sinbaungw^, used formerly to be well-known, because when loaded 

boats from Lower Burma arrived here their cargo had all ti be unshipped 

and piled up at the foot of the hill, until the boats had been dragged over 

the part of the river where the rapidity of the current made passage difficult. 

There is a pagoda on the topof Sanp6n taung. 

As in Minhla, the chief crop grown is scssamum, but paddy, both upland 
and lowland, is also grown. 

In 1880 the Nyaung Ok Prince, who had escaped from Calcutta and 

I te h" to gathered a force round him, attacked Sinbaungw^ and 

maintained himself with two hundred men for sometime 
on Sanpfin hill, but he was eventually attacked and driven back into Lower 
Burma by the force under the Mvingun Taungkwin Patanago, ThiSnmyoxeHn, 
U Hpo, U Hnin,the Mying6n Myoihugyi^uA. U Lat, the SinbaungA\fe Myo- 
th iigyi. 

SIN-BO — A circle and village in the Mogaung subdivision of Myitkyina 
district, stretching along the banks of the LTpper Irrawaddy. 

In i8go the Sinbo kayaing was at the head of five subordinate kayttings : 
these were — 

(i) Sinbo kayaing — including Sinbo yzrama, Napin (or Huma)i 
Myintba, Hkaungmyfe ; 

(2) Hn6klo,'o iayaing — including Baingbin, Kyaungzu, Kinpa, Ta- 

gundaing, Peinn^gAn (K6n-ma-lin) ; 

(3) Hmangin kayaing — including Hmangin, Pintaw, Papaw, Manl^, 

NethagAn ; 

(4) PinlAn kayaing — including Pinion {Vtvama), PinlfinTaya, Hkaung- 

kayS ; 

(3) Manpwa kayaing — including Manpwa ytrama, Nansit, Naung- 
kan and Tabona. 



SIN J 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



171 



The 
island. 



The north boundary was the Naungkan chaung, which flows down from 
Bindu taung to just above Naungkan. 

In the Hnfikkyo island the chief villages are Kyaungzu with nineteen 
houses, Baingbin with forty-four houses, Kinpa with forty- 
Hnfikkyo [^y^^ houses, Tagundaing with five houses, all on the west 
side, and Peinnfegon with twelve houses, on the eastern 
side. All the villages were destroyed during Haw Saing's rebellion in 1883, 
but the villagers returned to settle again in the following year. During the 
floods the whole island is under water. There are now lifty-one buffaloes 
in the circle, but there were many more before Haw Saing's foray. 

Sweet limes and oranges grow on the islands and a few custard -apples 
but the floods prevent any very extensive fruit cultivation. 

Tobacco is sown on the slopes of the river bank after the water has 
gone down. No attempt is made to harrow or stir up 
iobacco. ^i^g ggji The seed is sown broadcast in Thadingyut 

(about October) after the jungle and grass have been cut away, and the 
young tobacco plants come up in about a fortnight. When the plants are 
about a span high, io January or February, they are transplanted to ploughed 
and on the island and placed about eighteen inches apart from one another. 
The leaves are fit for plucking in March or April and the plucking continues 
until the rise of the floods, when tiie whole are washed away, 1 he annual 
yield amounts to tour thousand viss and the prices realized are from twenty- 
two to twenty-live rupees the iiundred viss. 

Vegetables grow very well wherever they are sown, but there is no market 
for them and consequently no' more than are required for home use are 
grown. No irrigated paddy is worked, but the villagers cross to the west 
bank of the Irrawaddy, where they carry on lepok cultivation. The total 
yield of paddy is from fourteen to fifteen hundred baskets at the late of 
forty baskets to one basket sown. Taungya, yielding from five to six hun- 
dred baskets, is also carried on on the main land. 

The population, with the exception of four Kachin houses, is entirely 
Burmese- .Shan. The Hnokkyo villagers were formerly protected by the 
Nanya Kachins who live eight daings distant to the south-west. 

Sinbo village is situated on the point of land above the mouth of the Upper 
Defile of the Irrawaddy and has sixty-seven houses. The 
VI age. villagers cultivate jv^-j^/rf, which yields sixty baskets, and 
laungya is worked and yields two hundred baskets ; no mayin is grown. 
They live mostly as coolies, providing wood for boats. There is a wood 
depflt for launches here. A few papayas, guavas, jack and pumpkins are 
grown for home consumption. The village contains one small sayat, and 
there is a good portgyi kyaung with accommodation for about sixty-five men. 

Sinbo is said to have been founded by U Kyaw BalvvJ:, a Shan, over one 
hundred years ago, but it is not known whence he came. The inhabitants 
are mostly Shan-ga-le's and there is one Kachin house. 

The thugyi has also under him the villages of Nabin, Myintha, Hkaungmy& 
and Slvibo ywama, all under Myedaings, 

SIN-BO. — A village in the Myind^g6n revenue circle, Amarapura township 
and subdivision of Mandalay district, is situated eight miles east-soutb^eaat 
of headquarters. 



172 



THK UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SIN 



It had a population of one hundred and twenty persons at the census of 
i8gi, and paid Rs. 120 thathamcda-ia.x. 

SIN-BON. — A village in the Min-ywa circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, Gan- 
gaw subdivision of Pakoitku district, with a population of three hundred and 
twenty-four persons, according to the census of 1891, 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 700 for 1897-98. 

SIN-BUT. — A village and revenue circle in the Palhein-gyi township, Ama- 
rapura subdivision of Mandalay district, twenty-four miles north-east of head- 
quarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and sixty persons at the census of 
1891, and paid Rs. 464 tha t hanwda-i^x. The circle includes three villages. 

SIN-BYU. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan subdivi- 
sion and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and fifty persons and the 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 686. No land revenue was collected in the 
circle. 

SIN-BYU. — A village in the Leya circle, I'ak6kku township, subdivision 
and district, with a population of three hundred andfourCecn persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1H91. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 30 for 1897-98. 

SIN-BYu-GON. — A village of one hundred and forty houses in the Myotha 
township of Sagaing district. It lies eighteen miles north-west of Myotha. 

There are nine villages under the Sinbyug6n thugyi, the principal being 
Kaungbo, fifty-four houses; Kyunpulu, sixty houses ; Ycsiii, sixty houses; 
Singyin, seventy houses ; and Thukakayi, fifty-five houses, i here are 
subordinate ^n'tf-zAw^f^j".? at Thukakayi, Mayag6n and Letpantha, forty six 
houses. The whole of the lands in Sinbyug6n circle are State, yielding on 
an average about Rs. 8,500 a year laud revenue. 

The Sinbyushin pagoda near Sinbyug6n village is s.iid to have been erect- 
ed long before King Mind6n's reign. 

The Petka, Kaungbo Hlon, and Inya in, comprising some sixteen large 
and small fisheries yield a revenue of from Rs. 3 sijo to Rs. 4,000 a year. 

SIN-BYU-GYI. — A circle in the Myothit township of Magwe district, 
including the villages uf Sinbyu-gyi, Aingthaand Ma-gyi-g6n. 

SlN-BYU-GYUN. — A town in the Salin subdivision of Minbu district, 
six miles north-east of Saliii, with which it is connected by a good metalled 
road. It is three miles from the Irrawaddy river, the port being Sun. 

The population numbered between nine and ten thousand persons in 1890, 
and this is said to be only half of what it was in Burmese times. The Salin 
creek flows to the north of the town and boats can comt- up it from the Irra- 
waddy. Nearly all the produce of the subdivision, sessamum, cutch, chillies, 
tobacco, cotton, gram and wheat is disposed of at Sinbyu-gyun to traders, 
who ship it to Lower Burma by the steamers of the Irranaddy Flotilla Com- 
pany at Sun. Much trade also used to be carried on by the Aeng Pass 
and Salin between Arakan and Sinbyu-gyun in jaggery, silk cloths, .Ind 
catechu. There is extensive paddy cultivation and during the floods ihe 
country is covered with water for a great distance. 



SIN] 



THE UPt»ER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



173 



Sinbyugyun was burnt by the Burmese army in its retreat in 1825-26. 

SIN-CHAN. — A village in the Pauk-ngu circle, Yeza-gyo township, Pa- 
kfikku subdivision and district, with a population of twenty-two personSi 
acconling to the census of i8yi, and a revenue of Rs. 60. 

SIN-CHE-YA. — A village in the Nyaungbin circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of one thousand and forty- 
five persons, according to the census of 1S91. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 283 for 1897-98. 

SIN-DAING. — A revenue circle in the Uyu township, Lcga-yalng sub- 
division of Upper Chindwin district, including seven villag<JS. 

SIN-DAING-GAN. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, 
Pagan subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In ! 895-96 the population numbered 495 persons and the thathameda 
amounted to Rs. 763. No land revenue was collected in the circle. 

SIN-DA-LU— A village of thirty-five houses in the Sagaing subdivision 
and district. 

SIN-DAT. — A village of one-hundred and thirty-eight houses, nine miles 
from Sagaing in the township, sub Hvision and district of thai name. 

SIN-DAW-THI. — .\ village in the Hintha revenue circle, Amarapura 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, two miles south-south-west 
of headquarters. 

It had a population of thirty persons, acocrding to the census of i89i,and 
paid Rs. 50 ihalhameda-\.ax 

SIN-Dfi. — A revenue circle with one thousand one hundred and seventy- 
nine inhabitants in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district 

It is situated near the North Yama chaung, aivd includes the villages of 
Siiidfi, Sftnywa, Swe-hlan, In-ywa, Paukthaba and Gyo-gyawin. 

The crops cultivated arc paddy,yoa;flr and peas. The revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 2,690 thathameda. 

SIN-D£. — A village in the Sinde circle, Yeza-gyo township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one thousand five hundred and 
fifty-three persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thalhamsda amounted to Rs. 327 for 1897-98. 

SIN-DB. — A village of one hundred and fifty-eight houses in Ava township 
of Sagaing district, eight miles west of Ava. 

There is a large pagoda, the Shwemutaw, here, 

SIN-DO. — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of Pakfikku 
district, with a population of one hundred and eighty-four persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 270. 

SIN-E-THE, — .\ revenue circle in the Taungdwin-gyaung township, .\Iin» 
gin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

It contains two villages, which paid Rs. 240 revenue in 1897. 

SIN'-GA. — A village in the Ngedo revenue circle, Amarapura township 
and subdivision of Mandalay district, two miles south-south-west of head- 



174 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tsas 



Area and boun- 
daries. 



quarters. It had a population of seventy-five persons at the census of 1891, 
and paid Rs. 150 thalhameda-t&x. 

SIN-G.\. — A village of nineteen bouses on the Taping rAattw^, in the Bha- 
mo subdivision and district. 

The villagers work kaukkyi paddy chiefly. The village is three feet 
under water in the floods. 

SIN-GAING. — A township of Kyauksfe district, with an approximate area 
of one hundred and forty-six square miles, is bounded on 
the north by Mandalay district, on the east by the Yfe- 
yaman Hill Tract, on the south by the Minzu and Pauk- 
myaing townships and on the west by the Sagaing district. 

The greater part of the township was known as Metkaya in Burmese 

-,. .... . . times. It is now divided into one hundred and seven 

Civil divisions. . , 1 . 11 11 T. 

revenue circles, each under a village headman. Ihe 

headquarters are at Singaing town, called in Burmese limes Yanaing. 

The whole of the township, with the exception of some small hilly por- 
N al features tions on the north-east and south-east, is well watered by 
irrigation canals. Of hills only the Minmwd and Bilin 
are worthy of note. 

The Myit-ngft river forms the boundary line on the north, a range of the 
Shan bills on the east, the Kyauksfe hills on the south, and the Panlanng 
river on the west. The Zawgyi traverses the whole length of the township 
from south to north. Thindauiig swamp, some four square miles in area, 
between the Minmw^ and Bilin hills, is now being drained to admit of culti- 
vation. The Minhia tank, about three miles long by two miles broad, 
situated near the hills on the east, is fed from the AlinyS canal and is also 
used for irrigation. 

The average rainfall is twenty-nine inches. The supply is, as a rule, fickle 
Rainfall and di- ^""^ often untimely, so that agriculture is entirely depend- 

n,a,e. ent on irrigation, the canals being fed by rains in the 

Shan hills. The hilly portions bordering on the Yfcya- 

man tract are malarious, but as a whole the township is healthy, though the 

people of Mandalay were in Burmese times reluctant to cross the Myit-ngft 

river for fear of fever. 

Paleik was the scene of internal disturbances in the last Anglo-Burmese 
History. yvax. .\fter the Annexation, in December of 1885, the 

Myinzaing prince engaged a British force at Kanthit 
and Kyetmya, but afterwards took flight to Yakainggyi in the then Sawhia 
township. Dacoities in the years that followed were frequent. Mr. Walker, 
of the Bombay-Burma Trading Corporation, was attacked and murdered 
at Nyaungbingyi. Subsequently Bo Kyaw 2aw of Sunye became a dacoit 
leader and terrorized the district, and in spite of constant pursuits was never 
captured. Organized dacoity ceased in the township in 1888. 

The township is almost entirely agricultural, only a small percentage of 
Produce and '•'^^ population being fishermen, wood and bamboo cut- 
industry, ters, silk-weavers, mat-makers, potters, agricultural 
coolies, and petty traders. 



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175 



The produce consists chiefly of paddy, sugarcanps, Goa beans, plantains, 
sessamum, tomatoes and peas ; wheat, gram and millets are also grown. 
Tobacco is raised along the Mvit-ngti. The mango gardens on the banks of 
that river are of great local reputation. Unrefined sugar is manufactured at 
Singaing, Chinamen and Rurmans being engaged in the intjustry. Sessa- 
mum oil is expressed extensively and a certain amount of tMeze oil is got 
from the Bassia tree. 

There are several fisheries of considerable size ; two near Palcik, one at 
Thingadon, and another at Ta6n ; river-fishing is also carried on in the 
Myit-rg&. 

Silk weaving is universal, the outturn being greatest at Paleik, Inna, 
Thabyevo, Ebya and Metkava villages along the Myit-ngfe, and at Se-ywa 
Sizdn, Myaung-s6n-gvi and Ywa-thit east, inland. 

Pottery is carried on in Wuntho, Nanni, and Ng^do, West villages. 
Bamboo mats are made in Wuntho and Kyaungbangfin. Lime {Calcium 
oxide] i< midr near Bilin. a little to the south of which is also a quarry 
worked by the Burma Railways Company, Charcoal was at one time very 
largely manufactured in Mi-thweb6k. 

Bazaars are held once in five days at Singaing, Paleik and Thitkauk. 
The Zidaw and MvaungsAn canals are navigable, but the principnl boat 
traffic is along the Myit-ng& river, on which is situated Paleik, a large village 
and an important trade centre from Burmese times. 

The township has an approximate jiopulation of 44,801 persons of whom 
p . .. the jrreat bulk are Burmese. Only eight villages, Kanlu, 

Letpan, Kalanbo, Thitkauk, Hin-ngu, Shwega, Myaung- 
s6n-nge and Tabetswe are Mahommedan ; here live the descendants of 
the original settlers and the majority of them still retain their ancestral reli- 
gion, though they have entirely adopted Burmese language and dress. It 
is said that the first immigrants numbered 3.O00, and that the Burmese 
King, fearing the comb'ned strength of so many foreigners, separated 
them, aflotting a village to each bodv. There are two Shan settlements, 
Mogaungand Wuntho, so named from the respective countries from which 
the colonists emigrated. 

The town of Metkaya, now in ruins, is said to have 
been built by one of the three sons of the exiled king of 
Tagaung. 

On the hills to the east is the Dattaw cave, which contains a few stalac- 
tites and stalagmites. In it is a recumbent Gaudama, fifty feet long. ,A.a 
annual festival is held here on the full moon of Tagaitng, a.Qd at the Satthwa 
pagoda, four miles west of Kvauks& town. 

Biliu and Tawma, originallv named Penin and Paung-u, were founded by 
King Mani-silhu of Pagan, whose royal barge grounded at the foot of the 
Shwe-myinmfc hill. Local legends say that during the night his />aso was 
eaten up by rats and that he built the Shubyu-kywe-yaik pagoda to comme- 
morate the incident. 

Tetinyaw was founded by King Nawra-hta, who came to his barge there 
to wait for the Shinmunhla, the daughter of the Hsipaw Sawbwa, who had 
been offered him in marriage. 



Antiquities, 



176 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SIM 

Pa- 



SIN-GAING.-A village in the Singaing circle, Ye-za-gyo township i 
kfikku sub'livision and district, with a papulation of two hundred and sixty 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The ikathameda amounted to Rs. 590 for 1897-98. 

SIN-GAING.— A village of fifty-three bouses in the Sadaung'townshipof 
Sagaing district. 

It was formerly a military and civil post, and was attacked by dacoits in 
1888. Thev were repulsed close to Singaing, at the mouths of the Palm 
chaungy and their leader Bo To was captured by the Civil Police. 

There i" a pagoda here called the Shinhin-sei-pauk. 

SIN-GAUNG. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision, of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered four hundred and seventy-five persons 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 592. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle 

SIN-GAUNG. — .Mso called Le-y wa, a circle of the Kvawk Ku HUsi Wan 
State, in the Myelat district nf the Southern Shan States. 

It lies in the north of the State and includes seven villages, which in i R97 
numbered amons them eightv-seven hous''s, with a popniation of four 
hundred and eighty-seven persons. The revenue then paid amounted to 
Rs. 515 yearly 

SIN-GAUNG. — A circle in the Maymyo township and subdivision of Man- 
dalay district, including four villages. 

Singaung village lies six miles south of Maymyo, and has a population of 
two hundred and seventy-one persons, according to the census of 1891. The 
thafhnmei'a paid for 1896 amounted to Rs. 250 Paddy is cnltivated. 

SIN-GAUNG KYAUK-JAW.— A village in Kan-anauk tafk circle of the 
Pang-tara State, Myelat district, of the .Southern .Shan States, close to the 
N^we'kun-hmu's village. 

It contained in 1897 fifty-five houses, with a population of three hundred 
and ninety-three persons, and paid Rs. 377 annual revenue. 

SINGK.ALING HKAMTI.— :-. sub Zingkaling Hkamtl. 

SINGMAN. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyina district, situ- 
ated in 23° 47' north latitude and 97° 39' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses ; its population was unknown. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him ; the inhabitants are of the Lah- 
tawng tribe. 

SINGNGIN or SAINGKIN.— A Kachin vill.ige in Tnict No. 12, Bhamo 
district, situated in 24'"' 23' north latitude and 97'^ 34' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained forty-nine ho'ises, with a population of two hundred 
and seventy-five persons. The headman has no others subordinate to him. 
The inhabitants are Shan-Burmese and own no cattle. 

SIN-GU or NGA-SIN-GU.— A township in the Madava subdivision of 
Mandalay district, with an approximate area of eight hundred square miles. 

It is bounded on the north by the Ruby Mines district, on the cast by tiie 
Shan hills, on the south by the Chaung-ma-gyi c/iaung, and on the west by 



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177 



the Irrawaddy river. It is divided into sixtv-six revenue circles and has 
an approximate population of forty-live thousand persons. 

The Bodaw-taung and the Ngwc-o-haw are the only hills worth special 
mention. Rubies are found in the Sagyin hills and in the Ngwc-o-baw. 
Very fine alabaster is also obtained in the Sagj'in hills, iiml also graphite. 
A little cutch-boilingis carried on to the north of Singu, but otherwise there 
IS no forest produce of any kind. 

The average rainfall is from twenty-five to thirty inches, and the town- 
ship as a whole is healthy. 

The township is chiefly agricultural, about three-fifths of the population 
being employed in cultivation, the other two-hfths corn- 
Industries, prising fishermen, wood and bamboo-cutters, coolies and 
petty traders. In years of ordinary rainfall the township 
produces enough rice to support itself, but when the rain is scanty grain has 
to be imported. Two crops of paddy are generally raised from the land in the 
year, the mayi'n or dry weather crop and the kaukkyi ov wet weather crop 
but in some parts as many as three crops are harvested. Besides rice, 
millets of different descriptions are grown. 

The Singu fisheries are very valuable and afford employment to many 
hundreds of persons. Fish are caught both from the Irrawaddy and its back- 
waters and also from the various lakes or lagoons which are formed bv the 
overflow of the Irrawaddy, once or twice in the year. The fish caught are 
exported to .Madaya, Mandalay, and tn various parts nf Shwebo district. 
Ngapi is also manufactured and exported to the Shan States of Hsum Hsai 
and MiJng Longand to Iwinng&and other places in the Ruby Mines district. 

Sculpture in a small way is carried 0.1 in and about the Sagyin hills, which 
abound in alabaster of a very fine kind, are the chief things hewn and are 
sent down to Mandalay. 

The Buddhas pagodas, most reputed pagodas, are the Shwe-moktaw in 
Singu, the Mal6 in Mal&gyi, the Sudaungbyi in Tongyi, and the Mwc-an- 
daw in Mwe. 

The chief lakes are the Maung-ma kan near Nyaungwun village and the 
Yenatha kan^ near the village of the same naine. 

The great bulk of the population is Burmese, but there are a few Shan s 
and Shan-Burmese in the villages east of the township. 

SIN-GU. — The headquarters of the Nga-Singu township in the Madaya 
subdivision of Mandalay district. 

SIN-Gl'. — A straggling village in the Singu circle, Pagan township and 
subdivision of M)ingyan district, on the irrawaddy river, about twenty-four 
miles south of Nyaung-u. 

Ft is the centre of a large local trade, most of the villagers from Kyaukpa- 
daung disposing of their goods and buying all the commodities they require 
here. The trade with Lower Burma is carried for the most part in country 
boats of which there are a large number, the village being inaccessible by 
steamer except during the floods. The population in 1895-96 numbered six 
thousand nine hundred and forty-five persons; the tliathameda zmowntcAia 
Rs. 10,940, the State land revenue to Rs. 1,634, and the gross revenue 
Rs. 13,574. 

33 



178 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ SIN 



SING-UT.— A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision, and 
district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered two hundred and thirty-three per- 
sons and the thathameda amounted toRs. 348. No land revenue was collect- 
ed in \\yt circle. 

SING-UT. — An irrigation tank in theShwebo circle of the subdivision and 
district of that name. It is situated between the two villages of Singut, 
East and West, and is three-and-a-half miles from Shwebo town. 

The tank is a mile long by five thousand one hundred feet broad. In 
good seasons it is said to have irrigated between six hundred and fifty and 
seven hundred pe, but latterly, owing to disrepair and scanty rainfalls irri- 
gates only an eighth or ninth of this area, 

The Singut reservoir was dug by King Bagyidaw, the Sagaing King, 
and eldest son of King Alompra, in 1 122 BE. (1760 A.D.). 

SIN-GYAN. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of Shwebo 
districti ten miles from Ye-u town, with a population of fourteen persons. 

There are 3324 acres under cultivation, mostly with paddy. Forty rupees 
thathameda revenue was paid in 1890. 'I he village is under the ihugyi of 
K6n6n. 

SIN-GYO. — A village in the Singyo circle, Ye-za-gyo township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and thirty-one 
persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 740 for 1897-98. 

SINGYUN. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, on the Mu river, twenty-seven miles below headquarters. 

There are one hundred and Jifty-two inhabitants who paid Rs. \%o tha- 
thameda revenue for 1896-97. The principal industry is paddy cultivation. 

SIN-KA. — A revenue circle in the Sale township, Pagan subdivision of 
Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand one hundred and thirty 
persons and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,675. No land revenue was 
collected in this circle. 

SIN-KAN. — A village of thirty-six houses at the junction oftheSinkan 
chaung and the Irrawaddy river, in the Shwcga subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The villagers own some buffaloes,* many of them are traders and others 
cut bamboos. 

SIN-KAN. — The Sinkan chaung, called Mo-hlaing chaung, in the upper 
part of its course as far down as Grt'e-gyi, rises in the Chauktaung hills in 
about latitude 23° 30' and flows northwards into the Irrawaddy river at 
Sinkan. about twenty mites below Bhamo. 

At Sleng its breadth is five yards and its depth six or eight inches in 
December; at Kanni at the same time of the year it is eighteen yards wide 
and one and-a-half feet deep ; at the Nam Mun ford on the road from Sinkan 
to Mankin it is thirty-five yards wide by three feet deep, and at its mouth 
at Sinkan twenty yards broad, by four feet deep. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER, 



179 



Peingawi ascend the Sinkan to Sinkavv from June to the end of Decem- 
ber. After that, it becomes too shallow for anything but small dug-outs. 
Launches have got up as far as We-gyi in the rains. 

In the dry season the Sinkan chaung is fordable everywhere except at 
its month at Sinkan, where it is four feet deep in December. 

The roads in the Sinkan valley are scarcely used in the rains, so that there 
are no regularly recognized ferries. There are one or two dug-outs at 
nearly every village. 

SIN-KAT.— A village in the east of the State of Nam Hkai, Myelat 
district of the Southern Shan States, close to the border of the Loi Long 
State. 

In i8y7 there were thirty-five households in the village, with a population 
of two hundred and five persons. Twenty-five households were assessed 
to revenue and paid Rs. 75 tkathameda-t&x. 

SIN-KAT. — A village in theTaung-she circle of the Pan gtara State, Mye- 
lat district, of the Southern Shan States, close to the Lawk Sawk border. 

In 1897 it contained thirty-three houses, with a population of one hundred 
and tweT»ty-one persons. Only nineteen houses were assessed, and these 
paid Rs. 172 annual revenue. 

SIN-KIN.— A village of two groups of houses, five miles above Bhamo on 
the east bank of the Irrawaddy river in the Bhamo subdivision and district. 

The lower group is on the river side and contains fifty houses: the 
villagers trade with Myitkyina in salt and grow mayin paddy and potatoes. 
The upper group has been formed recently by the removal of houses from 
the lower ground by the river: it contains one hundred and ten houses, and 
the inhabitants own thirty buffaloes and work mayin paddy. 

Sinkin was in 1893 the headquarters of a Myook : it lies on the Nam- 
paing trade route. 

SINKWA. — A village of Chins of the Yokwa tribe in the Southern Chin 
Hills. It lies thirteen miles east of Haka, and can be reached from Haka 
by the Chin path to Chaiinggwa. 

In 1894 it had sixty houses. Yonerr and Runnfin were its resident chiefs. 

Sinkwa is slightly stockaded : it pays tribute to Ratyo of Yokwa. There 
is good water-supply and a small camping-ground inside the stockade on the 
west side of the village. 

SIN-LAN. — A village in the Le-ya circle, Pakokkti township, subdivision 
and district, with a population of two hundred and sixty-nine persons, ac- 
cording to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 600, included in that 
of Le-ya. 

SIN-LAN-GY AUNG. — ^A village in the Kabaing circle, Seikpyu township, 
Pak6kku subdivision .ind district, with a population of ninety-two persons, 
according to the census of iSgi, and a revenue of Rs. 160, included in that 
of Kabaing. 

SIN-LU-AING. — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and fifteen persons, and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 198. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 



i8o 



THE UPPER BLRMA GAZETTEER. 



CSIN 



SINLUM GALE. — A Kacbin village in Tract No. lo, Bhamo district 
situated in 24'' 7' north latitude and 97° 35' east I'lngitudc. 

In 1892 it contained fourteen houses, with a populntion uf sixty-eight 
persons. The headman of the village has no others subordinate to him. 
Thp inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Kaori sub-tribe, and own four 
bullocks and three buffaloes 

SINLUM GYI.--A Kachin village in Tract No. 9, Bhamo district, situ- 
ated in 24° 16' north latitude and 97° 33' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained I'orty-five houses, with a population of ont hundred 
and forty-nine persons. The h<-adman li:is no others subordinate to him. 
The inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Kaori sub-tribe, and own eight 
bullocks and thirty-three lufTaloes. The village was fined in 1890-gi for 
robbery from General Gatacre's column. There is camping-ground for 
one hundred men in the villa;;e, and a large water supply from Kaya Hka 
half a mile off ; a sufficient supply could also be obtained by damming up 
the small stream in the lower village. 

Sl.N-MA-YE.^A village in the Nwe-ni circle, Ycza-gyo township 
Paki^kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
forty-eight persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathamcda amounted to Ks, 620 for 1897-98- 

SIN-MIN. — A village in the Kun-yvva circle, Pak6kku township sub- 
division, and district, with v\. population of three hundred and thirteen 
persons, according to the cenjus of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 600, in- 
cluded in tliat of Kun-ywa. 

SIN-MYE. — A riverine village about six miles from Sagaing in Sagaing 
district. 

It has seventy-three houses. 

SIN-NAING. — A revenue circle in the Ilomalin township, Lega-yaing 
subdivision of Upper Chindwin district, including a single village. 

SIN-Nl-DAUNG. — A village in the Pindalfe circle, Scikpyu township, 
Pakokku subdivision, and district, with a population of ninety-nine persons, 
according to the census of 1891. 

The thathamcda amounted to Rs. no for 1897-98. 

SlN-O. — A revenue circle, including the two villages of Sin-o and 
Nyaunggyin, in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district. 

It IS situated on the left bank of the Chindwin river above Kani and has 
a population of seveuty-thrce persons Paddy, jowar and ses.samum are 
cultivated. 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Ks. 38^ from thathamcda^ and 
Rs. 120 from the lease of the Sin-o and Lepangu fisheries. 

SIN-ON IN. — A sheet of w.Tter in the VVa-nw6g6n circle, Pyinmana 
subdivision of Yam6thin district, to the north of Palwe Siiaosu village. 

It is described as five-hundred tas from east to west and fifty from north 
to south, with a depth varying from eight to twelve cubits. 

SIN-POK, — A village of thirty-two houses south of Shwegu in the Shwe* 
gu suodivision of Bhamo districti on the Sankha chaung. 



SIN] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



i8r 



The villagers own fifty-sevfn buffaloes. 

SmSUEC/ZAUNG. — A village in the Pakan-gyi circle, Yeza-gyo town- 
ship, Pakfikku subdivision, and district, with a population of one hundred 
and eighty-three persons, according to the census of i8yi. 

SIN-SHIN. — A revenue circle in the Minlaingbin township of Lower 
Chindwin district, with seven hundred and nine inhabitants in iSyi. It 
includes three villages, Ngapyawdaw, Myenfc and Sinshin. 

The village Is said to have bern eiitablished in 466 B.K. (1104 A.U.) on 
the site of the ruined city of M'-iktila, which w;i3 founded by King Nara- 
diua of the Wethali dynasty. Tlie annual festival of the .Sutaungbyi 
pagoda is held here in November. 

There is a curious figure of Buddha in a sitting position in the main 
kyaung ; is some eighteen inches liigli, madf of s^mc thin inclal, and 
enveloped by the offerings of worshippers in a h.Tlf-inclithii.k roxiring of 
gold leaf The Burmans say that it is worth a lakh and a half of rupcci ; 
it has a knob as large as a small walnut in the centre of the forehead, 
between the eyes; and the pupils pr^'jcct b«ynnd tli<- eyelids, givin^f the 
figure a grotesque expression. 

SIN-SIT.— A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It 
lies five miles south of Rawa and can be reached from I.u-ignr, via Rawa 
or from Gangaw via Tanbya, thirty-five mile». 

In i8c4, it had thirty houses and .Sarawk w.is its resident chief. It is 
slightly stockaded. The Kapi chiefs have inlluencc over Sin-sit, Tlie 
water-supply is limited, but there is good camping-ground below tho 
village. 

SIN-TA-GA. — A village in the I'akan-gyi circle, Yeza-gyo town.<tbip, 
Pakdkku subdivision, and district, with a population of one hundred and 
four persons, according to the census of 1891. 

Thethalhamt'da aniountcd to R» 400 for 1897-98. 

SIN-THE. — A revenue circle in thcTaunglha township, Myingyan »ubdi« 
rision,, and district. 

In 1895 96 tlte population numbered two hundred and sixty persona, and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 345' No land revenue was collected iu 
the circle. 

SIN-THE. — A village in the ShwegAn-daiag circle Nga Singu town- 
ship, Madaja subdivision of .Mandalay district, west of Sa-gyct. 

The vi.lage has twenty houses. Its population numben d in 1897 eighty 
persons approximately, who were exclusively engaged in cultivation. 

SIN-THE or MI-Z.\-LI. — A village in ibr Pauk towokhip and •ul>divinion 
o( Fakokku district, with a population of one hundred and nine person* 
according to the census of 1891, and a revcooe of Rt. 370. 

SIN-THE-GON. — A village in the Shwe-gyintown*hip, Ye-u !iubdivi*iott 
oi Sbwebo district, with three aod-a-balf square miles oi^ attached land. 

The population in 1891 numbered fifty-tbrce persons and there were 
seventy-one acres under cultivatir>n. The pritictpal product* arc paddy 
and jaggery. The village t» sixteen miles frota Yc-u and paiii Rs, 370 
thathameda rcreaoe for t{$g6-97. ^^ ^ under the Nyaungli thugyi. 



l82 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SIN 



SIN-THE-WA. — A circle in the Pyinmana subdivision of Yamtthin dis- 
trict. 

It is said to date from 1526 and to be one of the sixteen Karen villages 
of the Fifty -Two Cities of the old Kingdom of Toungoo. 

In 1897 it had one hundred and fifty-three houses : most of the inhabitants 
were traders. The village stands 011 the western bank of the Paunglaung 
or Sittang river and at the mouth of the Sinthc stream. Under Burmese 
rule it was included in Kyidaung, but it has been made a separate circle 
by the British Government. 

SIN-U-GA-LE. — A village of twenty-three houses south of Shwegu, in 
tlie Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The villagers own thirty-seven buffaloes and cultivate le, getting a yield 
in ordinary years of some two thousand baskets. 

SIN-YAN — A revenue circle in the Budalin township of Lower Cbindwin 
district, lying on the northern boundary of the township. 

It includes Sinyan and Kin villages, with three hundred and eighty-five 
inhabitants. The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs, 560 from thatha- 
nieda. 

The Sinyan pagoda festival is held here in November of each year. There 
is no written history of the pagoda, but it is said to have been built by King 
Mani-sithu of Pagan when he came up the river in his royal barge. 

SIN-VAUK-GYI. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, twelve miles fron^ Ye-u town. 

The population numbers four hundred and thirty-two persons, mostly 
engaged in rice cultivation. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted 
to Rs. 480. 

SIN-YU. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 11, Bhamo district, situated in 
24*^' 26' north latitude and 97" 30' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twelve houses, with a population of forty-four persons. 
The headman has two others subordinate to him. 'J he inhabitants are of 
the Lahtawng tribe and own no cattle. 

SIN-YWA. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura township and subdivision 
of the Mandalay district, including two villages. 

S1N-YW,\ — A village in the Sin-ywa revenue circle Amarapura town- 
ship and subdivision of .Mandalay district ; is situated seven-and-a-half miles 
south-south-east of headquarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and sixty-five persons at the census of 
i8gi, and paid Rs. 450 thathameda-iSiX. 

SIN-YWA.— .\ village in the Nga Singu township, Madaya subdivision 
of Mandalay district, east of Yenatha. 

The village has thirty-five houses and the population numbered in 1897 
one hundred and fifty persons approximately. 1 he villagers are cultivators. 

SIN-YVVA. — A village in theSagaing subdivision and district, situated on 
an island in the Irrawaddy river. 

It has twenty-four houses. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



183 



SIN-YWA-GA-LE.^A village in the Madaya township and subdivision 
of Mandalay district^ west of Sin-ywa-gyi. 

It has forty houses and its population numbered in 1897 one hundred and 
twenty persons approximately. The villagers are fishermen and cultivators. 

SIN-YWA-GYI. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, east of Sin-ywa-ga-le. 

It has thirty-eight houses and the population numbered in 1897 O"^ 
hundred and sixty persons approximately. The villagers are fishermen and 
cultivators. 

SIN-YWE-GON. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of one hundred and fifty-one persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 450. 

SIN-ZS. — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of seventy-eight persons, according to the census 
of 1891, and a revenue of Ks. 140, 

SIN-ZEIN. — A village in the Sinzein circle, Myaing township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and twenty-two 
persons, according to the census of 1S91. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. I, no for 1S97-9S. 

SIN-ZOT. — A village in the north-east of the Nam Hkai State, Myelat 
district of the Southern Shan States, lying on the Loi Maw border. 

It had in 1897 twenty-seven households, with a population of one hundred 
and nine persons. Only seventeen of these houses were assessable and 
made up Rs. 85 thathameda. The cultivation \sd& exclusively upland and 
the chief crops were rice and chillies, 

SIN-ZWfi). — A village in the Sinzw^ circle, Myaing township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and nine persons, 
according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 670 for 1897-98. 

SIN-ZWfi, — ,\ village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of Pak<5kku 
district, with a population of one hundred and eighty-six persons, according 
to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 360. 

SIN-ZWJ;-BUT.~ A revenue circle and village in the Amarapura town- 
ship and subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It had a population of two hundred and sixty-five persons at the census of 
1891, and paid Rs. 400 thalhameda-idiK. 

SI-THA. — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and subdivision of 
Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and sixty-five persons 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 240. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

SI-THA. — A circle in the Pyintha township, Maymyo subdivision of Man- 
dalay district. 

Sitha is the only village in the circle and lies seven miles north-east of 
Pyintha. It has a population of one hundred and fifty-four persons, accord- 



1 84 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SIT 



ing to tlie census of i8gi. The thathameda paid (or i8g6 amounted to 
Rs. ago. The people are Burmans and cultivate /tf/w and ginger. 

SI-THA. — A circle ia the Pyintha township, Maymyo subdivision of Man- 
dalay district, on the Mandalay-I^shio main road, including three villages. 

Sitha village, three-quartcrs-of-a mile south of Sinaing, has a population 
of three hundred and thirty perons, according to the census of iSgi. The 
thathameda paid by the circle for 1896 aniounled to Rs. 580. The vil- 
lagers are r^ cultivators. 

Sl-TMA — \ village in the Silha circle, Ye-za-gyo township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and nine persons, 
according to the census of i89>. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 590 for 1897-98. 

SI-THA. — A village in the Tazi township, Ye-u subdivision of .Shweho 
district, with a population of one hundred and sixty-tliree persons in i8yi. 

The chief crop is paddy, and the thathameda revenue lor 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 310. The distant e from Ye-u is forty-two-and-a-half 
miles. 

SI-THA — A village of Fifty-eight houses south of Shwegu, in the Shwegu 
subdivision of Ghamo district. 

The villagers own eighty-two buffaloei and a few ponies, and cultivate 
/6rtM^/fy/ but no nrayin. They get their water-supply from the Paunghnet 
stream, which is dammed every year, A high narrow bund connects Sitha 
with Men Wen to the north-north-svest. 

Si-TH.\. — Two pmall villagi^s of forty-three hou-^es in the Myolha town- 
ship, Sagaing district, eight miles south-west of Myotha. 

SI-THA-MYl. — A village in the Ye-u tovvnsliip and subdivision of Shwebo 
district, seven miles from Ye-u town, with a population of one hundred and 
fiftv-three persons and a cultivated area of 498 ^ acres. 

The chief crops arc paddy and penauk. Rupees 490 thathameda revenue 
was paid for 1896-97. 

S1-TH.'\UNG— A village of lifty-nine houses south of Shwegu, in ttie 
Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The villagfrs own a hundred anH six buffaloes and cultivate kaukkyi, 
getting a yield of from eight to nine thousand baskets yearly. 

SI-THl. — A village in the Sithi circle, Yeza-gyo township, Pak6kku sub- 
division and district, with a population of two hundred and Iwenty-seven 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 490 for 1897-98. 

SI-THI-YWA NORTH.— A village in the NgaSingu township, Mad:.ya 
subdivision of Mandalay district, north of Vedaw. 

It has two hundred and eighty houses and a population of one thousand 
one hundred and twenty persons, on an approximate calculation made in 
1897. The villagers are cultivators. 

SI-THl-YVVA SOUTH— A village in the Nga SIngu township, Madaya 
subdivision of Mandalay district. 



SIT— SIZ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



i8s 



The village has fifty houses and the population numbered in 1897 t^° 
hundred persons approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

SIT-HLYIN. — A revenue circle in the west of the Mintaingbin township 
of Lower Chindwin district, with four hundred inhabitants. 

There are five villages in the circle ; Taung-yin, Se-gyi, Peginma, Kyauk- 
yan and Sithlyin. For 1896-97 the thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,000. 

SIT-IN-GYAUNG. — A revenue ciccle in the Taungdwin-gyaung town- 
ship, Mingin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district 

It includes a single village and paid a revenue of Rs. 100 in 1897. 

SIT-KO-BIN, — A circle in the Myingun township of Magwe district, in- 
cluding the villages of Sitkobin and Yedwet. 

SIT-KON, — A circle in the Ti-gyaing township, Katha subdivision and 
district, including two villages. 

The Myadaung Myoza, Mingyi Maha Nawyata, when marching to battle, 
on the rebellion of the Sawbwa of Momeik, halted at this place and the vil- 
lage, it is said, was therefore named 'Sitkfln.' 

Sitk6n has forty-two houses. The villagers are kai'ng cultivators and 
fishermen. They are Burmans. 

SIT-PIN. — A village in the L^n-ywa circle, Pakokku township, subdivi- 
sion, and district, witli a population of eighty-nine persons, according to the 
census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 170 included in that of Lan-ywa, 

SITSAI.— A village of Chins of theTashon tribe in the Central Chin Hills. 
It lies six miles west of Bwelmin, and can be reached via Kwungli. 

In ^894 it had twenty-five houses. Nawtin was its resident chief. Sitsai 
is a Shunkla village and pays tribute to Falam. Water is scarce. 

SIT-TA-LIN. — A circle in the Myothit township of Magwe di.strict, includ- 
ing the villages of Kyamtdaik, Kwin, and Sittalin. 

SIT-THA. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township of Magwe district, 
including the villages of Ngctpyawdaw, Myogaing and Sittha. 

SI-U. — A village of twenty-seven houses on the Sinkan chaungf in the 
Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The villagers have no buffaloes of their own and borrow from the Kachins, 
paying for their use twenty-five baskets the season. In 1891 ten households 
from Sip^n and Siftn migrated to Si-u. There is a good paddy plain to the 
north and east. 

SI-YWA. — A village in the Kyauk-kat circle, Yeza-gyo township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and four persons, 
according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 960 for 1897-98. 

SI-YWA. — In the Kanpa-htf; circle, Wundwin township, Northern sub- 
division of Meiktila district. 

It has a population of three hundred persons. A little weaving is done. 
A mile away from the village is the Si-swe pagoda, built by the Pagan King, 
and the scene of a yearly festival which takes place in Waso (July). 

SI-ZET. — A village in the Maw Son State, Myelat district of the Southern 
Shan States, lying close to the Pang-tara border on the west. 

»4 



1 86 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SIZ-SON 



It contained forty-eight houses in 1897, with ^ population of two hundred 
and fourteen persons, and paid Rs. 256 annual revenue. It is the most well- 
to-do village in the State. 

The silver-lead mines near the village were leased to Maung Kya Ywet« 
the Ngwe-kun-hmu, in September 1897. 

SI-ZON. — A village in the Nga Singu township, Madaya subdivision 
of Mandalay district, east of Kanpa. 

The village has forty houses, and the population numbered in 1897 one 
hundred and seveDty-five persons approximately. The villagers are culti- 
vators. 

SO-BYA. — A village iu the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of two hundred and ninety-one persons, according 
to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. S80. 

SO-DWIN. — A village in the Kywe-d(i circle, Pak&kku township, sub- 
division, and district, with a population of four hundred and eighty-two 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The revenue of this village is included in that of Kywe-d6. 

SOMA or SAMA. — A Kachin village in Tract Xo. 7, Bhamo district, 
situated in 23° 55' north latitude and 97° 27' cast longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-three houses, with a population of seventy- 
one persons. The headman has no others subordinate to liiin. '1 he 
inhabitants are of the Maran tribe, and own ten bullocks and eiglit buffaloes. 
Water is procurable from a small stream and there is fair camping-ground. 

SOMHRANG.— A village of Chins of the Tash*in tribe in the Central 
Chin Hills. It lies at the south end of a large nullah running down to the 
Manipur river, and is reached via Saungtfe, Ngan Ya«l, and Lyent^, distant 
twenty miles ; or via Laiyo, Ngan Yawl and Lyent5, twenty-three miles. In 
1894 it had one hundred houses. The resident chief was Tctung. Somhrang 
is a Shutikia village and is related and subordinate to Lyentd, though it pays 
tribute to Falani. There is a good camping-ground with sufficient water on 
the east side of the village, in a grove of teak trees. 

SON-B.'WV-AING. — A circle in the Pyintha township, Maymyo subdivision 
of Mandalay district. 

There are two villages in the circle. S6nbaw-aing is six miles south- 
east of Pyintha and has a population of two hundred and sixty-one persons, 
according to the census ot j8gi. The thathamcda paid by the circle for 
1896 amounted to Rs. 450. The villagers practise taungya and cultivate 
the groundnut also. 

SONGHENG.— A village of Chinsof the Tash6n tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies two miles north-west of Falam post, close to Yamwe, and is 
reached by a Chin track. 

In 1894 it had one hundred and fifty houses, HIi Hlyen was its resident 
chief. Songheng is a Shunkia village, and is closely related to Falam. 

SONGKVVA.— A village of Chins of the TashAn tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies on the north-east of Falam post, on the opposite bank of the 
Manipur river, and can be reached -via Hmunli, ., 



SON] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



187 



In 1894 it had eighty houses. Mcng Tirr was its resident chief. Song- 
kwa is a Shunkla village and pays tribute to Falam. Plenty of water is 
obtainable from a stream north-west of and close to the village. 

SON-GON. — A village in the Myintha circle, F'nkokku townshipj sub- 
division and district, with a population of seven hundred and fifty-one 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathamcda amounted to Rs. 820 for 1897-98. 

SON-GON. — A village in the Kyat circle, Pakokku township, subdivision 
and district, with a population of one hundred and thirty-two persons, ac- 
cording to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 290, included in that of 
Kyat. 

SON-GON. — A village in the Mayagon township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwcbo district, twenty-six miles from \e-u. 

There are one hundred and sixty-seven inhabitants, for the most part 
occupied in rice cultivation. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amount- 
ed to Rs. 260. 

SONGTHO. — A village of Chins of the Tash6n tribe in the Central Chin 
IIIIIf. It lies six miles north-west of Dihai and can be reached via Kwun- 
gli and Dihai. 

In 1894 it had twenty-seven houses. Maung Taw was its resident chief. 
Songtho is a Shunkla village, and pays tribute to Kalam. Very little water 
is obtainable. 

SON-GYAUNG. — A revenue circle in the Kani township of Lower Chin- 
dwin district. 

It is situated on the right bank of the Chindwin river and includes nine- 
teen villages, all of which are small, they are: Kyaukhmaw, Thanbo, 
Ilmawbin, Kyaukkun, Kyetsha, Inbat, Banbwe North, Banbwe South, 
Tanzi, Tayaw-gyin, Letpan, Nabudaw, TItakyaset, Gvve-gyaung, Sethu, S6n- 
gyaung North, Songyaung South, S6ngyaung West and Sfingyaung a-le. 

S6ngyaung is the largest circle in the township and has a population of 
four thousand five hundred and ninety-nine persons. The revenue for 
1896-97 amounted to Rs. 9,480 from thathameda, and Rs. 170 from the 
lease of the Songyaung fishery. "1 he crops chiefly cultivated are paddy, 
JQiear, sessamum and peas. 

SON-GYIN. — A village in the circle of the same name, Kani township 
of Lower Chindwin district, wiih one hundred and twenty-four inhabitants. 
It is on the left bank of the North Yama chaung, which joins the Chindwin 
river here. 

The crops cultivated arc paddy, jo-wnr, sessamum and peas. The revenue 
for 189G-97 amounted to Rs. 210, Iroin thathameda, and Rs. 40 from the 
lease of the Sungyin fishery. 

SON MU (frequently spelt Su Mu, but Son Mu, used by the Sawbwa, 

seems to be the orthographic form). — A State on the east 

nauTral feSes^" ^*"'* °^ ^^^ Salwecn river in the extreme north of the 

\Va country, Northern Shan States. It is bounded on the 

north by the Kun Long and Ko Kang di.siricts of North Hsen VVi State, 



188 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ SON 



and by M^ng Ting, a Shan State tributary to China ; on the cast by Meng 
Ting, Meng Kaw and Meng Turn and by portions of the Wild VVa country 
and Ngek Lek: on the South by Ngek Lek and Kang Hso ; and on the 
west, with the Salween intervt-ning, by North Hsen Wi State. The Nam 
Ting, or Hoen Ting Kiang forms its boundary on the north. The boundary 
elsewhere is not determined. 

Except for a paddy plain several miles wide along the banks of the Naw 
Ting, S6n Mu is a mass of hills cut up by various streams running along 
deep valleys. Along the banks of some of these there are occasional 
stretches of irrigated land, but nowhere of any extended area. 

The Slate is only very imperfectly known and has been visited by parties 
in 1891, 1893 *"^ i8g6, but on no occasion has Chao Pen, the chief, been 
met. In 1891 and 1893 he deliberaccly left his capital, Pang Hkawn, in 
order to avoid meeting British officers. Want of time prevented more 
being effected than a simple march through the State, and the precise 
limits which recognise the authorities of the Pang Hkawn chief are still 
really unknown. 

In 1893 '^ ^^*^ stated that Son Mu had only six circles, or eight, if 

The "x ■ cles ^^P^ Leng, the residence of the Paw Mang, or second 
chief, and Pang Hkawn, the capital itself, are counted 
circles. These were Pang Long, iMong Kun, Wing Hin (east), Mong Hit, 
Wing Mot (north-east) and Kaung Hka. Mong Kun and Mong Hit have 
a Shan population. In Kawng Hka there are chiefly Kachins and, though 
there are many races in Pang Long, the Hue Tzu, or Chinese-Mahomedans 
are by far the most important inhabitants. The number of villages given 
in these eight circles was forty-two, but this is probably considerably under 
the actual numbers. In the Kachin circle of Kanng Hka the names of ten 
villages were given, that is to say one-quarter of the total, but this cer- 
tainly does not represent the proportion of Kachins resident in the State. 
There are probably more Shans than Kachins and it is quite possible that 
the Wa are in a minority of the population, as they certainly are inferior 
in material property, though the chief is a Wa. The people call them- 
selves La and strenuously deny any connection with the Wa, but this is 
quite certainly a mistake. The difference in language is merely tliat of a 
pronounced patois. 

But though Son Mu is not itself either a powerful or a homogeneous 

„^ ,, , State, it appears to be a member of a confederacy to 

The Hulu con- u- u iu c u \ • • t-i /-^i • it 

federacy which the name of Hulu is given. The Chmese speak of a 

SAang or Upper Huiu and s. Ska or Lower Hulu, and, 
as far as information goes, it would seem that there are live Hulu Wan^s 
or chiefs and of these Chao Pen of Son Mu is the most important and the 
leader in Council. These five vvangs are Pang Hkawn (Son Mu), Sao Shin 
Sao Hpa, Pang Hawm (or Hawng), Yung (or Yiuj Pang, and Fang Wa. 

Of these it seems probable that Sao Shin Sao Hpa is the chieftain re- 
ferred to by the Wa further south as a prominent Wild Wa chief and, if 
this be the case the area of the systematic head-hunting VVa is even more 
circumscribed than has latterly been believed. Pang Hawm does not appear 
to have more than from ten to fifteen villages and lies on the huge saddle- 
back between the peaks of Loi Mong Turn and Loi, Kiing Ma, and there- 



Son-sou ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



1 8$ 



The HueTzu selile- 
ment at Pang Long, 



fore practically on tlie frontier line between British and Chinese territory. 
There are tracts in this neighbourhood frequently referred to as Ho No 
and llo TaiJ (North and South Ho) which may or may not correspond 
with S/iang and S/ia Holu. 1 he point is not decided and the greater part 
of the country here fades into the Wild Wa country and is practically 
unknown. 

Son Mu would be of no importance whatever if it were not that it seems 
probable that the terminus of the Mandalay-Kun Lung Railwaj- will be in 
JSijn Mu territory. Chao Pen has therefore been notified that he is re- 
garded as a British subject, but he is not required to pay tribute. Another 
fact which lends importance to Son Mu is the existence in the State of 
Pang Long (y. 7'.) the great Hue Tzu, or Chinese 
Mahomedan settlement. The traders there employ 
upwards of a thousand pack mules, which travel to 
all parts of the Shan States, as well as into China. There are also a con- 
siderable number of pack-bullocks kept by the Shan villagers. It is there- 
fore desirable that the State should have good and settled government. 
A quarrel with the State to the southwards, Kang Hso, in 1891 and 1892, 
led to desultory fighting, but no great harm was done to either State. 

SON-MYU. — A circle in the Nga Singu township, Madaya subdivision 
of Mandalay district, south of Singu, including eleven villages. 
Rubies and alabaster are found in the circle. 

SON SAW. — A Shan village in North Hsen Wi, Northern Shan State, in 
Mu Se circle. 

It contained thirty-five houses in 1894, with a population of one hundred 
and thirty persons. The revenue paid was two rupees per household and 
the people were paddy, tobacco, plantain and pine-apple cultivators by 
occupation, and Owned forty bullocks, twenty buffaloes and four ponies. 

SON-YWA. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered five hundred and ninety persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 872. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

SOK-TE. — A village of Chins of the Whcnoh tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies live miles north-west of Tizert and can be reached through 
Tizert. 

In 1894 it had nineteen bouses. Tinyeik was its resident chief. 

It pays tribute to Falam. Sokte has been disarmed and is unstockaded. 
There are good camping-grounds with good water-supply on the cast and 
west of the village. 

SOUNGHAl or TAUNGHWE,— A village of Chins of the Whenoh 
tribe in the Central Chin Hills. It lies eleven miles north-west of Bowtsum 
and two miles from Shellum. 

In 1894 it had thirty houses. Lyenval was its resident chief. The 
people are Whenohs and Kwungyis and are tributary to Falam. Sounghai 
is a disreputable village both in appearance and character. It was lined 
for raiding in the Kanhow tract in 1892. 'I here is little water at the vil* 
lagCj but an abundant supply in a stream close by to the south-west. 



igo 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[SOU— SL'D 



SOUTHERN. — The Southern subdivision of Meiktila district is bounded 
on the north by the Northern subdivision, on the south by Yamfethin and 
Magwe districts, on the east by the Shan States and on the west by 
Myingyan district. 

It has an area of 978*39 square miles, and a population, according to the 
census of 1891, of ninety-four tliousand seven hundred and seveniy-thrco 
persons. There are one hundred and sixty-two revenue circles in the sub- 
division, sixty-nine in Meiktila, and ninety-three in Thazi township, 

SOWPON. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 7, Bhamo district, situated 
in 23° 53' north latitude and 77'' 30' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained fifty houses, with a population of one hundred and 
fifty persons. The headman has no others subordinate to him. The 
inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Lawhkum sub-tribe, and own seven- 
teen bullocks and thirty-scvrn buffaloes. Eight hundred baskets of paddy 
on an average calculation are grown yearly. The village is in three parts, 
Sowpon- Tingza, Sowp6n-Main, and Sowp6n-Warap(5n. The Sawbwa lives 
at lingsa, where are the best water and camping-ground. 

STIBWEL or FUNSHI.— A village of Chins of the Haka tribe in the 
Southern Cliln Hills. It lies near Lunsum, and can be reached from Haka 
via L6n2ert. 

In 1894 it had ten houses. Hmun Hnon was its resident chief. The 
village pays tribute to Vaulein and Lasin of Haka. There is good camping- 
ground with fair water-supply. 

SUBROK-KON. — A village in the I'auk township and subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of eigbty-four persons, according to the 
census of 1 891, and a revenue of Rs. 220. 

•SUBOKKON. — A circle in Tigyaing tosvnship, Katha subdivision and 
district. Kya-in village is included in this circle. 

The village was established on high ground on the bank of the Mi^za 
chaung. where there are many Shubdk or Acacia Concinna trees, which sug- 
gested the name. Kya-in is named from its tank, which is full of water- 
lilies. 

The thugyi's headquarters are at SubokkAn, which has twenty-six houses 
of Burmans and Shans. They support themselves by cultivation and by 
cutting wood and bamboos. They raise mayin, kaukkyi and taungya 
paddy, and some are fishermen. 

SU-BYU-GON. — A village of. seventeen houses in the Myotha township 
of Sagaing district. 

SUDAT. — A village in the Mayagan township, Yc-u subdivision ofShwe- 
bo district, twenty miles from Ye-u on the Mu river. 

There are Civil and Military Police posts here. The population numbers 
seven hundred and thirty-two persons and is mo?tly engaged in rice cul- 
tivation. The thathanteda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 511. 

SU-DAUNG-BYI. — A pagoda in the Pan-aing circle of the Ma-hlaing 
township, Northern subdivision of Meiktila district. 

It is one of the traditional eighty-four thousand shrines erected at the 
time of the eclipse by Thiri-idhamma Thawka Min in the eleventh century. 



SUD-SUL ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



19! 



Originally it was called Slnve MAktavv, but it was found that prayers 
offered at this shrine were always favourably received, and that to ask 
a blessing there was to have it grantedj so the name was changed to Su« 
taungpvi (blessings asked and given). A yearly festival, largely attended 
is held here on the full moon of NayCn (about the beginning of June). 

SU-DAW. — A revenue circle in the Sa-le township, Pagan subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three hundred and ten persons and 
the thathamcda amounted to Rs. 456. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

SU-GA-A-LE-YWA. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision 
of Mandalay district, west of the Sli.weta-fAr//<«;f^. 

It has seventy houses and the population aumbered in 1897 two hundred 
and eighty persons approximately. The villagers are cultivators and fisher- 
men. 

SU-GA-KIN-YWA. — A revenue circle and village in the Pathein-gyi 
township, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It had a population of two hundred and thirteen persons at the census of 
1891. It is situated fourteen miles north of headquarters. 

SU-GA MYAUK-YWA.— A village in the Madaya township and sub- 
division of Mandalay district, south of Sin-ywagale. 

It has forty houses and the population numbered in 1897 one hundred and 
sixty persons approximately. The villagers arc fishermen and cultivators. 

SU-GAUKGYI. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township of Magwe 
district, including villages of Nyaungbintha and Kfingji. 

SU-GAUK-NET. — A village in the Kanbyin-chauk-ywa circle, Pathein- 
gvi township, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, twenty-three 
miles north-east of the Subdivisional headquarters. 

SU-GAUK-NGS;. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township, Magwe dis- 
trict, including the single village of Bokon. 

SU-LE-GAN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of f^akSkku 
district, with a population of three hundred and six persons, according to 
the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 840. 

SU-LB-GOM. — A village of one hundred and twelve houses in the Kyaukyi 
township, Myinmu subdivision of Sagaing district, four miles from Kyaukyit. 

SU-LE-GON. — A village in the Daungb6n circle, Thabeikkyin township 
of Ruby Mines district. 

It lies three miles south of Pauktabin and has a population of sixty personsi 
all Burmese. 

SU-LE-GON. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, south-east of Shwc-baung. 

It has fifty houses, with a population of 3oo persons, on an approximate 
calculation made in 1897. The villagers arc cultivators. 

SU-LE-GON. A village in the Chindaung circle, Scikpyu township, Pa- 
kokku subdivision and district with a population of two hundred and twenty- 
seven persons, according to the census of 1S91. 



192 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ISUL-SUN 



The thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,290 for 1897-98. 

SU-LI-GON. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of PakSkku 
district, with a population of 189 persons, according to the census of 1891, 
and a revenue of ks. 1,130. 

SUMPAUNGMATA.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyina dis- 
trict, situated in 26° 6' north latitude and 98'"-' 4' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained thirty houses: its population was unknown. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of the 
Lepai tribe. 

SU-MU.— ^^•e Son Mu. 

SUNG LONG. — A small State belonging nominally to the Ngek Lck Wa 
confederacy, Northern Shan States, but "bound to it only by very slight ties 
of subordination, tven witliin its own limits the authority seems to be much 
divided for, though there arc only ten villages in all, there are said to be 
four Sawbteas, two of whom live close together in the north of the State 
and one in the extreme south. 

Sung Long is wholly surrounded by various members of the Ngek Lek 
confederacy, with the exception of the independent territory of Yavvng 
Lawng on the south-east. The border neighbours are: on the north, Mut 
Le and Kawng Lai , on the east, Na Fan ; on the south, Ngek Hting, and 
on the west, Ma Tetand Mot Hal. 

The chief Saivbuni, who bears the title of Hko Hkam, lives at the village 
of Yawng Hliing, which has not been visited, but appears 
to have about a hunrfred houses. In the immediate 
neighbourhood and connected with it by well-kept and 
much used roads cut out of the hillside arc a number of other villages, one 
of which is the titular village of Sung Long, which in [897 had fifteen 
houses and was the residence of the Naw Ilseng or second Sawb^oa, It is 
built along the ridge of a spur and stands at a height of 5,800 feet, in 
longitude east 98° 58' and latitude north 22° 42'. It is a bad camping- 
ground and water is a long way ofif and not very abundant, but supplies 
are more readily got here than in most VVa villages, partly owing to 
the number of separate villages in the immediate neighbourhood and 
partly because there are frequent caravans passing on their way to and 
from Ha Fan to the east. Sung Long is said to have been losing popu- 
lation latterly owing to the exhaustion of the soil, many of the villagers 
having moved north to Mot Le, east to Na Fan, or south to Mang Lon. 
Hill rice, maize, and opium are the chief crops. 

Direct relations have not yet been established with Sung Long. The 
p ... . . . chief of the southern portion is on friendly terms with the 

Sawbwa of Mang Lon and through him presented tribute 
to the British Government in 1892, in the shape of some fragments of silver, 
but the northern and more important part of the State has held aloof and 
has been a good deal mixed up in the disturtjances which have kept the 
Mang Lon border in a state of untpiict for some years. 

SUNG RAMANG. — A powerful chieftainship of the Wild Wa country, 
extending over a considerable sketch of the country between the upper 
waters of the Nani Hka and those of the Nam Ma and Nam Fang. The 



Yawng Htung 
and Sfinjf Long. 



atmj 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



*93 



boundaries are very indefinite, but it may be said generally that the author- 
ity or influence of Sung Ramang extends to the Ngek Lek confederacy on 
the west, to Loi Lon on the south, and eastwards to the borders of Chinese 
territory. How far authority extends northwards is extremely doubtful. 

The main village of Sung Ramant^ lies on a gentle slope to the east of a 
^. ... sharply defined low ridge. In 1893 it had three hundred 

^ ■ and six houses, and the chief was said to command from 

twenty-five to thirty other villages of more than a hundred houses each. 
The village was defended by deep ditches and stockaded over-ground 
tunnel entrances and measured nearly half a mile across. The main en- 
trance to the south-east was strongly defended by a ditch and narrow lane 
leading to the gate ; south-west the entrance was much less formidable. 
To the north and west are eminences completely commanding it. The 
Ramang's house is in the centre of the village and is a very long building 
with circular doors. So far as is known Sung Ramang is the most powerful 
of the Wild Wa chiefs, but his influence is entirely personal and is in part 
due to the superstitious awe with which he is regarded as the owner of a 
dog with nine tails. He is locally referred to as the ' 0-lang-Ia.' The village 
stands at a height of 4,400 feet and has a large and good camping-ground to 
the west, with water close at hand. 

Some miles to the north of Sung Ramang is a very large skull avenue with 
over three hundred skulls. This appears to belong to 
The skull avenue, the villages of the Sung Ramang group as a common 
• posspssion. 

SUN-KYET. — A village about six miles from Sagaing in the Sagaing 
township and district, so called because the villagers were appointed by 
King Thalun Mintaya-gyi to cook food for offering in the Kaung-hmudaw 
pagoda. 

SUiN-LUN. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision 
and district. 

In 1S95-96 the population numbered nine hundred and twenty-five persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,216. No land revenue was assessed 
in the circle. 

SUN-LUN. — A village in the Nandaw-Kyun circle, Madaya township and 
subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It has fifty houses and the population numbered in 1897 **° hundred 
persons approximately. 

SUN-NAN. — A revenue circle in the Lega-yaing township and sub- 
division of Upper Chiudwin district, including four villages. 

SUN-TH.\I1<. — A village in the Pak6kku circle, township and subdivision 
of Pak6kku district, with a population of five hundred and sixty-seven 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The /Aa/Ztrtwi-t/rt amounted to Rs. 1,969 for 1897-98. 

SUN-THAIK MYAUK-SU.— A village in the Myit-kaing circle, Pakdkku 
township, subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
eighty-six persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 690 for 1897-98. 

as 



194 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ BUP-TAB 



SUPMA. — A Kn.chin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyiaa district, situ- 
ated in 25° 51' north latitude and 97° 50' east longitude. 

In i8Q2 it contained fifteen houses ; its population was not known. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of the 
Lepai ribe. 

SUT-BOK-TAUNG. — A village of two hundred and five persons in the 
Twinngfe revenue circle of Ruby Mines district. 

It lies about a mile south-east of Twinngfe and has an exclusively Burmese 
population. 

SU-YIN.— A village in the Bahin circle, Myain^ township, Pak6kku sub- 
division and district, with a population of two hundred and two persons- 
The thathameda mounted to Rs. 580 for 1897-98. 

SWE-GYI. — A village in the Myitchfe circle, Pakokku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of one hundred and ninety-one 
persons, according to the census of iSgi, and a revenue of Rs. 280, in- 
cluded in that of Myitchfe. 

SWfi-Lfi. — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of Pak6k« 
ku district, with a population of two hundred and thirty-eight persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 480. 

TABAK K HA. —See Nantabet. 

TABAK KHU. — A Kachin village in Tract No. ao, Myitkyina district; 
its situation has not been precisely ascertained. 

In 1892 it contained twelve houses ; the population was not known. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of the 
Yawyin or Lishaw tribe, and cultivate poppy. 

TA-BAUK-KON. — A revenue circle in Pagan township and subdivi- 
sion of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and five persons and the 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 72. No land revenue was assessed in the circle. 

TA-BAUK-TAW. — A village in the Ku circle, Pakfikku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of one hundred and forty persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs, 310, included in that 
of Ku. 

TA-BAUK-TAW TAUNG-ZU.— A village in the Ku circle, Pak6kku 
township, subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
sixty-nine persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 340, included in that of Ku. 

TA-BAUNG. — A revenue circle with six hundred and sixty-eight inhabit- 
ants in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district, lying along the left 
bank of the Chindwin river, to the north of Kani. 

It includes the villages of Tabaung West, Tabaung East, Htubauk North, 
and Hiubauk South. 

Paddy, jo'ivar, and sessamum are cultivated. The revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 1,480 from /Aa/Aflfwea'a, and Rs. no from the lease of 
the Tabaung fishery. 

TA-BA-YIN or DI-Bfi-YIN.— A village in the Ye-u subdivision of Shewbo 
district, nine miles from Ye-u town, with a population of six hundred and 
fifty-eight persons, according to the preliminary census returns of 1891. 



TAB ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



'95 



The greater number of the inhabitants are bead-makers. The bead* 
were formerly made of amber, but are now mostly made of cocoanut-shell 
and horn. 

The thatkameda revenue for 1890 amounted to Rs. i,o?o. 

A short distance to the west of the village is a tank about two miles square, 
which was constructed by King Nara-pati Sithu, grandson of Alaung Sithu, 
in 555 B.E. (i 193 A.D.). The water of the tank is used for all purposes, 
bathing animals, washing clothes, and furnishing the drinking-supply of 
the villagers. 

Tabayin is the birthplace of the famous monk U Tezawta, who left the 
cloister and became the author of two well-known religious works. 

Tabayin was also the ancient seat of the race from which the royal family 

of Burma sprung and the district has always been famous for its abundant 

supplies and for the bravery of its inhabitants, who bore the reputation 

of being the best soldiers in the Burmese army. It was for his failure to 

keep Alaungpaya out of Tabayin that the Talaing 

Maha^Ba^Iiia general Talaban was recalled by the King of Pegu. 

The greatest of modern Burmese generals, Maha 
Bandula (his full title was Thado Thuhamma-yaza Maha Bandula, and 
his youthful name was Maung Yi), who fought so stubbornly in the first 
Burmese war, was at one time Wun of Dib6yin, and a garden north of the 
town is still known as Bandula's garden. He was horn at Ngapayin, a 
village twenty-five miles north of Min-ywa. It is usual to speak of him 
as a "son of Alon." The Burman, when born at a small village, is fond, 
later in life, of asserting that he came from the chief town of the neighbour- 
hood. In Bandula's time the revenue of Uibfeyin was assessed at four annas 
a house. Sixty viss of silver is said to have been paid on this rating as, 
royal revenue. 

Dr. Richardson, in his 'Journal of a Mission from Ava to Kendat in iS^r, 
says, under date 25th January, " Halt at Pha-lan- 
" goun, which is a large scattered village of probably 
"one hundred and fifty houses (I discovered on my 
''return that I had considerably underrated the population of this part 
"of the country); the Governor of the northern provinces has now his 
" residence here. The city of Debay-en, from which he takes his title, is 
" situated about six miles to the soulh-westward ; it is nearly depopulated, 
'' and the walls entirely out of repair. He (Myo Woon) furnishes from his 
"Government (which extends now since the removal of the Myo Woon of 
*' Mout-tsho-bo, from the 1 sa-gain territory to the Khyendwenj three thou- 
*' sand and six hundred soldiers and six Sos or officers. Three hundred of 
" them have been exercising with muskets last evening and today, assisted 
'' by some natives of British India, six of whom left Ava three months ago, 
" receiving twenty-five tikals each. They say they have been drilling recruits 
" to the nortliward, and are now about to return to Ava. Grain is here 
'' plentiful and tolerably cheap ; paddy sells at from fifteen to twenty tikals 
" per hundred baskets ; cholum (J>yourig), ten tikals per hundred baskets, 
" and the sessamum-oil one quarter tikal the viss, and palm-sugar (a large 
" quantity of which is made here, and sent to the other parts of the country, 
" even exported to Rangoon ; the season for entering on the manufactory 
'' commences the end of next month, February). 1 understand it sells foe 



Kichardson's 
lo Tabayin. 



visit 



196 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



JTAB 



"fifteen tlkals the hundred viss. Though cattle are so plentiful here, I am 
" told that as much as eighty tikats is sometimes given for a good caste 
"bullock, with the proper marks; but cows and the common bullocks sell 
" from five to eight or ten tikals; and for common draught cattle, from ten 
"to fifteen." He gives the following accr>unt of the country to the west- 
ward: "The whole march today has been one uninterrupted sheet of 
" cultivation ; the soil, rich clayey loam, the crops heavy and close, and the 
" whole country studded with palm trees, round which the paddy is sown with 
" no moTft lots of room than the size of their trunks. The trees most numer* 
"ous in the jungle are the theet-tse (the wood-oil tree), which were in full 
"flower on my return on the igth February," but after fifteen or sixteen 
miles, '' with the exceptions of the little village of Yowa-ngay, we have seen 
"neither inhabitants, cultivation, nor cattle, and the palmyra has entirely 
" disappeared ; the jungle has been open, principally composed of en trees; 
"some teak of fair size, and a great number of theet-lse trees." In a note 
he adds, of Ywa-nge: " This is the only village left of several very large 
"ones, which were situated here and were destroyed by robbers before Bun- 
" doola, who immediately preceded the present Governor, was appointed to 
" this province. They came from Lado, about eleven miles south-east of 
" Moutsbobo. Their chiefs, wearing gold chatiahs. ransacked the country 
" sometimes with two thousand followers. Bundoola, however, cleared the 
" country, which has remained quiet since, and travelling now is perfectly 
" safe." 

TA-BE, — A revenue circle in the Nato-gyi township, Myingyan subdivi- 
sion and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered two thousand and sixty-five persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 2,904. No land revenue was col- 
lected in the circle, 

TA-BE. — A village of one hundred and forty houses in Ava township 
of Sagaing district, seven miles west of Ava. It is said to have derived 
its name from the original village being built on a single pe of land. 

After the Annexation the Chaungwa prince, who had a large number of 
adherents and a number of relations here, and the dacoit leader Nga Aung 
Dun from Paunga also infested the neighbourhood. The latter was sub- 
sequently caught and hanged at a well near Nyaungon village. 

There is a disused Burmese Government tank here, called the Thazi- 
kandawgyi, which is said to be capable of irrigating one thousand pe of 
land when in thorough repair. The principal villages under the Tabfe 
Myothugyi ztQ Taukyit, sixty-three houses, and Ingu, thirty-six houses. 

TA-BIN-GAN. — A village in the Ma-hlaing township, Northern subdivi- 
sion of Meiktila district, with a population of eight hundred persons, almost 
exclusively cultivators. 

It offered a stubborn resistance at the Annexation, under the dacoit 
leaders Bo Chit Saya, Bo Shan and Bo Khin Ba. 

TA-BIN-GAN north, — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, 
Myingyan subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three hundred and eighty-five per- 
sons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 354. No land revenue was 
collected in the circle. 



TAB— TAD) 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



197 



TA-BIN-GAUNG — A revenue circle in the Mingin township and sub- 
division of Upper Cliindwin district. 

It includes two villages and paid a revenue of Rs. 330 in 1897. 

TA-BON. — A revenue circle with eight hundred and ninety-five inhabit- 
ants, in the Kani township of flower Chindwin district. It lies in the north- 
eastern extremity of the township and adjoins the Budalin township. 

The villages included in the circle are Tabfin and Palin. Government 
repaired a large tank near Tabon in 1891 as a famine relief work: it had 
been dug many years before by the Burmese kings, but had been allowed 
to fall into disrepair. 

TA-BON-DAW. — A village in the Myaing township, Pakokku subdivision 
and district, with a population of one hundred and forty-one persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891. 

The thathameJa amounted to Rs, 770 for 1897-9S. 

TA-BU-DAW. — A village in the Sagaing subdivision and district with 
lift} -four houses, twenty-two miles north-west of Sagaing. 

The chief product is jaggery. 

TABYA. — A village in the Tabya circle, Pak6kku township, subdivision 
and district, with a population of two hundred persons, according to the ' 
census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 370 for 1897-98. 

TA-BYI CHA UNG.—Thc Tabyi chaitng rises in the hills to the north-cast 
of the Hu Kawng valley, in about latitude 26° 50', and flows south-west into 
the Tanai kha. In places it is sixty yards broad, deep and still ; at other 
places it is only a few yards wide, shallow and very swift. Its bed is one 
hundred and fifty yards wide, so that it is probably a considerable river in 
the rains. It is navigable for peingaws. 

TA-BYIN. — A village in the Yaw township, Yawdwin subdivision of 
Pakokku dir-trict, with a population of two hundred and forty-four persons, 
according to the census of 1891. 

The ihiithameda amounted to Rs. 310 for 1897-98. 

There are two salt wells near the village; the villagers sell the salt to buy 
rice, as there is little or no irrigated land for paddy cultivation. 

TA-BYIN-GAING.— A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of thirty-one persons, according to the 
census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 60. 

TA-BYIN-GWE. — A village of two hundred and seventy-five houses in the 
Sagaing township and district, thirty miles north-west of Sagaing town. 

It was a temporary post during the special operations of 1888-89. 

Tabingw(i has two pagodas, the Shwesedi-paya and the Shwe-thingan, 
and is the largest village on the Mu river in the Sagaing township. 

TA-DA. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan subdivi- 
sion and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered four hundred and forty persons and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 438. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 



,98 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAD 



TA-DAING, — A village in the Piobyaw circle of Pangtara State, Mye- 
lat district of the Southern Shan States. 

In 1897 there were one hundred and forty inhabitants, living in thirty- 
seven houses. The village is poor and paid only Rs. 95 annual revenue. 

TA-DAING. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shvvebo district, with one-and-a-half square miles of attached lands and a 
population of two hundred and sixty-six persons. 

The area under cultivation is one hundred and twelve acres, mostly with 
paddy. The village is sixteen miles from Ye-u and paid Ks. 550 thatha- 
meda revenue for 1896-97. It is under the Limbyu thugyi. 

TA-DAING.— A village in the Pakangyi circle, Yeza-gyo townsliip, Pa- 
k6kku subdivsiion and district, with a population of ninety persons, according 
to the census of 1891. 

The thathamcda amounted to Rs. 450 for 1897-98. 

TA-DAING-SHE (North). — A revenue circle in the Pathein-gyi town- 
ship, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, including a single village. 
The land revenue paid by the circle amounts to Rs. 571. 

TA-DAING-SHE (North). — A village in the revenue circle of the same 
^name, Palhein-g)'i township, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, 
ten miles east of headquarters. 

It had a population of four hundred persons at the census of 1891, and 
paid Rs. 1,015 that homed n-\.A\. 

TA-DAING-SHE (South). — A village and revenue circle in the .Amara- 
pura township and subdivision of Mandalay district, eleven miles east of 
headquarters. 

It had a population of one hundred and fifty persons at the census of 
1891, and paid Rs. 280 thalhamcda-\.a.\. It inclurles three villages. 

TA-DA-KYl. — A village in the Taung-shc circle of the Pangtara State, 
Myclat district of the Southern Shan States. 

It contained forty-nine houses in 1897, ^^'^^ a population of two hundred 
and thirty-three persons. The annual revenue amounted to Ks. 674. The 
village grows large quantities of sugarcane and is very prosperous. 

TA-DA-U. — A village of two hundred and ninety-eight houses, the head- 
quarters of the Ava township of Sagaing district, three miles north of Ava 
fort. 

It has a Civil Police post, a large bazaar, a rest-house, a Township 
Officer's court-house and a branch Post office. It is the trade centre of 
Sagaing district and much traffic passes through it. Tada-u is connected 
with Ava by a long causeway and bridge over the Myittha river. The 
bridge was bui!t by Mintha Maimg O, the brother of Mi Nil, Ba-gyidaw's 
Queen, during the reign nf Ba-gyidaw, about 1820 A. D. It was repaired 
three ycurs ago. Tada-u means the end of the bridge. Not far from the police 
post a rain-guage station has recently been established. 

The principal quarters of Tada-u are (i) Thagaung, seventy-one houses; 
(2) Nwa-gyawda, eighty-two houses ; and (3) Tedawya, seventy-one houses. 

There are three well known pagodas, the Mlngala Sedi, the Sliinbinpaunglfe 
and the Sfe-o-bo. 



TAD-TAG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



199 



TA-DA-U. — A village just outside thf" headquarters cantonment limits, in 
the Bhamo subdivision and district. It lies on the Mansi-Bhamo road, and 
was setflpd in i8q3 from Miin^maw in China and Se Lan. 

The inhabitants are mostly market gardeners, and make thekke also. 

TA-DA-U. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of Man- 
dalay district, north-east of Onhmin. 

It has seventy houses and an approximate population of two hundred and 
fiftv persons, as ascertained in 1897. The villagers are cultivators. 

TA-DA-U, — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of eisjhtv-one persons, arrording to the census of 
i8qt, and a revenut^ of Rs. 170, included in that of Tatgon. 

TA-DAW-GYAUK.— A villa.^ein the N6nbo cirde, Pak^kku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and sixty-two 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The tknfhamfida amounted to Rs. 1,040 for 1897-98, 

TA-DAW-GYAUK.— A village in the Myintha circle, Pak6kku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and twenty-two 
persons, according to the census of 189 f. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 231 for 1897-98. 

TA-DAW-SU. — A village in the Shwe-gvin township, Ye-ii subdivision 
of Shwebo district, with half a square mile of attached land. 

There were sixtv-four inhabitants in i8qi and seventy-one acres of culti- 
vation. Paddy and jaggery are the chief outturn. 

Tadawsu is fourteen miles from Ye-u and paid two hundred and ten rupees 
thathameda revenue for 1896-97. It is under the Nyaungle thugyi. 

TA-DAW-ZU. — A village in the Pank township and subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of one hundred and thirty-five persons, 
according to the census of i8gt, and a revenue of Rs. a6o. 

TA-GA-MA. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered two hundred and five persons and 
the thathameda amounled to Rs. 333. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

TA-GAUNG. — .\ subdivision of the Ruby Mines district, comprising the 
townships of Tagaung and Thabeikkyin. 

Its approximate area is one thousand and three hundred square miles and 
its population about eighteen thousand persons. It is bounded on the 
north by Katha district, on the east by the MongMit (Momeit) State and 
the MogAk township of Ruby Mines district, on the south by Mandalay dis- 
trict, and on the west by Shwebo and Katha districts. The headquarters 
are at Tagaung on the Irrawaddy river. 

TA-G.\UNG. — The Taga-mg township of Ruby Mines district forms the 
the northern portion of the Tagaung subdivision. 

Its approximate area is six hundred and sixteen square miles. It is 
bounded on the north and west by Katha district, on the east by the 
Mong Mit (Momeit) State, and on the south by the Thabeikkyin township. 



200 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



t TAG-TAH 



There are eighteen headmen in the township : the revenue for 1897-98 
was— 

Ra. 



Thaihameda 
Land revenue 



... 13.394 
... 4.250 

The population in the same year was a little over eight thousand persons. 

The headquarters are at Tagaung on the Irrawaddy river where there is 
a good court-house and police-station and a house for the Siibdivisional 
Officer, who is also in charge of the township. 

TA-GAUNG. — A small village and revenue circle in the Tagaung sub- 
division of Ruby Mines district, with a population of four hundred and Fifty 
persons. 

In former times it was the site of a Burmese capital, and some traces of 
the old city walls are still to be seen, 

TA-GAUNG.— One of the quarters of Sagaing town. 

TA-GON. — A village in the Indaing township, Tantabin subdivision of 
Shwebo district, on the Mu river, fifty-six miles from Ye-u. 

The population in 1891 numbered five hundred and thirteen persons, 
mostly paddy cultivators. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted 
to Rs. 240. 

TA-GUN-DAING. — A revenue circle and village in the Amarapura town- 
ship and subdivision of Mandalay district. 

There is a morning bazaar in the village, which had a population of eight 
hundred and fifty-five persons at the census of 1891, and paid Rs. 1,210 
thafhamt'da-ta.\. Tagundaing makes pots extensively^ and is a centre of 
the kammawa industry [v. sub Mandalay]. 

TA-GUN-DAING. — A circle in the Natmauk township of Magwe dis- 
trict, including the villages of Ing6n-ji'Wflwtf, Ing6u south, Letpad6u, Padauk- 
ngfik and Tagundaing. 

TA-GUN-DAING. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, 
Pagan subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered two hundred and forty persons and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 276. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

TA-GYI.— A circle in the Myothit township of Magwe district, including 
the villages of Dawyingfin and A-mwe-b6n. 

TA HAT.— A village in the Mdng Yai circle of the Northern Shan State 
of South Hsen Wi. 

It contained six houses in March 1892, with a population of twenty- 
eight persons, and was not then more than a year old. The villagers were 
engaged in lowland paddy cuhivation. 

TA HAWM. — A ferry over the Nam Tu (Myit-ngc) river in Man Htam 
circle of the Northern Shan State of Hsi Paw, 

The ferry is kept up by the village headman and the villagers, who in 
1898 were sixteen in number. The opposite bank is in the Nawng Long 
circle of the Southern Shan State of Lawk Sawk and the ferry is chiefly 
used by traders to and from the Southern Shan States. 



TAHl 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



20 1 



TA HKAI. — A group of four Shan villages, Kon Kyawng, Ta Hkai, Man 
Kawng and Nawng Kawn, forming a sub-circle of Mong Pat circle of South 
Hsen Wi Northern Shan State. 

The total number of houses in 1897 was fifty, and the population number- 
de one hundred and seventy-three adults and forty-six children. The vil- 
lagers are cultivators and work fifty acres of low-lying paddy-land, besides 
cropping a little tobacco and about three acres of sugar-cane, from which 
they manufacture raw sugar. The villages are situated on the side of the 
Nam Pat valley, opposite Mong Pat. 

TA HKAI. — A village of three hamlets, with a total of fifty houses in 1897, 
in the Mong Pat circle of South Hsen Wi Northern Shan State. 

It paid in that year Rs, 150 revenue. The inhabitants are Shan and work 
paddy fields and cultivate also sugarcane, from which they manufacture 
raw sugar. The population numbers one hundred and seventy-three adults 
and forty-nine children : the villagers own fifty-five buffaloes. 

TA HKAM. — A village in the Kodaung subdivision of the Northern Shan 
State of Hsi Paw, bounded on the north by Man Pit, on the north-west by 
PangNim, on the east by suburbs of Hsi Paw, on the south by Nam Hsim 
and Kyawk Mb, on the south-east by Maw Kio, and on the west by Hkun 
Kaw. 

TA HO. — A Wa village in North Hsen Wi Northern Shan State, in 
Pang Lorn circle of Mong Si. 

It contained twenty houses in 1894, with a population of eighty persons. 
The revenue paid was one rupee per household and the people were paddy, 
maize and \vheat cultivators by occupation, and owned ten bullocks, eight 
buffaloes, ten ponies and ninety pigs. The price of paddy was four annas 
the basket. 

TA-HO-N.^.— A village of twenty houses in Myitkyina district, on the 
Irrawaddy river. 

The approach is difficult, as the village is on the high bank of the river, 
at the mouth of the Moga.ung cAaung. It was founded in 1293 B.E. (1830 
A.D.) by immigrants from Nansit. The villagers work le/iok. 

TA HPA LAWNG or HPA LENG. — A ferry on the Salween river near 
the mouth of the M& Chywat, in longitude 98" 16'. 

It is the ferry used by travellers from Mong Pan to MSng Hta. The river 
is here about two hundred yards wide : the boats used are small. 

TA HSANG. — A ferry across the Salween river on the route from MSng 
Pan to Mong Tdn and Chieng Mai, at an altitude of eight hundred feet, ia 
latitude 20^ 25', longitude g8° 27'. 

The name means elephant ferry. Ta Hsang is situated about a mile be- 
low the village of Ban Me Sala and a little more than a mile above the 
mouth of the Mfe Sili. The river is here about two hundred yards wide in 
the dry season, and half a dozen dug-outs are generally obtainable. Ex- 
cept on sand-banks thrre is no camping-ground available on either shore. 

TA HSANG L£ — A ferry on the Salween river, at an altitude of five 
hundred and fifty feet, in latitude 19*^ 8', longitude 97° 34', three and-a-balf 
miles south-east of Yan-Lhit (Wan Maii). 

It is the starting point for the Ywa-thit boat traffic with Moulmein via 
Kyaukhnyat and with Hsataw 7>ia Ta Taw Maw, as well as with M& Hawng 
Hsawn via the Mb Pai. Travellers going from Ywa-thit to Kun Youra and 



202 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tTAH 



Cbjeng Mai cross the Salween at this point. The river in the dry season 
is here about two hundred and fifty yards broad. There are usually half a 
dozen boats of various sizes available at the ferry, but many more can be 
collected at a week's notice. The boatmen dwell at the village on the right 
bank of the river, where there are twelve or sixteen houses of Shans or 
Karens. There is also a fine aayat of good teak. It has an interior area 
of seventy-five feet by twenty-four and is capable of housing a company of 
infantry. There is space for encamping on the river bank, and here and 
there in the woods behind. The road from Ywa-thit to the ferry is very 
good. For the first three miles the descent is gradual, but the last half mile 
is more or less steep. At onc-and-a-half miles it crosses a shallow, narrow 
stream. The road for the most part runs through jungle, but there are a 
few paddy clearings. 

In 1890 there was a Siamese post on the left bank of the Salween guard- 
ing the ferry. The right bank commands the left. 

TA-HSEO-SSU or MAI HUNG.— A Chinese village on the east side of 
the Salween river in the Ko Kang circle of the Northern Shan State of 
North Hsen \Vi (Theinni). It is situated at a height of four thousand feet, 
about a mile north-east of Mo Htai, on the slope towards the Salween, and 
adjoins the Chinese sub-prefecture of f^ungling (Mong Long). 

In 1893 it contained eight houses, with a population of thirty-four persons. 
They cultivated maize, highland paddy and opium, the latter in large 
quantities. The village has greatly declined in size of late years owing to 
failure of rain, due no doubt to the deforestation of the hills. It is about a 
quarter of a mile in a straight line from the Salween and two thousand five 
hundred feet above it. 

TA HSUP PAl— A ferry on the Salween river at the mouth of the Ut Pai, 
which is indeed the meaning of the name, Ta being ferry, and Hsup mouth. 

There are usually two or three small dug-outs here, but the ferry is not 
much used, as travellers for and from Ywa-thit prefer to go to Ta Hsang Lfe. 
It is about four miles from the ferry to Ywa-thit. 

TA HSUP TENG.— A ferry across the Salween river at the mouth of the 
Nam Teng. 

There are usually about half a dozen ferry boats here. There is a good 
camping-ground on the spit between the two rivers. The village at the 
mouth of the Teng used to be a great emporium for traders Silk and other 
goods came up from Moulmein, grain was stored in bulk, and traders from 
M^ Hawng Hsawn and Chieng Mai used to come over in large parties to do 
business. The village was burnt down by the Karenni in 1888 and trade 
has since taken to other routes. There are now only three or four houses. 

TA-HSWI-TANG. — The name given to three Chinese villages at intervals 
of about three-quarters of a mile, about four miles north of Sa Ti Hsu, in the 
Ko Kang circle of the Northern Shan State of Hsen Wi (Theinni). 

There are twenty-five houses in all, situated on the western skirt of an 
upland strath about a mile wide and at an altitude of five thousand seven 
hundred feet. In 1892 there were an hundred inhabitants, who owned a 
large number of cattle. They cultivate not much less than eight hundred 
acres of opium, besides large quantities of Indian-corn for the manufacture of 
liquor, which they flavour with stramonium. Very little rice is grown, but 
cotton in some quantity is produced and the number of pigs, fowls and tame 
pigeons is very large. 



TAl-TAK 1 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



203 



TAIFA or DAFFA. — A Kachin village in Tract No 40, Myitkyina district 
situated in 26'^' 29' north latitude, and g6° 24' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-five houses. The population was not known. 
The headman has seven others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are 
of the Sassan tribe. There were formerly more villages under Taifa, but 
many of them have become Kumlao [Republican, v. Part I, s.v. Kachin.] 

The village lies about fifty yards back from the right bank of the Tanai 
kha, which runs fifty feet below under a precipitous bank. The river is 
here two hundred yards broad and very deep, running north-west by west 
past the village, but bending to the west a quarter of a mile below. The 
opposite bank, in front of the village, is thickly fringed with wild plantain 
trees as far as the eye can reach. There are six large peingaws here for 
ferry purposes. 

TAIK S£:.— A circle in the Northern Shan State of North Hsen Wi. It 
is situated on the eastern slopes of the range of mountain that forms the 
western boundary between North Hsen VVi and Mong Mit States, a few 
miles north of where the Mong Mit boundary touches Tawng Peng. 

In 1898 it had four Palaung, four Kachin, and three Shan villages, with 
sixty houses in all and a population of about tliree hundred persons. The 
cuuiitry consists for the most part of wooded hills, and there is a paddy pl^j'n 
near the south-eastern border irrigated from the Man Ping stream, which 
divides the circle from Mong Yok. 

The headman's village contains eight Palaung houses, with a population 
of about forty persons, and is situated on a wooded spur running down into 
the valley of the Man Ping. Pony-breeding is carried on on a small scale. 

TAILUM. — A village in the Myitkyina district, containing ten houses of 
Lahlawng Kachins. 

The villagers work taungya. 

TAING. — A village in the Taing circle, Laung-she township, Yawdwin 
subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population, in 1897, °^ O"^ hundred 
and forty-four persons and a revenue of Rs. 280. 

TAING-BYAUK. — .\ circle in the Myingun township of Magwe district, 
including the villages of Taingbyauk, Payagfin and Gwe-gyaung. 

TA K.AI.— A circle in the Northern Shan State of North Hsen Wi. It 
lies along both banks of the Nam Kai, from about six miles up to where it 
flows into the Tu (Myit-nge) river, and also six miles beyond the opposite 
(south) bank of the latter stream- 
In 1898 it had four Shan and four Kachin villages, with sixty houses and 
a population of about three hundred persons. The circle consists of low 
wooded hills, and there is a small paddy-plain in the valley of the Nam Tu. 

The hiamong's village contains eleven houses, with a population of about 
fifty-five Shans, and is situated on the right bank of the Nam Kai, about two 
miles from its mouth, in undulating and wooded country, with no lowland 
paddy-fields. It has a small bazaar and a few ruined pagodas. 

TA KAW. — ^The ferry across the Salween river on the main road from 
Burma to Keng TQng. 

The village of Ta Kaw (fifteen houses) is on the right bank, about half 
a mile up a side stream. The Salween at the ferry is about two hundred 



304 



THfi UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAK 



yards broad and runs close under the right bank, which commands the left 
at about four hundred yards distance, half the bed being sand and shingle. 
The stream is very deep and rocky and the current rapid. Ponies have to 
be ferried across. The ferry is now worked under a subsidy from Government. 
Distanas — Miles. 



92 
97i 

103 
161 

"7 



From Ta Kaw to Keng Tfing [viii Mong Ping) 

From Ta Kaw to Keng Tung (t'l'J Mong Pu Awm) 

From Ta Kaw to Ban Pnng (MonS post) 

From Ta Kaw to Fort Stedman ... 

From Ta Kaw to Myiitha 

From Ta Kaw to Meiktila Road {vid Lai Khaand PwS Hla) 

TA KAWNG. — A Chinese and Kachin village in the Northern Shan 
State of North Hsea VVi, in Nam Hkam circle. 

it contained twenty-five houses in 1894, ^^'th a population of one hundred 
persons. The revenue paid was one rupee per household, and the occupa- 
tion of the people was opium cultivation and trading in pigs. They owned 
twenty-nine bullocks, thirteen buffaloes and fifty-nine pigs. 

TA-KIN-WA (called by the Shans HPA HPANG).— A Chinese village 
on the eastern side of the Salween river, in the Ko Kang circle of the 
Northern Shan State of North Hsen Wi (Theinni), It is situated at a height 
of4our thousand eight hundred feet, on a spur running down to the Salween 
between the Man Pang and Sing Hsang ferries. 

In 1892 it contained ten houses with a population, entirely Chinese, of 
forty-nine inhabitants. They cultivate about seventy acres of irrigated 
paddy-land, laboriously dug out of the hillsides in steep terraces. They also 
grow large quantities of opium and crop a few large fields of hill-rice, maize 
and Indian-corn. 

TAK LEK. — A Lahtawng Kachin village in North Hsen WI Northern 
Shan State, in Nam Kyet circle of Mong Si. 

It contained twenty houses in 1894, with a population of one hundred and 
twenty-five persons. The revenue paid was Rs. 3 per household and the 
people were paddy, maize and tobacco cultivators by occupation, and owned 
thirty bullocks, ten buffaloes, five ponies and one hundred and ninety pigs. 
The price of paddy was eight annas the basket. 

TAK LEK. — A Shan village of twelve houses in the Tang Yan circle, 
South Hsen Wi Northern Shan State, on the Nam Pang. 

Five houses out of the twelve manufacture earthen cooking-pots and ^og- 
lets. The population numbered in 1897 nineteen males, nineteen females, 
sixteen boys, and fourteen girls. The villagers owned twelve buffaloes and 
worked thirty acres of hill paddy. 

TAK LET. — A village in the Mid Riding, or Kawn Kangoi the Northern 
Shan State of Mang Lon West, situated on the slope up from the Nam Pang 
westwards to Loi Tawng. 

It is in the Nam Lawt circle and had in April 1892 fourteen houses 
with a population of eighty-one persons, all Shans. Some bullock traders 
were resident in the village, but rice cultivation on the slopes was the chief 
occupation of the villagers. They also grew some sugarcane. The altitude 
of the village is three thousand five htindred feet. 



TAK] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



205 



TAK LET, — A village in the Miing T6n circle of the Northern Shan 
State of South Hsen VVi. 

It contained in March 1892 nine houses, with a population of fifty-two 
persons. Some paddy is grown, but the chief industry is the cultivation of 
tobacco, which is grown in considerable quantities and is sold locally at 
four annas the viss. 

TAK NAI.— A Palaunsj, Kachio and Chinese village in North Hsen Wi 
Northern Shan State, in Mong Si sub-State. 

It contained thirty houses in 1894, with a population of eighty persons. 
The revenue paid was one rupee per household, and the people were paddy 
cultivators and traders by occupation, and owned thirty bullocks, twenty 
buffaloes, six ponies and twenty pigs. The price of paddy was eight annas 
the basket. 

TA KOT. — The capital of Mang L6n Northern Shan State. It stands at 
an altitude of five thousand four hundred and fifty feet, in latitude north 22° 
13', longitude east 98'^ 56'. 

It is the residence of Ton Hsang, the Sawbwa of Mang Lon, and has eleven 
houses only in the main village. Scattered about the hills, however, are 
other villages which are considered to belong to it. The Wa and Shans 
live separately. 

Ta Kilt is situated on a small knoll projecting from the main spur, and is 
commanded at a distance of one-and-a-half miles by a peak to the south-west. 
There are two small stockaded works on the knoll below the village, which is 
about a quarter of a mile west of the Saw/twa's palace. There are similar 
works to the north on the Wing Kao road, and to the south-east. "They are 
all very much out of repair. 

There is a very small bazaar here. Fair supplies could be collected with 
notice, but in Ta Kiit itself there are next to no supplies available for out- 
side consumption. 

There is little flat ground unoccupied, but there is room for a camp 
between the palace and Pa Lem Kan Yot village, on a narrow saddle. 
There is also more ground available to the south of Pa Lcm Kan Yot. 
About two hundred and fifty men could be comfortably camped, if all avaiU 
able space were taken up. Water is scarce. There is a small spring to the 
south-east of and below the camp on the saddle, and animals can be watered 
at a stream to the west below Pa Lcm Kan Yot. There is another small 
stream to the north of and below the palace. The approaches to Ta Kiit 
from all sides are good, but steep, and the slopes on either side are still 
steeper and the ground rotten and slippery, affording no foot-hold. 

Signalling in clear weather can be carried on to Nam Ka flkam, Loi Maw, 
Loi Ka Han, Loi Nung, and the peaks on the M<!!hkong-Salween watershed, 
including Loi Ang Lawng. There are roads to Kat Maw, six-and-a'half 
miles, and on to Pang Yang, fourteen-and-a-haU miles ; to Ta Wo ferry on 
the Na Lao-Lashio route vid Nam Ka Hkam, twenty-eight miles ; to Loi 
Niing, thirty-two-and-a-half miles ; to Man Hpang vtd U Mawt, fifty-seven 
mites ; to Pang Hsang viii Kat Maw, thirty miles. There is said to be a 
direct road to Pang Hsang in an easterly direction, but it is reported as 
impassable for animals. 



2o6 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAL 



The Sawhea's haw is on the very highest point. It is solidly built of 
oak and fir, but is by no means imposing externally, and like most hill houses 
is pitch-dark inside. It was constructed about 1882 by Shan-Chinese 
workmen from Mong Ma Santa, east of Bhamo. The main Shan village, 
on a ledge behind, has a handsome pagoda and a large hpongyi kyaiing 
partly built of brick. These also were built by the Shan-Chinese. 

The chief Wa village on the hill is about a thousand f^et below, towards 
the Nfani Ma to the north. On the Nam Ma the Sawhtea has extensive orange 
groves. Ta Kut was adopted as his capital by the present Saivbwa. He 
lived in the early years of his reign at Wing Kao (literally, the old capital), 
about eleven miles off to the north-north-east. It stems probable that when 
Wa affairs are more settled the Sawhwa will move to a more accessible 
and roomy place than Ta Kiit. It is exposed to very high winds from 
February onwards till the rains have set in. 

TA-LAING. — A village of one hundred houses in the Sadaung township 
of Sagaing district, twenty-four miles north of Sagaing. 

It has a large royal tank, the Kyaungbyugan, and near it there is much 
fertile waste land. 

TA-LAING-DE. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan 
subdivision, and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered two hundred and sixty-five persons 
and the t/iai/iameaa amounted to Rs. 315. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

TA-LAING-GON. — A village in the Sithi circle, Ye-za-gyo township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of five hundred and 
seventy-one persons, according to the census of 189 1. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 950 for 1897-98. 

TA-LAING-NGOK. — A village in the Nga-singu township, Madaya sub- 
division of Mandalay district, north-cast of Mal6 hill. 

It has forty houses, and its population numbered in 1897 one hundred and 
sixty persons, approximately. The villagers are coolies and cultivators. 

TA-LAING-YAT. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan 
subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered two hundred and seventy persons and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 3.^3. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

TA-LAW-GYI.- A village on theeast bankof the Irrawaddy river, in Myit- 
kyina district. 

It used to be the great mart for the jade trade and was much frequented 
by the Chinese until the year 1878, since when the Taping route through 
Bhamo has been more used. Before Haw Saing's rebellion Talawgyi was 
a large town, It stands on a high bank and is enclosed by a double stock- 
ade as a protection against the Kachins. The cultivation is chiefly lep6k, 
but irrigated land yielding four hundred baskets a year is also worked. 

Just above the village arc the mouths of the Nam Mali and the Nam 
Tabet rivers, down the course of each of which comes a trade route 
which ends at Talaw. The Nam Mali route is chiefly used by petty traders, 
Kachins and Yawyins, with but a few Chinese. About an hundred and 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



207 



fifty traders use this route. The Yawyins bring down lead which they dig in 
the Chinese State of Sansi and sell at the rate of an hundred vissof lead for 
from an hundred and twenty-five to two hundred viss of salt. The Kachins 
bring down raw cotton, sold at from two to two-and-a-half rupees for ten 
viss, sessamum seed, of which a basket fetches eight viss of salt, opium, and 
spirits obtained from China. 

The Nam Tabet route is used by Chinese and Shan-Chinese bound for 
the Jade Mines. [For further details of the trade routes, v, sub Myitkyina 
district.] 

When Talawgyi was established in 1858 there were four chief men, U 
Ai \Va, Sang Hka, Maung Kala and Maung Saung, who all claimed to be 
hereditary thugyis and were always fighting for the ofhce. So far repre- 
sentatives of the first three have held the post alternately. Talawgyi was 
formerly one of the townships of the Atet Le-myo Kayaing. 

TA-LI. — A village of thirty-four houses south of Sliwegu, in the Shwegu 
subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The villagers own sixty-three buffaloes and cultivate le exclusively. 
They are almost without exception settlers from Moda in Hatha, who 
moved here in 1886 when that place was attacked by Kachins. 

T.\-LIN-GON. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and twenty persons, 
and the thathamcda amounted to Rs. 160. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

TA-LIN-GYI. — A circle in the Amarapura township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district. It is the only village in the circle and is situated thir- 
teen miles south-east of headquarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and eighty-five persons at the census 
of 1891, and paid Rs. 560 r/irtr/rawtv/d-tax. 

TALI UMA or SHANTUMKONG.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 12, 
Bhanio district, situated in 24'-' 31' north latitude and 97° 30' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained fifteen houses, with a population of forty-six persons. 
The headman has two others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of 
the 'Nkhum tribe, and own three bullocks and two budiloes. There is good 
ramping-ground in a large paddy-field, which would hold one thousand and 
five hundred men. Fifty-five baskets of grain are produced yearly and there 
is one rubber tree, 

TA LO. — A ferry across the Nam Lwi, to the north-east of Keng Tung, 
on the road to Sam Tao, below Ta Lom ferry, which is on the northern road 
to Mong Yu. Its latitude is 21° 25' and its longitude 99° 55'. 

The village is on the right bank of the river and contained in 1894 fifteen 
houses of Liis. At the ferry there are two boats ; the river is about seventy 
yards wide with a rapid current. Sam Tao is one march off. There are 
large camping-grounds at Ta L6, but no supplies. 
Distances— 



From Ta L6 to Kcng Tung 
From Ta L6 to Sam Tao 
From Ta Lo to Mong Yawng 



23 miles. 
I march. 
55 miles. 



208 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ TAL— TAM 



TA-L6K-MY0.— A village in the Talfikmyo circle, Myingyan township, 
subdivision and district, was formerly the headquarters of a Wun. 

There is an old and much venerated pagoda, called the Th6nbanhla, to 
which frequent pilgrimages are made. 

The population in 1895-96 numbered three thousand and eighty persons. 
Thaihamcda in that year amounted to Rs. 4)384 and State land revenue to 
Rs. 847-i-io> the gross revenue being Rs. 5,231-1-10. 

TA LC— A village of the Southern Shan State of Keng Tong, on the Nam 
Lwe, twenty-eight miles east of Keng Tung town, and on the KengTong- 
Mong Yawng road. 

It has eighteen houses and a small monastery. The people are Lii and 
work irrigated rice-fields. For 1897 the village was assessed at Rs. 55 
revenue. For revenue purposes Ta Lii is joined to Ta Rom, a ferry higher 
up the river. 

TALZAN. — A village of Chins of the Kanhaw tribe in the Northern Chin 
Hills, It lies east of Mwelpi and is reached by a road running from Mwelpi 
north-east, crossing tlie Shunnol stream and then ascending to Talzan, eight 
miles. 

In 1894 it had ten villages. Its re.tident chief was Tanglet. The people 
are Yos, subordinate to Howchinkup. The village has been disarmed. 
Water is obtained from holes, but is scarce. 

TA-MA-BIN. — A village in the Palano circle, Pak6kku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of ninety-seven personsi according 
to the census of iSgi. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 370 for 1897-98. 

TA-MA-BIN. — A village in the Ku circle, PakSkku township, subdivision 
and district, with a population of ninety persons, according to the census of 
1891, and a revenue of Rs. 140, included in that of Ku. 

TA-MA-DAW, — The headquarters of the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u 
subdivision of Shwebo district, with three square miles of attached land. 

The population in 1891 numbered thirly-four persons, and there were two 
hundred and eighty-five acres under cultivation. The chief products are 
paddy and jaggery. The village is eleven miles from Ye-u. The revenue 
from thathameda amounted to Rs. 320. The village is under the Chaungna 
thugyi. 

TA-MA-GAUK. — A vtllnge in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of one hundred and ninety persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 290. 

TA-MA-GAUK. — A village in the Ku-she circle, Seikpyu township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and 
eighty-eight persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 540, included in that of Ku-she. 

TA-MA-GON. — Seven miles south-west of Wundwin in the Northera 
subdivision 0I Meiktila district, was an important village in Burmese times. 
Its thugyi was a NgU'Sc Myinsi, subordinate to the Ingan Myingaung. 
The village is now almost deserted and contains not more than thirty houses. 
It is the stopping-place of the little traffic which goes along the neighbour- 
ing foot-pass through the Shan hills. 



TAM] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



209 



TA-MA-GYI. — In the Mahlaing-township, Northern subdivision of Meik- 
tila district, was in Burnaese times the centre of an important circle, but 
has now dwindled to fifty houses. 

The village was originally the head of thirty ^««w^ships. Maung Myat 
Maung, the thugyi, was outlawed at the time of the Myingun Prince's rising. 
His son, Po Tin, was pardoned by King Thibaw, but subsequently executed 
for disaffection, together with the Legyi thugyi, Maung Chit Saya [who is 
not to be confused with the Tamagyi Chit Saya, a dacoit, originally main- 
tained by Maung Myat Maung, who gave a great deal of trouble at the An- 
nexation]. 

TA-MA-KA. — A village in the Tamaka circle, Laung-she township, Ya- 
dwin subdivision of Pakdkku district, with a population of one hundred 
and sixty-two persons and a revenue of Rs. 330 in 1897. 

TA-MA-LON. — A village of twenty-eight houses on the right bank of the 
Taping chaun^, in the Bhamo subdivision and district. 

The villagers own forty buffaloes and cultivate mayin paddy exclusively. 
The village is usually three feet under water in the rains. 

TA-MAN-THfi. — A revenue circle in the Homalin township, Lega-yaing 
subdivision of Upper Chindwin district, including nine villages. 

TA-MA-YAUK. — A village in the Myintha circle, Pakokku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of five hundred and twenty-six 
persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 396 for 1897-98. 

TA-ME. — A village in the U Taik circle of Pwe LaState, Myelat district 
of the Southern Shan States. 

In 1897 it contained fifty-seven houses, with a population of two hundred 
and sixly-se\en persons, who paid Rs. 456 annual revenue. Six of the 
houses were exempted on the grounds of personal service. 

TA-Mfi YWA-THIT.— A village in the Tfelhun circle of Pangtara State, 
Myelat district of the Southern Shan States. 

In 1897 it contiincd forty-four houses with a population of two hundred 
and eleven persons. The village is of recent growth, and only eighteen 
houses were assessed in that year, at Rs. 1-8-0 each. 

TAM HSO. — A Shan village, of twenty-five houses in 1897, in the Ho Ya 
circle of South Hsen Wi Northern Shan State. 

It has a population of one hundred and thirty-seven adults and fifty 
children. The villagers own one hundred buffaloes and cultivate forty 
acresoflowlying paddy-land. Tarn Hso pays Rs. 15 revenue a year. 

TAMJA — A Kachin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyina district. Its 
situation has not been precisely determined. 

In 1892 it contained sixty houses ; the population was unknown. The in- 
habitants are Chinese. The headman has no others subordinate to him. 

TA-MO. — A circle in the Magwe township and district, including the vil- 
lages of Tamo and Awzagfin. 

TA-MOK-SO. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura township and sub- 
division of Mandalav district, 

TamAkso is the only village in the circle and is situated ten miles south- 
east of headquarters. It had a population of three hundred and fifteen per- 

27 



dio 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAM 



sons at the census of 1891, and paid Rs. 659 thafhameda-ta\. The land 
revenue amounted to Rs. 183. 

Tam6kso is the largest agricultural centre of the township and was once 
the headquarters of a township of the same name. After the Annexation 
dacoity wns prevalent in the neighbourhood until a military post was estab» 
lished in the village. 

TA MONG haw. — A stream in the Northern Shan States which." rises 
in the hills of Ta-sbin-tan and flows west down a deep wooded ravine, 
entering the Salween, a little below Pa ferry, after a course of about five 
miles. Between Cha-tzu-shu and Yang-fang it is two yards wide by six 
inches, with a rocky bottom. 

TA MONG KAI, — A ferry over the Nam Teug on the road from Mong 
Nai (Monfe) to Mong Pan, in latitude 20° 20', longitude 98° 5'. 

The river is here one hundred yards broad, Vith a rapid current. At the 
ferry are three rafts which will hold fifteen men, five mule-loads, or three 
mules : there are also two boats holding six men each, out of which another 
raft could be made. 

The village is on the right bank of the river, in a plain six miles long 
by four miles wide. It is of some size and is inhabited by Shans and a 
mixed race of Shans and Burmans. Large quantities of tobacco are 
grown here and at the village of Lang K6 (called Linhke by the Burmese), 
two-and-a-half miles farther down the river. The tobacco is cut in January 
and Februarj' and is put out for five or six days to dry, being left out in 
the dew at night and in the sun in the day. There are a few pack bullocks 
at Ta Mong Khai, but most of the tobacco is taken away by traders from 
other places who come on purpose for it. 

There is room for fifty men in sayats, and room to camp in the com- 
pounds of the two pSngyi kyaxtngs and along the river bank between them. 
On the left bank is a cleared space two hundred by one hundred yards, but 
very dirty. 

At Lang Ko there is room for two hundred men in sayats and camping- 
ground round the village. Here there is a small ferry with one boat capablf 
of holding eight men. 

Distances — Mites. 



From Ta Mong Kai to Mong^ Nai (Mon&) 
From Ta MCing Kai to Mong Pan 



ao| 
26 



TAM Sfi. — A Kachin (Lana) village in North Hsen Wi, Northern Shan 
State, Mong Li circle. 

It contained twenty-three houses in] 1894, with a population of sixty-five 
persons. The revenue paid was one rupee per household and the people 
were paddy, maize, and opium traders by occupation, and owned ten bul- 
locks, five buffaloes and twenty-one pigs. The price of paddy was eight 
annas the basket. 

TAMU.— The headquarters of the Kabaw township, Kindat subdivision 
of Upper Chindwin district. 

TA MUK HSO. — A daingox circle in the Mong Long sub-State of Hsi Paw, 
Northern Shan States, under a nebaing. It is bounded on the north and 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



211 



east by the Taunglet, on the south by Madaya subdivision, and on the west 
by Singu subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It had in 1898 a population of three hundred and twenty- five persons, in 
ninety-nine households and ten villages, and paid a net revenue of Rs. 
740-8-0, with about one hundred and eighty-five baskets of paddy. The 
population is for the most part Burman, and there are a few Shans. There 
is a route much used by porters from Madaya via Sagabin to the Ka La Kwai 
and Mong Long tea hills which passes through Ta Muk Hso. 

The Kainggyi teak forests, worked by the Sawbwa, are in the Ta Muk Hso 
circle. 

From Kainggyi to the top of the plateau near the Taunglet is a rise of nearly 
three thousand feet, in five or six miles. 

The people are mostly engaged in lowland paddy cultivation, and a second, 
or hot weather crop is obtained. A good deal of thilsi oil is also extracted 
and some tobacco is grown. As it lies on the borders the circle had a con- 
sistently bad reputation for dacoits until 1896. 

The circle was formerly part of the Taunglet, 

TAN-AUNG. — A village in the Letpya circle, Pakokku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of one hundred and thirty-four per- 
sons, according to the census.of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 260, included in 
that of Letpya. 

T.\-NAUNG-AING. — A village of one hundred and thirty houses in Ava 
township of Sagaing district. 

It lies eight miles north-east of Myotha and is the headquarters of a thugyt, 
who has also the village of Tha-byegan, one hundred and nineteen houses, 
under him. 

TA-NAUNG-BIN. — A village of fifty-one houses in Myotha township of 
Sagaing district, five miles south of Myotha. 

TA-NAUNG-BIN-U. — A revenue circle in the Natogyi township, Myin- 
gyan subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand and twenty-five per* 
sons, the thathamcda amounted to Rs. 1,496) the State land revenue to 
Rs. 10, and the gross revenue to Rs. 1,506. 

TA-NAUNG-DAING. — A large village in the Myingyan township, sub- 
division and district, was formerly the headquarters of a Township Officer, 
but on the breaking up of the Tanaungdaing township in J 893, the village was 
transferred to the Taungtha township. In 1896 the village was again trans- 
ferred to the Myingyan township. It is prettily situated on high ground 
with the large Daung-ia lake to the west. This is leased annually as a fishery. 

There is a small bazaar and a ddk bungalow. The circle in 1895-96 
numbered two thousand eight hundred and fifty persons, and the thatkamtuia 
amounted to Rs. 3,500. No land revenue was collected in that year, 

TA-NAUNG-GON.— A village in theMyitchi^ circle, Pakfikku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and sixty-four 
persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 320, included 
in that of Myitcb^. 



312 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAN 



TA-NAUNG-G6N. — A village in the Bahiii circle, Myaing township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
ninety-seven persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 430, included in that of Bahin circle. 

TANAUNG-GON. — A village in theChindaung circle, Seikpyu township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
twenty-nine persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 490, included in that of Zigat. 

TA-NAUNG-KA-LA, — A village in the Kundaw circle, Myaing township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of ninety-eight persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 190, included \a that 
of Kundaw. 

TA-NAUN'GON. — A revenue circle, in the Taungftha township, Myin- 
g^an subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and ten persons, and the 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 62. No land revenue was collected in the circle. 

TA-NAUNG-ON. — A village in the Kyunnyo-ga-le circle, Pak6kku town- 
ship, subdivision and district, with a population of four hundred and ten 
persons, according to the census of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 700, included 
that of Kyunnyo-ga-le. 

TA-NAUNG-PA-GA. — A revenue circle with two villages, Tanaung- 
paga North and Tanaungpaga South, and a population of four hundred and 
seven persons, in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district. It lies on 
the borders of the Budalin and Kani townships. 

The chief products are paddy, yVo'ar and sessamum. 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 1,030, from thathameda. 

TA-NAUNG-THON-BIN.— A village in the Aligan circle, Myaing town- 
ship, Pakdkkn subdivision and district, with a population of one hun- 
dred and sixteen persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 190 for 1897-98. 

TA-NAUNG-WUN.— A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of 
Shwebo district, seven miles from Ye-u town. 

The population numbers one hundred and twenty-three persons. Paddy is 
the chief crop. For 1896.97 the thathavicda revenue amounted to Rs. igo. 

TA-NAUNG-WUN. — A village in the Letyama circle, Myaing townshipi 
PakAkka subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
thirty-seven persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 760 for 1S97-98. 

TAN-BIN-CH AUNG. — A village in the Pakan-gyi circle, Yeza-gyo town- 
ship, Pakfikku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
eight persons, according to the census of 1S91, and a revenue of Rs. 271. 

TAN'-BIN-GAN. — A village in the Lingadaw circle, Myaing township, 
Pakdkku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred 
and twenty persons, according to the census of 1891, 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 790 for 1897-98. 

TAN-BIN-GAN SOUTH. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, 
Myingyan subdivision and district. 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



313 



In 1895-96 the population numbered ninety-five persons, and the thatha- 
meda amounted to ks. 102. No land revenue was collected in the circle. 

TAN-B[N-G6N,— A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of one hundred and eight persons, ac- 
cording to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 230, included in that of 
Tawyaung. 

TAN-CH.\UK-PIN.— A village in the Madaya township and subdivision 
of Mandalay district, on the east bank of the Irrawaddy river. 

It has fifty-five houses and a population of two hundred and twenty 
persons, on an approximate calculation made in 1897. The villagers are 
coolies and cultivators, 

TAN-DAW. — A revenue circle in the Nato-gyi township, Myingyan sub- 
division and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered four hundred and eighty persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 553. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

TAN-DAW. — A village in the Ma-hlaing township, Northern subdivision 
of Meiktila district, with one thousand two hundred inhabitants. 

The Hti Saung pagoda, built by King Thiri-dhamma-thawka, stands here. 
The village has a considerable trade in cotton. 

TAN-DAW. — A village of seventy-six houses at the foot of the Sagaing 
Hills, in the Sagaing subdivision and district. 

TAN-DAW. — A village in the Nonbo circle, Pakokku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of sixty-six persons, according to 
the census of i8gr, and a revenue of Rs. 80, included in that of Tan- 
daw-gyauk, 

TAN-DAW. — A village in the Pakdkku township, subdivision and 
district, with a population of fifty-four persons, according to the census of 
189!, and a revenue of Rs. 360. 

TAN-DAW. — A village in the Naung-u circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred 
and twelve persons, according to the census of 1891. The thathameda 
amounted to Rs. 1,050 for 1S97-98. 

T.\N-DAW.— A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of 
Shwebo district, one mile from Ye-u town. 

The population numbers two hundred and two persons, and there are 
7 ra acres under cultivation, with 14' 14 acres of State lands. For 1896-97 
Rs. 830 thathameda revenue was paid. 

TAN-D-^W-GYI. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township of Magwe dis- 
trict, including the single village of Tandawgyi. 

TA-NE. — A revenue circle in the south of the Mintaingbin township of 
Lower Chindwin district, with one thousand two hundred and fifty-nine 
inhabitants. 

It includes six villages: Pa-ne, Letpanhla, Paung-pan, Myaungpan, 
Kyauk-konand Ywathit. The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 2,960 
from thathameda and Ks. 675 from State land. 



214 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAN 



TA-NE.— A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of Shwebo 
district, twelve miles from Ye-u town. 

There are four hundred and two inhabitants, and paddy cultivation is 
the chief industry. Rs. 455 thathameda was paid for 1896-97. 

TA-Nfi-GYI-GON. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivi- 
sion of Shwebo district, eighteen miles from Ye-u. 

There are twenty-four inhabitants, who paid Rs. Zo thathameda revenue 
for 1896-97. The chief industry is paddy cultivation. 

TA-NE-NG&, — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, ten miles from headquarters. 

There are seventy-five inhabitants, mostly rice-cultivators. The thatha- 
meda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 180. 

TA-NET-NOfi. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, thirteen miles from Ye-u, with a population of fifty-eight 
persons. 

Paddy cultivation is the chief industry. The thathameda amounted to 
Rs. 180 for 1896-97. 

T.\N-GA-KAN.— A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, 
Pagan subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In (895-96 the population numbered two thousand seven hundred and 
thirty persons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 4,912. No land reve- 
nue was collected in the circle. 

TAN-GAVV.— A village of Lawtu Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It 
lies lour miles north of Naring and can be reached from Naring, four miles, 
or from Shurkvva via Paiz6n. 

in 1894 it had one hundred and fifty houses. Tauugbyung was its 
resident chief. The village is stockaded only at the gate-way on the 
western face; the camping-ground is on the north, with plenty of w.iter. 
Tangaw was partially disarmed in 1895. Nikwe has influence with it, 

TAN-Gfi-DAW. — A village in the Tangii-daxv circle, Ycza-gyo township, 
Pakdkku subdivision and district, with a population of four hundred and 
ninety persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 850 for 1897-98. 

TAN-G£-DAW. — A village in the Anauk-chauktaing circle, Myaing 
township, Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of four 
hundred and twelve persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 290 for 1897-98. 

TANG HbO. — A Palaung village in the Mong Yu circle of the Northern 
Shan State of North Hsen Wi, situated in the hills between Mong Yu and 
Mong Wi. about two miles from Mong Nung village. 

There were eight houses in the village in February 1892, with fifty-seven 
inhabitants, Falaungs of the Humai branch. They have been settled here 
many years, and cultivate hill-rice on the slopes below the village. 

TAN-GI-DAW. — A village in the Myaing township, Pak6kku subdivision 
and district, with a population of one hundred and forty-four persons, 
according to the census of iSgr. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 270 for 1897-98. 



TANl 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



215 



TAN-GI-DAW.— A village in the Sa-be circle, Myaing township, Pakfik- 
ku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and seventy- 
eight persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathamedti aniounled to Rs. 440 for 1897-98. 

TANGPU. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyina district, situ- 
ated in 25° 47' north latitude and 97° 37' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses : the population was unknown. The 
headman has no others subordlnale to him. The inhabitants are of the 
Lahtawng tribe. 

TANG SHANG KEO. — A Lisu, or Lihsaw village of six houses in the 
Ko Kang trans-Salween circle of the Northern Shan State of North Hsen . 
Wi (Theinni). It is situated on the hill range to the east of Ken Pwi, at 
an altitude of five thousand six hundred feet. 

The inhabitants, who in 1893 numbered twenty-seven persons, cultivatrd 
opium and maize and owned large numbers of pigs. 

TAN-GVVA. — A revenue circle in the Nato-gyi township, Myingyan sub- 
division and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand two hundred and five 
persons and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,498. No land revenue was 
collected in the circle. 

TANG YAN.— A district in the Northern Shan State of South Hsen VVi. 
It is bounded on the north by Mong Kyeng and Mong Ma; on the south 
by M&ng Heng and West Mang Lon ; on the east by West Mang Li3n ; 
and on the west by Mong Pat and Man Kat. 

It is by far the largest in the State. The headman is styled a Mvoza 
and lives at Tang Yan village, which is really a group of three villages, 
namely :(i) Wy tng T&ng Yan, X\t^ Myoza's village, (2) Tang Yan, the 
monastery village, and (3) Tang Yan, the baz.iar village. The Tang Yan 
circle has an area of about six hundred square miles, and contained an adult 
population in 1897 of two thousand two hundred and fifty-seven males, and 
two thousand six hundred and eighty one feniales ; and of children, one 
thousand four hundred and eighty-one boys, and one thousand five huncfred 
and twenty-three girls. The vdlagers owned three thousand five hundred 
and eighteen buffaloes, two thousand and thirty-four cows, one thousand 
five hundred and six bullocks and two hundred and thirtv-two ponies. The 
area under cultivation is eight hundred and seventy-three acres of lowlying 
fields, one thousand seven hundred and eight acres of hill paddv, and one 
hundred and eighty-one acres of garden land. The inhabitants cultivate 
paddy mostly, and a good deal of tobacco is grown and manufactured by 
the villages situated along the banks of the Nam Pang. 

The myosa not only assumes a good deal of the state which properly be- 
longs to that title, but has as good a right to it, as far as extent of charge goes , 
as most actual myoaas. 

The general appearance of the State is very much that of the Myelat in 
the Southern Shan States, a wide expanse of rolling, treeless downs. 
There is, however, very much more irrigable land than in the Myelat, and 
the population should naturally be, and formerly was, far greater than it 
now is. The exposed character of the villages, however, invited attack 
and roost of them were ravaged and burnt not once but many times in the 



2l6 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAN 



The townships. 



In the Myedu township are two hundred and two vil- 
lages and twenty-three thousand nine hundred and seventy- 
seven inhabitants. 

The Indaing townsliip lies west of the Mu river, with its headquarters at 
Kyunhla, where are the Township Officer's court and a Civil and Military 
Police post. Indaing has seventy-five villages and a population of six thou- 
sand two hundred and forty -six souls. 

Malfe has its headquarters at the town of that name on the Irrawaddy 
river. Here also there is a court-house and a Civil Police station. It has 
thirty-one villages and a population of four thousand nine hundred and 
twenty persons. 

The following legendary history of Tantabin town is given. 

In the year 999 B.E. (1637 A.D.) Prince Thalon Mintaya-gyi, King of 
„. the Inwaw I'o country, went to Taungu in Lower Burma 

'^^' and captured Maung Naing, the ruler of Taungu, and re- 

turned with him to ln\\a.myo (Ava) and kept him prisoner in a white 
house. Maung Naing had a younger sister named Tuchadewi, who be- 
came wife of Thalon Mintaya-gyi, Maung Naing was after sometime 
sent to Seboktaya Teindaing/wyo and there became a hunter. In the 
course of his pursuit of game he came to a place where there was a tank 
which he called Me-o-dwin, and at the south-west corner of it a large and 
particularly remarkable palm tree, for it gave no shade : he was struck with 
the advisability of founding a town on ihe spot and returned to his sister, 
the Princess Tucha-dewi, to obtain permission to do so. This was granted and 
Maung Naing returned to the place and built himself a town there, which he 
named Tantabin from the palm-tree. 

In the reign of Bodaw-paya orders were issued that the place was to be 
called Mya.gunmyo, but this order was not enforced, and the place remained 
Tantabin and Maung Naing was given authority over the country as Myosa. 
Subsequently, in the time of the Inwa Mingaung, the circle was amalga- 
mated with the Pyinsala Ngamvo and placed under a Wun who lived at 
Nyaungbinw»y<?, and after 1228 B.E. (1866 A.D.) at Tantabin: and this re- 
mained his headquarters up to the time of the British occupation. 

TAN-TA-BIN. — The headquarters of the circle of that name of Myedu 
township, Tantabin subdivision of Shwebo district. 

The manufacture of bamboo matting is the chief industry of the circle. 
Tantabin is thirty miles from Shwebo town and in 1891 had a population 
of one thousand five hundred and eighty-four persons and paid Rs. 13,920 
revenue. 

In Burmese times it was the headquarters of the Pyiusala Ngamyo-xcun 
[y. supra\ and was a much larger place than it is now. It was the subdivi- 
sional headquarters for some time after the Annexation, until their transfer 
in 1891 to Kanbalu. 

TAN-TA-BIN.— A revenue circle and village with one hundred and forty- 
three inhabitants, in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district. It 
bestrides both banks of tlie Pato!6n chaung in the Sfeywa chaung valley, 
between the Mahudaung and Pfindaung ranges. 

Paddy is cultivated. The revenue from the circle in 1896-97 amounted 
to Rs. 350 from thathameda. 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



319 



TAN-TA-BIN. — A revenue circle and village in the Amarapura township 
and subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It had a population of six hundred and fifteen persons at the census of 
i8gi, and paid Rs. 1,380 thaihameda'ta.\. 

The township and subdivisional court-houses, a police-station, and a rail- 
way station are in this circle. 

TAN-TA-BIN. — A village in the Paunggvv^ circle, Pak6kku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and fourteen 
persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs, 290, included 
in that of Paung-gwfe. 

TAN-TA-BIN. — A village in theTaung-u circle, Yeza^gyo township, Pa« 
kfikku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and forty- 
nine persons, according to the census of iSgi. 

The thafhameda amounted to Rs. 660 for 1897-98. 

TAN-TA-BIN. — A village of eleven Kachin houses on the Naphe chaung, 
a tributary of the Sinkan chaung, in the Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo dis- 
trict. 

Formerly there were three households of Shan-Burmese, but these re- 
moved some years ago to Nanhkauk tat'k. 

TAN-TA-BIN. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, twenty miles from headquarters. 

There are three hundred inhabitants, and paddy cultivation is almost the 
only industry. The thafhamcda paid for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 340. 

TAN-THA.— A village in the Tantha circle, Seikpyu township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and fifty-nine 
persons, according to the census of 189 1. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 130 for 1897-98. 

TAN-YIN. — A circle in the Myothit township of Magwe district. 

It includes the villages of Tatk6n, Kyundaw aing and Ma-gyi-gon. 

TAN-YIN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of forty-one persons, according to the census of 
i8gi, and a revenue amounting to Rs. J40. 

TAN-YIN. — A revenue circle in the Nato-gyi township, Myingyan sub- 
division and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered four hundred and forty-five persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 506. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

TAO.— A village of Chins of the Klangklang tribe in the Southern Chin 
Hills. It lies fifty miles from Hakaandcan be reached from Hakaby a road 
to the south crossing several streams. 

In 1894 it had eighty houses. Nga Poi was its resident chief. The 
village was engaged in the attack on Lawvar and was fined in 1892, and 
again in 1893 for harbouring Lawle. It is slightly stockaded and has a bad 
water-supply. There is a small camping-ground thrce-quarters-of-a-mile 
below the village, which is under Lawle of Klangklang. 

TAO HSI KENG.— A Shan village in North Hsen VVi, Northern Shan 
State, in Hsten Wi circle. 



3 so 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



I TAO— T AP 



It contained twelve houses in iSg4, with a population of forty-six per- 
sons. The revenue paid was four annas per household, and the occupation 
of the people was paddy cultivation and trading. They owned three bullocks 
and thirteen buffaloes. The price of paddy was twelve annas the basket. 

TA ONG MU— Latitude iQ° 56'; longitude 97° 38' Altitude, eight 
hundred feet.— A ferry on the Salwecn river, half way beivveen the Hwe Long 
Wai and the Hwe Mii. This is the ferry for travellers to Mong Maii from Sa 
Lawng or Kadugyi. There are usually two small boats here. Below the 
ferry the Salwecn narrows considerably and just above the Hwe Long Wai 
junction it is only seventy-five yards wide in the dry season. 

TA PA. — A ferry on the Salwecn river in the Northern Shan States. 

Very few caravans use this route. A few mules and bullocks cross in 
January and February ; but there arc said to be not more than about twenty 
of each yearly. It is used as a communication between villages on the banks 
and by people from Ko Kang coming to M6ng Si bazaar. 

The Salween at the ferry flows in a succession of long reaches and rapids, 
the reach at the ferry being about half-a-mile in length. It is about one 
hundred and thirty yards broad and flows at the rate of one-and-a-half to two 
miles an hour. The banks are high, steep, and jungle-covered, bamboos being 
plentiful on both banks, but not of great size. The flood-rise in the rains is 
from thirty-five to forty feet. 

The ferry service fs maintained by one dug-out, capable in good condition 
of transporting seven mule loads at a time. The passage takes about three 
minutes. It is worked by men from Ta Hsen village, five of whom are on duty 
for five days at a time. Animals swim the river about two hundred yards 
lower down, where there are small sandbanks on either side. The ferry dues 
vary from two annas to six annas a load, according to the state of the river, 
two annas being the nominal rate for a man. 

The ferry takes its name from the Chinese village Ta-pa, which was for- 
merly a large village and was used as a halting-place by traders using this route. 
Jt has sincfe decreased in size and Ta-hO (or Pyin Kawn), a La village with 
twenty houses and a^pongyi kyaung and some eayatSy has taken its place as 
a camping-ground. This village is distant two miles from the ferry and is 
about one thousand seven hundred and fifty feet above it. There is room for 
a small party, not exceeding one hundred men, to encamp in and around the 
pungyi /i_y<jwn_f enclosure ; and for about one hundred men on sloping ground 
a quarter-of-a-mile below the village. Wood, water and grass arc plentiful ; 
supplies of paddy and rice are also easy. 

•About a quarter-of-a-mile from the ferry on the west side is a small aayat, 
capable of accommodating about thirty men, with a little flat ground around it. 
The whole might be used as a camping-ground by about sixty men. Water 
is obtained from a small stream near at hand. Beneath this and rather lower 
down the river there is at present a sand bank, about two hundred yards long 
by fifty yards wide. This is dry and might be used as a camping-ground, but 
could not be relied upon. There appears to be no flat ground on the east 
bank large enough for even a small force to camp. There is standing room 
among the rocks on both banks for from three hundred to four hundred men 
awaiting embarkation. The river itself nowhere forn^s a serious obstacle, 
and might be crossed at any of the reaches, but the approachf s would be 
difticult and in many places impassable owing to the steepness of the banks. 



TA.P] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



221 



The ferry is distant eighteen miles by road from Mong Si. Of this, five 
miles through the forest which clothes the upper slopes of Loi Pang Lorn is 
bad, and the remainder fairly easy. There is no good camping-ground along 
this route, the halting-place at Pan Chi Ki being very small. and bad, The 
ridge Loi Wing Tan commands the approach to Mong Si from the ferry. The 
slopes to within half-a-mile of the river from this point are free of jungle. 

The nearest village on the east bank is Yangfang, distant about two-and-a- 
half miles, on the road to Cha-tzu-shu, distant about ten-and-a-half miles. 

TA PA LAI. — A circle in the Northern Shan State of Hsi Paw, in the 
Ea.stcrn subdivision. It is in charge of a nebaing and is bounded on the 
north by Hsi Hsung Man Hsang. 

It included one village in i8g8 and had a population of thirty-three persons. 
In the same year it paid Rs. 37-8-0 net revenue, but had no revenue-paying 
thanatpct trees. The railway line passes through the circle and there is to 
be a station at Ta Pa Lai. 

TA-PAW.— A village in the Mogaung subdivision of Myitkyina district. 
Tapaw is picturesquely situated at the end of the ridge of hills running 
from Pinka, where the .Mogaung r/;f7K«^ takes a great bend to the north, 
with the result that though Tapaw is only eight miles by a bad and very 
swampy road from Mogaung, it is a full day's journey by laung. 

It is said to have been founded from Mogaung Myohaung two or three 
years before the removal cf the inhabitants from Myohaung 
IS ory. ^^ Myothit, the preser;t Mogaung town, three generations 

back. The village was completely destroyed in Haw Saing's rebellion in 
1245 B.E. (1883 A.D.) the inhabitants flymg en masse to Bhamo. The 
whole village was burnt to the ground and all the cattle looted by Haw 
Saing's adherents. There were thirty houses in the village then. The vil- 
lage was re-established by Maung Swfe. 

It has now thirty-one houses and in 1893 had thirty-seven. One of the 
households is of Kachins from the P6nshan taunt;, of the Maru tribe. 
There is a teak kyiiung to the north of the village, with accommodation for 
fifteen men, and a zayat. There is also a Public Works Department 
bungalow, which has been handed over to the Civil Department. The jade 
lessees keep an agent here to check exports by boat. The village has thirty 
buffaloes. 

Kachin villages near Tapaw are — 

(0 Nang Naw,| ^^^ ^^^^ ^j Pa-hen-man. 
(2) Pamsan, J 

{3) Lakyen, about four miles off on the Akya road. 
TA PAW Kt) TA. — A ferry across the Salween rtyer, about three and-a- 
half miles above the Mfe Hsai. 

There was a Siamese post here in 1889-90. The village of Paw Ku Ta 
lies among the hills on the right bank. 

Ta PAWK — .'\ village in the Mong Yai circle of the Northern Shan 
State of South Hsen Wi, It lies about four miles south-Avest of the capital, 
on a bank sloping down to the Kiu Ti stream, and contained in March 1893 
twenty-throe houses, with a popuLitiou of one-hundred persons. 



iui 



322 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



(TAP 



The village is in two groups, at an interval of about half a mile, 
and has been entirely rebuilt during the last three years. It was burnt by 
men from Hsi Paw (Thibaw) in August 1887. Lowland paddy cultivation 
is the chief industry and cotton is also grown in small quantities. Formerly 
a great deal was cultivated. 

TA Pfi. — A ferry village on the Nam Hsim, on the road from Mong Pu 
to M6ng Hsat, in the Southern Shan State of Keng Tfing. 

"The Nann Hsim is here seventy yards broad, unfordable, but with easy 
current as early as the month of November. There is a wretched Shan 
village of three or four houses on the right bank, round which there is cram- 
ped accommodation for fifty men at the most, while in a small field a 
quarter mile up the river there is accommodation for one hundred men. 
The standing room on the left bank is most cramped, being merely the 
width of the path and a few rocks, but a quarter mile along the route 
eastward on the banks of the Nam Ye Nang there is an open space where 
fifty to one hundred men could camp. Animals would have to be picketed 
very close together. No grass, and but few bamboo leaves. Supplies «r7, 
and the surrounding hilly country being almost devoid of population, paddy 
for animals, &c., would have to be sent from Mdng Hsat (or Mong Pu), 
The approaches on both sides of valley, which is deep and gorge-like, are 
difficult ; that from the east or left bank down the gorge-like valley of the 
Nam Ye Nang: that from the west or right bank over a range of hills 
crossed at an elevation of four thousand three hundred and lifty feet, the 
descent being along an interminabfc spur with many undulations. * * 
The means of working the ferry are usually limited to one small raft," 

"Ta Pc is twenty-eight miles from Mong Pu and forty miles from Mong 
Hsat." 

(Captain H. B. Walker, D.C.L.I., Intelligence Branch, 1895.) 

TAPING (called Ta Haw by the Chinese, but locally better known as 
the Sansi Haw, or the Kan Ngai or Man Yen Haw ; the Shans call it Nam 
An or Nam Mu An, and sometimes Nam Lonjj). — A river which rises in 
China in the hilts north of Tancha (Chanchai, in probably about latitude 
25° 45', and Hows south-west through the Kacliin hills into the Irrawaddy, 
which it reaches two miles above Bhamo. 

At the junction of the Nampaung it is a roaring torrent, full of boulders 
and rapids, seventy-five yards wide in the cold weather, and one hundred 
and fifty yards in the rains, impassable even in the cold weather for men, 
mules or boats. At Myothit, wliere it enters the Irrawaddy plain, it is 
one-hundred 
weather. 



and eighty yards wide and nine feet deep in the cold 



The Taping is navigable for launches up to Myothit in the rains. Large 
country boats can go up to Mj-othit all the year round, and small dug-outs 
can go two miles higher. Above this the river passes through a defile, and 
is in some places not more than fifteen or twenty feet broad, with a current 
of six miles an hour, very deep, and full of rocks. Its high-water mark is 
here fifteen feet above the cold weather level. In the rains boats take about 
three days to reach Myothif from Rhanio, but the journey down stream is 
done in a day at any time of the year. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



223 



A temporary mule bridge is generally made in the cold weather across the 
Taping at Myolhit but it is regularly wasbed away in the rains. The river 
can be crossed by b^at at Myothit, or at any of the villages below. 

In Chinese territory it again becomes navigable between Mong Na (Kan- 
ngai) and Man Waiiig (Man-yuen or Man-yen), but only for small boats and 
rafts. It takes two days to go up and one to come down. Except in tlie 
Sansi plain, in the Mong Na Santa plain, where it receives the Nam Ti, a 
large tributary, and below Myothit, the Taping runs through deep gorges. 
Between Tancha and Sinna it is thirty or forty yards wide and fordable in 
the dry season. At Sansi it is sixty yards wide and unfordable. In the Mong 
Na Santa plain it is a slow river flowing over a sandy bed from three hundred 
yards to nearly half a mile wide, but not filled with water except after 
neavy rain. In Ibe bills it is mostly a wild torrent. There are several 
bridges and many ferries in Chinese territory. The length of the river is 
about one hundred and fifty miles. 

TA PING.— A ferry on tlie Nam Lwe in tlie Southern Shan State of 
Keng Tung. It is twenty-three miles north-east of KengTOng town, on the 
main caravan route to Keng Hung viii Mong Ma. " The Nam Lwe is here 
'' fifty yards broad with easy current and just fordable in the middle of the 
'' dry weather. There is usually only one boat. There is a ferry-house, the 
<' ferry village bcin^ nearly two miles down the river towards Ta Lom. 
<' There is camp accommodation on both banks for over one hundred men. 

" From Ta Ping to KengtQng there are two rout'es :— 
"(fl) Striking the KengtQng plain at Man Hsa. 
" {p) Striking the KengtQng plain at Lai Law, 
" From Ta Ping to Mong Ma is 14 miles. 
" From Ta Ping to Keng Hung is 106^ miles. 
«' Elevation 2,600 feet." 

[Captain H. B. Walker, D.C.L.i., Intelligence Branch, 1894.] 

TAPINGHSO. — A village of Miautsu in the Ko Kang circle of the North- 
ern Shan State of Hscn Wi. It lies west of Nam Kaw, about six miles north 
of SaTi Hsu, in a gorge six tbousmd feet above sca-lt-vel and commanding 
a magnificent view down to the Salween, with the huge peaks of Loi Pang 
Lom and Loi Saw Mh on the western bank. 

The inhabitants call themselves Mung and came twenty years ago from 
Shunting, or Shun-ning, east of Yungchang and soutli of Tali. Of about an 
hundred immigrants only the five householc^s, at Tapinghso remain. The rest 
have all gone back to Yunnan. In 1892 they numbered altogether thirty-two, 
of whom eleven were men and twelve women. The men dressed as Chinese, 
but the women still retained their picturesque national kilt and double 
breasted bodice, tliougli in sad dilapidation. Several were passable pretty. 

They eat nothing but Indian-corn, of which they cultivate about an hun- 
dred acres, with twice that area of poppy. The houses stand on piles with 
walls of mud ending above in rough logs open to the winds. The village is 
closed in by three barred gates. 

TA POM. — A ferry on the Nam Lwe in the Southern Shan State of 
KengtQng. It is twenty-one miles north of KengtQng town, on the main 
roads to M6ng Yang and Mong Hkak. 



326 



The upper Burma gazetteer. 



CTA.T 



attempted to ford. There are three dug-outs out of which a raft could be 
made. The best camping-ground is on the left bank on the site of the old 
village, but jungle would have to be cleared for a large camp. No supplies 
are obtainable. 

From Ta Tawn there is an indifferent road to Moog Hsat ; a roari to 
the east to Mfe Chan, whence roads branch off to Chi- 
eng Hsen and Chieng Hai : and a road to the south-west 
to Mong Fang. 
Distances — 



Communications. 



49i 

-14 
64 

63 
16 



Miles. 



From Ta Tawn to M6ng Hsat 

From Ta Tawn to Keng Tung (Bid M5ng Hsat) 

From Ta Tawn to M& Chan 

From Ta Tawn to Chierg Hsen 

From Ta Tawn to Chieng Hai 

From Ta Tawn to Mong Fang 

TAT-CHAUNG. — A revenue circle in the Taungdwin-gyaung township, 
Mingin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district, 

It includes a single village and paid Rs. 380 revenue in 1897. 

TAT-GON. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a po|)ulation of two hundred and ninety-seven pcrsonsj accord- 
ing to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 1,500. 

TAT-GYI-GON. — A village of twenty-three houses of Shaus on the Mosit 
stream, in the Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The inhabitants came down from Mana near Nam Hkam in 1870 to 
Kaungon, thence to Sbweb6ntha, and finally settled in Tatgyig6n, They 
own nn cattle and are poor ; most of them live by cutting bamboos. 

TATI. — A circle in the Northern Shan State of Hsi Paw, in the Eastern 
subdivision. 

It included twelve villages in i8q8 and had a population of three hundred 
and twenty-six persons. It is in charge of a nebaing : in the same year it 
paid Hs. 673-8-0 net revenue. 

TAT-K^N. — A revenue circle in the Kindat township and subdivision 
of Upper Chindwin district, including three villages, with an approxi- 
mate area of fourteen square miles. 

The population in i8gi numbered four hundred and seventy-eight persons 
and there was a revenue of Rs. 1,379. 

TAT-KYA. — A village in the Myintha circle, PakAkku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of four hundred and fifty-four 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The Ihaihameda amounted to Rs. 495 for 1897-98. 

TAT-KYI. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura township and subdivi- 
sion of Mandalay district. 

Tatkyiis the only village in the circle and is situated seven miles south- 
south-west of headquarters. 

It had a population of three hundred and ninety-five persons at the 
census of 1891, and paid Rs. 600 thathameda-\.dL\. The land revenue 
amounted to Rs. 476. 

TATONG. — A small Chinese village in the Trans-Salween Ko Kang 
circle of the Northern Shan State of North Hsen Wi ^Theinni). It stands 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



227 



at a height of five thousand seven hundred feet, in the hills to the south- 
west of Taw Nio bazaar, and had in 1892 thirty-six inhabitants. 

Opium, Indian-corn and a small quantity of rice were the chief crops. 
The inhabitants keep pack-mules and sell quantities of opium in China. 

TAT-SU. — A village in the Tan-gyaung circle, Seikpyu township, Pak6k- 
ku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and eight 
persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Bs. l8o, 
included in that ot Tangyaung. 

TAT-TE. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, sixteen miles from Ye-u. 

The pTpulation numbers one hundred and ten persons, and the people 
are chiefly rice cultivators. The i/iai/tameda revenue for 1896-97 amount- 
ed to Rs. 370. 

TA T- TH IT. — A village in the Tazfe township, Ye-u subdivision of Sbwebo 
district, with a population in 1891 of eighty-six persons. 

The chief crop is paddy : the thathamcda revenue for 1896-97 amounted 
to Rs. 300. The village is fifteen miles from Ye-u. 

TAT-TWIN. — A village in the Linbin circle, Pak6kku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of one hundred and sixty-seven 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

I he thathameda amounted to Rs. 180 for 1897-98. 

TA TCNG ANG. — A ferry village over the Nam Tu (Myit-ngfe) river, in 
Tawng Tek circle of the Northern Shan State of h'si Paw, 

It had a population of fifty-five persons in 1898. It is in charge of the 
ferry thugyi. In the same year it paid Rs. 99-8-0 net revenue. 

riext to the ferry at Hsi Paw itself the Ta Tung Ang ferry is the most 
~ J important in the Hsi Paw State. It is about six miles 

^* distant from Nam Lan and the same distance from Tawng 

Tek. In March the river is about eighty yards broad by about six f«*ct 
deep, with a very rapid current. The ferrymen and dug-outs are main- 
tained by the Sawbwa, and it is estimated that about two thousand pack- 
cattle cross during the year. The ferry is much used by caravans from 
Hke Si Man Sam and Mflng Kiing on their way to Kyawk Wh or Tawng 
Peng for tea. They usually go onto Mandalay and return by the Govern- 
ment road and this ferry. 

TAT-YVVA.— A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision 
and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered four hundred and ninety-seven per- 
sons and the thathameda amounted toRs. ^\'6. No land revenue was col- 
lected in the circle, 

TAUK-SHA-BIN. — A village in the Nga-kyan circle, Pakokku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and sixteen 
persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathameda amounted to Ks. 570 for 1897-98, 

rAUK-SHI-G.\N. — A revenue circle in the Sa-le township, Pagan sub- 
division of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-95 the population nuntbered one hundred and fifty-one persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 184. No land revenue wasasses^^eU 
io the circle. 



228 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAU 



TAUK-SOK. — A village in the Tauksok circle, Laung-she township, Yaw- 
dwin subdivision of Pakfikku district, with a population of two hundred and 
thirty persons, and a revenue of Rs. 520 in 11^97. 

TAUK-TE — A village on the left bank of the Irrawaddy river in the Shwegu 
subdivision of Bhamo district, two miles below Sinkan. 

The villagers work le and taungya and own eight buffaloes. 

Taukte was originally part of the charge of the Hkaungton myothugyi, 

who was directly subordinate to MandaJay, but was in 

History. 1880 placed under the Bhamo ft^ww. Subsequently it was 

attacked and destroyed by the Taukte Kachins and remained deserted for 

two years. It was then rc-founded Ly Ko Po under the direction of the 

Sawka Kachin Dwaa. 

TAUNG-A-CHOK. — A village in the Athib6no revenue circle, Amarapura 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, two miles south-west of head- 
quarters. 

It had a population of one hundred and sixty-five persons at the corsus 
of J 89 1) and paid Rs. 200 thathameda-\^yi. 

TAUNG-A-SHE-BET. — A village in the Al5-gyaw circle, Yeza-gyo town- 
ship, Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred 
and five persons, according to the census of iSgi.and a revenue of Rs. 240. 

TAUNG-AUK.— A revenue circle in the Mingin township and subdivision 
of Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes one village only and paid a revenue of Rs. 350 in 1897. 

TAUNG-BA. — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and subdivi- 
sion of Vyingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and twenty persons 
and the thatkameda amounted to Rs. 161. No land revenue was col- 
lected in the circle. 

TAUNG-BAING— A village in the Kyauk-kat circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of five thousand one 
hundred and fifty-seven persons, according to the census of 1891, and a 
revenue of Rs. 780. 

TAUNG-BAING. — Sec under Tawng Peng. 

TAUNG-BA-LU. — A revenue circle in the Sa-le township, Pagan subdivi- 
sion of Mjin^yan district. 

In 1885-96 the population numbered eight hundred and thirty-five per- 
sons, the thathameda amounted to Rs. i,4.io, the State land revenue 
Rs. 1 0-6-0, and the gross revenue to Rs. 1,460-6-0. 

TAUNG-BAN.— A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-56 the population numbered two hundred and seventy-five persons 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 500. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

TAUNG-BAW — A Kachin village in Tract No. 26, Myilkyina district, 
situated in 25° 15' north latitude and 96° 59' cast longitude. 

In 1892 it contained seventeen houses, with a population of sixty-nine 
persons. The headman has noothers subordinate to him The inhabitants 
are Shan- Burmese. 



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THE UPPER BUUMA GAZETTliER. 



229 



TAUNG-BAW. — An Indawgyi lake village in the Mogaung subdivision 
of Myitkyina district. T!ie vill.ige \s an extension of Nanpaungzin. 

There is a hillock about two hundred yards cast of the village on which 
are three houses, and in the main group there are fifteen houses with a po- 
pulation of fiftv-two persons. '1 he villagers work 'kaukkyi. 

TAUNG-BAW ALfi-YVVA.— A viUage in the Pangtara State, Myelat 
district of the Southern Shan States. 

It lies on the hill slope due west of Pang-tara main village and had 
in 1897 seventy-one houses, with a population of five hundred and twenty- 
seven persons, who paid Rs. 854 revenue. The village is one of the rictj- 
est in the State and in the Myelat. 

TAUNG-BAW LE-YWA — A revenue circle with one hundred and ninety- 
four inhabitants, in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district. It is 
situated on the Mahudaung hill-range. 

In Burmese times it was included in the Kabyu circle of the Kabyu town- 
ship 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 400 from thathameda. The 
circle now includes the villages of Kyauk-sbaw and Kyauk-pala. 

The Alaungdaw Katbapa pagoda crowns a ridge some fifteen miles 
north-west of Ky.iuk-shaw village, through which the road to the pagoda 
passes. Numbers of people from different parts of the country worship at 
the shrine every year in December and January. 

TAUNG-BET. — A circle in the Natmauk township of Magwe district, in- 
cluding the villages of Taungbet, Iug6n, AshegAn and Lctpangyin. 

TAUNG-BET. — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
Pakokku district, wiih a population of one hundred and four persons, and a 
revenue of Ks. 260. 

TAUNG-BET.~A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of one hundred and twelve persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue* of Rs. 410. 

TAUNG-BI. — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and subdivision of 
Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the poi>ulation numbered two thousand one hundred and fifty 
persons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 2,452, No land revenue whs 
collected in the circle. 

TAUNG-BIN-GAN.- A village in the Myodin circle, Myaing township, 
Pakfikku subdivision and district, with a population of four hundred and 
nineteen persons, accoi'ding lo the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 860 
included in (hat of Myodin. 

TAUNG-BO. — .\ village in the tvonzin circle, Myaing township, Pak6k- 
ku subdivision and district, with a population of throe hundred and forty- 
nine persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 750 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-BO —A village in the Kyigan circle, Veza-gyo township, Fak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of nincty-Hve persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 45. 

TAUNG-BO. — A village six miles wtst of Shwedauug in the Northern 
subdivision of Meiktila district, was in Burmese times the seat of a myin- 
gaung^ the overlord of the Shwedaung and Chaukyin si. Maung Tu, the 



330 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ITAU 



present thugyis father, was deposed from his mytngaung's\\\\i and declared 
an outlaw because of suspected complicity in the Myingon rebellion. His 
lands were confiscated, but subsequently a certain part of them was res- 
tored to his family. 

The population numbers six hundred persons and is wholly agricultural. 
Thr pagodas in the village have no special associations. 

TAUNG-BO.— A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, twenty-four miles from headquarters. 

The population numbers one hundred and seventy-three persons, who 
paid Rs. 370 thathameda revenue for 1896-97, They are all rice-farmers. 

TAUNG-BO-GYI. — A village in the Taungbo-gyi circle, Laung-she 
township, Yawdwin subdivision of Pakkfiku district, with a population of 
seventy-seven persons and a revenue of Rs. 160, in 1897. 

TAUNG-BO-GYl SOUTH.— A village in the Taungbo-gyi circle, Laung- 
she township, Yawdwin subdivision of Fakfikku district, with a population 
of fifty-eight persons, according to thugyCs census rolls, and a revenue of 
Rs. 130. 

TAUNG-BON.— A village in the State of Ye Ngan, Myelat district of the 
Southern Shan States. It lies in the west of the State, on the Panlaung 
stream. 

In 1897 the village contained fifty-two houses and a population of one 
hundred and ninety-seven persons. It paid Rs. 210 annual revenue. 

TAUNG-BYAN north and SOUTH.— Two villages of one hundred 
and fifty-six and one hundred and ninety-seven houses respectively, in the 
Ava township of Sagaing district, eight miles east of Myotha. 

Taungbyan was the native place of the dacoit leader Bo Ko, a follower 
of Teittin Yan Baing, the Channgwa Prince, 

TAUNG-BYAUK.— A village in the Indaing township, Tantabin subdivi- 
sion of Shwebo district, on the Mu river, fifty-two-and-a-hatf miles from 
Ye-u. 

The population in 1891 numbered fifty-one persons, mostly paddy culti- 
vators. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 72. 

TAUNG-CYIN. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-n subdivision 
of Shwebo district, eight-and-a-half miles from headquarterp. 

The chief industry is rice cultivation : the thathameda revenue for 1896" 
97 amounted to Rs, 730. 

TAUNG-BYIN. — A village in the Min-ywa circle, Ku-hna-ywa town- 
ship, Gangaw subdivision of Pakflkku district, with a population of one 
hundred and fifty-two person.^, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 320 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-BYIN. — A village of one hundred and sixty-five hcuses in 
Myotha township of Sagaing district, five miles west of Myotha. 

At '1 aungbyin is the Seinnyoyin pagoda, where annual pagoda fairs are 
held. 

There are ten villages under the Taungbyin thugyi : the principal are 
Taung-ledaw, one hundred and se\ enty-thrce houses; I'edaw, seventy- 



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THR UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



231 



two ; Thangfin, forty-eight ; Thigfin, forty-eight ; Ta-gyaung, seventy; and 
Ywa-tha, ninety. 

TAUNG-RYIN-NGft. — A village in the Shwe-gyin tovirnshipj Ye-u sub- 
division of Shwebo district, with an area of eighteen square miles of 
attached lands. 

There are one hundred and ninety-six inhabitants and forty-one acres of 
cultivation. Paddy and tfiifsi are the chief products. The thaHiamcda 
revenue amounted to five hundred and thirty rupees for 1806-97, The 
village is forty-two miles from Ye-u and is under the Paluzwa thugyi. 

TAUNG'BYO. — A circle in the Wetwin township, Mayniyo subdivision 
of Mandalay district, including four villages. 

Taungbyo village is eight miles west of Wetwin, and has a population of 
two hundred and fifty-two persons, according to the census of iSgJ. The 
thathameda for 1896 amounted to Rs. 450. Shan paddy is cultivated. 

TAUNG-BYON.— A village in the Madaya township and subdivision 
of Mandalay district, on the east bank of the Shweta chaung^ about six 
miles north of Mandalay. 

It has three hundred and fifty houses and its population numbered in 1897 
one thousand and five hundred persons approximately. The people are 
cultivators. 

The Sudaungbyi pagoda, built by King .^nawrahta-saw in 395 B.E, 
(1033 A.D.) on his return from China, and the images of the Shwe Byin 
Nyi Naung nuts attract large gatherings of people from all parts of the 
surrounding country, [An account of the pagoda is given under Ma- 
daya.] 

TAUNG.BY6N-NGfiA-NAUK.— A circle in the Madaya township and 
subdivision of Mandalay district, two miles north-east of Madaya, including 
ten villages. 

TAUNG-BYON-NGfiA-SHfi— A circle in the Madaya township and 
subdivision of Mandalay district, north-east of Madaya, including nine 
villages. 

TAUNG-BYU.— A village in the Ingan circle, Seikpyu township, Pakfik- 
ku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and sixty- 
two persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 530 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-CHE, — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered sixty persons and the thathameda 
amounted to Rs. 63. No land revenue was collected in the circle. 

TAUNG-DET. — A village in the Yaw township, Yawdwin subdivision 
of Pakfikku district, with a population of one hundred and seven persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 240. 

'I\[t thathameda amounted to Rs. 260 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-Di-THA-HMAT.— An artificial reservoir in the Taungdi circle, 
SidAktaya township of Minbu district, on the high road between Salin and 
Sid6ktaya. 



' 



232 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAU 



It was formed by closing up the valleys of two small streams called the 
Tagu and Lunliok, and irrigates when it lb full, which occurs once in every 
three or four years, nearly four hundred acres of land. The repairing of the 
embankment and keeping open of the canals has hitherto been left in the 
hands of the neighhouring villagers. The tank has a large catchment area 
and mitrht be made remunerative. 

TAUNG-DVyiN'-GYAUNG.- A township of the Mingin subdivision of 
Upper Chindwin district, lying for the most part in a long and somewhat 
narrow valley, bounded by the Pondaung and Shwe-tharain-daung ranges 
and traversed by the Se-ywa cfiaung. 

The hills to the west of the vallev, which divide it from the Ka-le town- 
ship and from the Gangaw subdivision ol Pak6kku district, 
do not terminate so abruptly in the pUin as the hills 
on the cast side, which divide the valley from the Mingin 
township. The approaches to the valley from Mingin are consequently diffi- 
cult. There is an old circuitous route via Seiktha which leads into the 
souib of the valley, but the central route from Mingin to Kj^abin, the capital 
of the to .vnship, is very difficult for travellers and almost impossible for 
transport. The opening out of a direct road from Mingin to Kyabin is 
a pressing ne;d. 

The township consists of forty-eight circles and had a population of seven 
thousand three hundred and sixteen persons at the lasL census. The peo- 
ple are mostly cultivators and the trade consequently centres cliiefiy in 
paddy. The revenue of the township is — 

Rs. 



Natural features. 
Communicalionr.. 



That/tameda 
State land 



Tola! 



... 19,140 
... 1.627 

... 30,767 



The most important villages arc Taungdwin, Kyabin, U and ChauQgwa 

TAUNG-DWIN-GYI.— A subdivision of Magwe district, is bounded 
on the north by the Magwe subdivision, on the east by Yaaiotl:ia district 
of Upper, and Toungoo district of Lower Burma, on the south by Thayct- 
myo district and the west by the Irrawaddy river, separating it from Minbu 
district. 

It includes the townships of Taungdwingyi, Myingun and Myolhit, the 
subdivisional headqu.nrters being at Taungdwingyi. 

The subdivision is watered by numerous affluents of the Yin stream, 
which flow fanwise from the Pegu Yomas on the eastern border and unite 
above Wa-gyi-aing in the Myothit township. 

TAUNG-DWIN-GYI. — A township in the subdivision of the same name of 
Magwe district. 

Its area is nine hundred and oneiquare miles and its population, accord- 
ing to the last census, numbered fifty-three thousand two hundred and 
sixteen persons. Ihe boundaries were altered in 1895 by the inclusion of 
the Satthwa township (General Department Notificiition No. 175, dated 
the 8lh August r893 : Burma Gasetie, Part I, Page 417). 



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233 



Chief villages. 



The township is triangular in shape, the base lying on the Sad6n chaung 
to the north and the sides being formed by the Taungu chaung and 
the Yoma watershed. The triangle of land thus enclosed is lowlying and 
flat, and paddy cultivation is extensively carried on, Taungdwingyi being 
one of the chltf paddy-prou^ucing areas of I'pper Burma. The Burmese 
havf a saviiig, dwin gyi leihuitt the four big holes, namely, Taungdwingyi, 
Ledwin, Chindwln and Payidwin. Irrigation has been carried on in the 
township for centuries, and traces of old irrigation canals and bunds are 
still to be seen near KiMvkogAn, overgrown with dense jungle. 

The most imporiant villages are Taungdwingyi, Sattbwa and K6kkogwa. 
Taungdwingyi is the headquartprs of the subdivision and 
tnvnship and has a Municipality, There is a daily 
bazaar, and ou every fifth day a special bazaar is held. At Satthwa and 
KAkkogon live-^ay bazaars are held. Two to three thousand persons 
usually attend at Taungdwingyi, five hundred to a thousand at Satthwa, 
and three to four hundred at Kokkogfin. Before the Annexation, Nga-inin, 
seven miles east of Taungdwingyi, was tlie centre of the forest-working 
industry. Since then however restrictions have been placed on the extrac- 
tion of forest produce by the reservation of the forests, and it has dwindled 
down to an ordinary sized village, 

There are no noted lakes in the subdivision, but two tanks at Taung- 
dwingyi and In-ywa-ijyi near K6kkogwa afford bufficient water for irrigation. 
They are, however, small and become almost dry in the hot weather. 
A few villages near the Yotnas bree-J silk-worms. 

The population of the township is mostly Burman. A few Chins, emig- 
rants froni 1 hayetmyo district, have settled in the south-east and cultivate 
land there. 

Near K6kkogwaare the ruins of the old town of Paikthado. Three sides 
of its brick walls are still standing and also the p.dace, 
five hundred yards east of In-y wa-gyi. It is said that 
the old city once occupied a square of two miles side. In 1896, when 
a road was being constructed here, the Myovk in charge discovered silver 
coins and brass cups ol a kind that indicated that the original inhabitants 
■ivere natives of India. The coins and cups were submitted to the Govern- 
ment Archaeologist. The local belief is that the city flourished about one 
thousand yiarsagoaud lh.it it was contemporaneous with the city of Y.ithe 
near Frome, also now in ruins. It is said to have been founded by Queeu 
Paikthado, daughter of theSulathanbwa, who, with her brother, Mahathan- 
bwa, was floated down the rivrr from old Tagaung. 

1 he Shweyaungdaw near K6kkogwaand the Shwe-in-daung at Taung- 
dwingyi are I he only pagodas specially revered. An annual fair is held at 
each in Tabaung, butneith-::r is o{ a character to call for detailed mention. 
TAUNG-UWlN-GYi. — The headquarters town of the subdivision of that 
name of Magwe district. 

It has a Municipal Committee, is traversed by metalled roads, and enclosed 
in a ring-fence. In Burmese times it was the residence of a wun, and during 
the early years of the occupation it was the headquarters of the district and 
gave its name to it. It lies low and has a tank to the east, which stores 
water above the level of pan of the town. 

TAUNG-D\VL\ MYOMA,— A revenue circle in the Taungdwin-gyaung 
township, Mingin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

30 



Old Paikthado. 



234 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tTAU 



It includes four villages and paid Rs. 1,649 revenue in 1897. 

Taungdwin Myoma was in Burmese times the residence of theTaung- 
dwingv^aung Myothugyi, who was in charge of the whole of the Taungdwin 
valley. After the Annexation the village was chosen as the headquarters 
of the Taungdwin township, but Kyabin village further up the valley was 
subsequently made the headquarters station, as it was more centrally situated. 

TAUNG-GAING. — A circle in Amarapura township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district. 

Paung-gaing village is situated fourteen-and-a-half miles south-east of 
headquarters. It had a population of six hundred and fifteen persons at the 
census of 1891, and paid Rs, 900 thathameda-ia.x. The circle includes 
two villages. 

TAUNG-GAING, — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision 
of Mandalay district, east of Wchingama. 

It has one hundred and ninety houses and a population of eight hundred 
persons, on an approximate calculation made in 1897. 

TAUNG-GAING. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision 
of Mandalay district, south-west of Zagabin. 

The village has sixty-five houses and an approximate population, as 
ascertained in 1897, of 250 persons. The villagers are cultivators. 

TAUNG-GAING. — A village in the Nga-singu township, Madaya sub- 
division of Mandalay district, south of Zibin-g6n. 

It had ninety-five houses and a population of three hundred and eighty 
persons, on an approximate calculation made in 1897. The villagers are 
cultivators. 

TAUNG-GAING — A considerable village in the Momeik township of 
Ruby Mines district, about three miles south-west of Momeik. 

TAUNG-GAING. — A village in the Pyathi circle, Myaing township, 
PakAkku subdivision and district, with a population of five hundred and 
fortv-four persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thafhavicda amounted to Rs. 1,450 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-GAN. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision 
and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered eight hundred and fifty-five persons 
and the t'nathameiia amounted to Rs. 1,008; no land revenue was collect- 
ed in the circle. 

TAUNG-GAN. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, east of Madaya. 

It has twenty-one houses and its population numbered in 1897 eighty-five 
persons approximately. The villagers are coolies. 

TAUNG-GIN. — A revenue circle in the Uyu township, Lega-yaing sub- 
division of Upper Chindwin district, including eighteen villages. 

TAUNG-GON.— A village in the Yebyu circle of the Pangtara State, 
Myclat district of the Southern Shan States. 

It contained in 1897 forty-three houses, with a population of two hun- 
dred and seventy-one persons, who paid Rs. 394 annual revenue. 



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235 



TAUNG-GON. — A village in the Mayagan township, Yc-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, 23 miles from headquarters. 

There are four hundred and eighty-seven inhabitants, who paid Rs. 850 
i/t/iihamei/a revenue for 1896-97. Paddy is the chief crop. 

TAUNG-GON. — A village in the iMibaya circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of ninety-two persons, 
according to the census of 1891. 

The tkaihameda amounted to Rs. 290 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-GWIN. — A circle in the Myingun township of Magwe district, 
including the villages of Taunggwin-Kyundaw, Yega, Ma-gyi-gan,Tay6kkyin 
Thabut-kyaw, Letkdkpin and Min-ywa. 

TAUNG-GYA. — A village of seventy-three houses, in the Sagaing sub- 
division and district, twenty-four-and-a-half miles north-west of Sagaing. 
Salt is manufactured. 

TAUNG-GYAN. — A village in the Thayettaw circle, Madaya town- 
ship and subdivision of Mandalay district, south of Padaukpin. 

'1 he houses number 60 and the population was 180 in 1897. The villagers 
are cultivators. 

TAUNG-GYAUNG, — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdi- 
vision of bhwebo district, ten miles from Ye-u, with a population of eighty 
persons. 

The chief industry is rice cultivation. Rupees 320 thathameda revenue 
was paid for 1896-97. 

TAUNG-GYAUNG — A village of five houses south of the Irrawaddy river, 
in the Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The village was re-settled in 1894, after having been deserted for twenty 
years. Some fishing is carried on, and a little mayin paddy is cultivated. 

TAUNG-GYA VV. — A Palaung village of thirteen houses in Tawng Peng 
State, Northern Shan States. 

The villagers are of the Pa-le tribe, and own nine catlle and three ponies. 
They cultivate hill paddy. Taung-gyaw has a monastery and two sayats. 

TAUNG-GYI. — A revenue circle and village in the Amarapura town- 
ship and subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It h.id a population of seven hundred and eighty-five pcr.sons at the census 
of 1891, and paid ^%. \,\20 thathameda-i^\. 

TAUNG-GYI. — A circle in the Wetwin township, Maymyo subdivision of 
Mandalay district, including two villages. 

Taung-gyi village is eight miles north-west of Wetwin, and has a po- 
pulation of three hundred and ninety-six persons, according to the census 
of 189 1. The thathameda paid for 1896 amounted to Rs. 370. Danu paddy 
is cultivated. 

TAUNGGVl.—ln the State of Yawng Hwe, Southern Shan States. 
Latitude 20° 45' 54": longitude 97° 5' 55"; elevation, five thousand feet above 
sea level. 

Taunggyi, the headquarters of the Superintendent and Political Officer 
of the Southern Shan States, is situated in a depressed 

Situaiion. plateau on the crest of the Sintaung range of hill.s, one 

hundred and six miles from Ihazi railwa^-statiou by cart-road, fbe plateau 



236 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tTAU 



IS roughly about four mife.'; in length from north to foutb, and from three- 
quarters to one mile in uiHth. The civil statinn is situated at tVe southern 
end of the plateau and is surmounted by tlie cn'sls of the range on the* east, 
south and west The northern aspect is o|x;n,and fominands a fine view of 
the northern districts of Yawng Hvve, and of South Lawk Sawk in the 
valley below. 

In the early days of the Occupation of the Southern Shan States, Taunggy! 

jj. was considered a d'-sirible situation for the headquarters of 

* °™' the administration After several experiments of various 

positions on the plateau had been made, the present site was definitely 

chosen, and the civil headquarters were removed (mm Fort Stedman and 

the station established on the 15th September 1894. 

The station limits of Taun^^gyi have not yet been definitely defined : the 

,_, . ., . land originally taken up covered an area of two thousand 

The civil station. 9,., ■' ... , .^j. •» » i .. ^l ,. c 

acres. I he public buildmgs are situated to the east ot 

the main cart-road from Thazi, which runs through thf^ centre of the station 

from north to south They are - 

the Residency ; 

the Assistant Superintendent's quarters ; 
• the Forest Divisional Officer s quarters ; 
the Executive Enginei^r's quarters ; 
the Civil Surgeon's quarti*rs : 
the Hospital Assistant's quarters ; 
the Police Officer's quarters ; 

the Court and offices of the Superintendent and Political OIHcer ; 
the Treasury ; 
the Lock-up ; 

the Public Works Department office ; 
the Durbar hall ; 
the Hospital; 
the Post office ; 
the Telegraph office; 
the Circuit-house : and 
the Public Works Department inspection bungalow. 

Fach building stands in a spacious compound. On the east side of the 
main -road are the clerks' quarters, the Civil Polite post, and the trading 
and .Trtizan communities. 

R ads have been laid out throughuut the station, and water is convey- 
ed along each road and is laid on to every compound in the station 
for gardening purposes. The source is a spring in the hill on the eastern 
boundary of the town and the supply is drawn off by means of a canal, 
about one-and-a-half miles in length. This canal in addition to feeding the 
compounds of the residents supplies the barracks of the militny ( utpost. 

The garrison consists of fifty men of the regiment at Fort Stedman, under 
a cummissioned native officer. 1 he military buildings include tv»o 
barracks (each for twenty-five men), a quarter-guard, and a native officer's 
quarters. 1 he buildings are of stone masonry. 

North of the town proper are the Shan quarter and bazaars, and the 
Saadwa's quarter. 



rAuj 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



237 



The bazaar-sheds are temporary buikllngs, with wooden posts and grass 
nx)fs, and occupy an area of about fifty square yards. Thi; bazaar is 
h'ld every fifth day and is largi-Iy attended. Fieiiig at the terminus of the 
Government cart-road from the railway the bazaar is to a considerable 
extent the dep6t for the trade of the country lying to the east and as yet 
unopened to cart traffic. 

in the Sawlnea's quarter tlie various Snwbwas and Myosas have built 
substantial hnws^ in which they reside when visiting Taunggyi, 

The number of houses and the population within the town limits, includ- 
ing the Shan quarter round the bazaar, stood in June 1S97 as follows: — 

Number. 
Houses . . ... ... ... 336 

Population ... ... ... ... 1.347 

The population comprised — 

851 



Shans 
Burmans 
Natives of India 
Chinese 



Total 



»,247 



There is besides a large floating population, principally of natives of India, 
engaged as labourers by the Public Works Departm-^nt. Including these the 
total population does not fall short of one thousand and five hutvdred souls. 

Experimental cultivation, mostly confined to imported fruit trees, has 
been successfully carried on for several years in the Government orchard 
at Taunggyi. The orchard is fully sfocked with trees and covers about 
forty acres of ground. 

Drinking water is obtained from a spring issuing frnm an outcrop of rock 
on the hillside to the west of the sfatim. To prevent pollution the spring 
has been enclosed with masonry walls, which form a reservoir of fifteen 
feet by ten feet by six feet. The water is pure and the supply abundant. 
Various surface wcHs exist to the north of the town, and from these the 
Shan and Indian population draw w.iter. 

In general the residents of Taunggyi enjoy excellent health. The cli- 
matic advantages of the station were considered when the proposal for 
establishing a hill-station for the province were under discussion, but the 
distance fronj the railway was considered outweigh them. The maximum 
temperature registered in 187.3 was 8r93° in April, the minimum 4i'39'^ in 
January. The rainfall is moderate, being from fifty to sixty inches. In 1895, 
57*04 inches were registereii, the rainiest months being June (i2'47 inches), 
and August (13*41 inches). 

TAUNG-GYI. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 2, Bhamo district, situat- 
ed in 23^ 57' north latitude and 96"^' 57' east longitude. 

In 189a it contained twelve houses, with a population of sixty-three persons. 
The headman has four others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are ol 
the Lep;ii tribe and Kara sub-tribe. Water is very scarce and the villagers 
own no cattle. 

TAUNG-GYO.— A village in the Taunggyo circle, Seikpyu township, 
Pakftkku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
ninety-four persons, according to the census of 1891. 



238 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tTAU 



The thathameda amounted to Rs. 380 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-HKAUNG-BWA.— A village in the south of the Maw State, 
Myelat district of the t-'oiithern Shan StatPs. It lies to the south-west of 
Kyaukmyaung village, where the Ngwe-kun-hmu lives, and is separated 
from that village by a low range of hills. 

There are fifty houses, with a population of three hundred and five 
persons, mostly Danus. The revenue collections amounted to Rs. 460 in 

1897- 

T AUNG-LA.— A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered four hundred and thirty persons and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs, 558. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

TAUNG-HLA. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and forty persons and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 864. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

TAUNG-IN. — A village in the Nga-slngu township, Madaya subdivision 
of Mandalay district, north-east of T6ngyi, 

The village has two hundred and ten houses and the population numbered 
in 1R97 eight hundred and fifty persons approximately. The villagers are 
fishermen. 

TAUNG-KIN-SAN. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u sub- 
division of Shwebo district, sixteen miles from Ye-u. 

The village and its attached lands cover an area of one square mile, and 
there are one hundred and three inhabitants, and thirty-two acres of cul- 
tivation, faddy is the chief crop. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to I'is. 360. 

TAUNG-KVVLN. — .\ circle in the Myingdn township, Taungdwingyi 
subdivision of Magwe district. 

It was a township in Burmese times, but has since sunk into insignifi- 
cance. There is a curious island in the Irrawaddy river opposite, evi- 
dently formed by the river running inland and isolating it, for it is a high 
rock crowned with ancient pagodas, and the soil is not alluvial. 

TAUNG-KYA. — A village in the north-eahl of the State of Pang-tara, 
Myelat district of the Southern Shan States, i.lose lo Tfe-tbun. 

It contained in 1897 fifty houses, with a population of two hundred and 
twenty-six persons, who paid Rs. 173 revenue. 

TAUNG-LA-LIN. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myin- 
gyan subdivision and district. 

In 189596 the population numbered one hundred and eighty-five persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 175, No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

TAUNG-Lfi. — A village in the Ku-hna-ywa township, Gangaw subdivi- 
sion of Fakfikku district, with a population of ninety-three persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



239 



The thathameda amounted to Rs. 380 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-LON. — A village in th<' Tawma circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, 
Gangaw subdivisicn of Pak6kku district, with a population of fifty-eight 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 120 for iSgiy-gS. 

TAUNG-MYIN. — k revenue circle in the Amarapura township and sub- 
division of Mandalay district. 

Taung-myin villasje is situated fourteen miles east of headquarters. It 
had a population of four liundred and thirty-five persons at the census 
of i8gi,and paidRs. 870 thatltameda-i&s. The land revenue derived from 
the circle amounted to Rs. 319 in that year. Taungmyin is a Zairbadi 
village, and has a considerable number of cattle. 

TAUNG-MYIN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population o( one hundred and thirty persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 250. 

TAUNG-NAUK. — A rev«nue circle in the Pagan township and sub- 
division of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 (he population numbered two hundred and ten persons, and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 256. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

TAUNG-NGA-KUT, — .\ village in thcTaung-nga-kut circle, Laung-she 
township, Yawdwin subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population of 
fifty-two persons and a revenue of Rs. 140 in 1897. 

TAUNG-NGON. — A village of twenty houses, about four miles north-west 
of Sagaing, in the township and district of that name. 

Between Taungng6n and Kyauksit (Ywa-taung circle) is a permanent 
bridge, built over the swamp through which the water from the Okta- 
mytt tank Rows into the Tandi and Pyugany///7s. It is about five hun- 
dred yards in length and has a breadth of five yards. It was built by U- 
ma-lein Myitsin-kinwun in 1219 B.E. (1857 .\.D.) in the reign of Mind6n 
Min. I'-ma-lein's wife, Ma Kali, is still living in Kyauksit. Before the 
present bridge was built, there was a wooden bridge, erected by Maung 
Pan Bu during the reign of Naungdaw-gyi at Ava. 

TAUNG-NGU-ZU. — A revenue circle in the Pathein-gyi township, Ama- 
rapura subdivision of Mandalay district, including two villages. 

The land revenue paid by the circle amounts to Rs. 63. 

TAUNG-NGU-ZU. — A village in the revenue circle of the same name, 
Pathein-gyi township, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, seven- 
teen miles north-north-east of headquarters. 

It had a population of sixty persons at the census of 1891, and paid Rs. 
120 ihathameda-X^\. 

TAUNG-NI.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 32, Myitkyina district, situ- 
ated in 25° 10' north latitude and 96° 47' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-four houses ; its population was not known. 
The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants axe Shan- 
Burmans. 



S40 



THE L'PPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



irAO 



gatd at Nandavpav- 
mxa. 



TAUNG-NYO.— A reveone circle io th« oonb-west of the Pjriai 
MdKfh'istoo dl Yaio^hiD district. 

TaaiigBJfO village is siiaated near the site of an uideDt dtr called 
SiXkd^wpAwmya, which was foanded by a King called 

AnkvMetttha le^ Gawon-pa-de in 187 BE. (827 A.D ). He was rery 
powerful acd oader him was an official called Pappada 
Tit Ka Kjrawgaung (the first poftiiM of bb title seena 
to show that he was a Karen nr at any rate a hill man), who founded a 
DDRiber of villages on the Nga-leik stream Nandawpaw city floorished 
exceedingly and Gawanp'i.-de did not die till 673 B.E. (1311 A.D.). His 
son Minhb Vara committed an annatural crime, which resalted in the hill 
n'^ar Nandawpaw swallowing up that capital and all iis tributary villages 
and inhabitants, with the single exceptiooofMinhlaVaza himself. The 
spot was, afterward kaowa as the Tanngmyo (hiI!-to«n, because the hill 
swallowed the town, but time has changed this into Tauagnyo. 

It is said that when the ancient city of Thare-hktttara (Prome) was de- 
serted, the people fled in three directions io their fear of Nga Sagaw. 
The Bormaos kept together and fled north, but ihe Pyus and Kanyans 
(Arakanese), though they kept separate, went east. They afterwards 
fought with one another and the Pyus were victorious and they, with many 
of the subject Kanyans, settled in the Taungnyo ntighbonrhooriandrepco- 
pled the country. Among the villages they founded are Mayingon, which 
10 1892 ha<i fifty housess, Myetke and Thapanchaung, each with thirty 
houses, and Chanpyagdo, with forty houses, besides others. 

In the circle is the Gaudapalin pagoda, said to have been founded by 

Thiri-dhamma Thawka (Asoka) in 1261 B.t£. (1899 

The fiaodapalin pa- ^ q j j-^jj^ ^^^ j^ q^j^^ impossible] It was 30,000 tas 

^ *■ (about 60 miles) north of the city of Toungoo and stood 

near Nandawpawm/ff, whose name was changed Jo Myataung nyo by King 
Nara-padi-.silliu, who also enlarged the pagoda. It had extensi%-e wuttagan 
lands on which dues were chargt-d at the c/ia-^:/;/;! rate of five baskets of 
paddy for every pair of buffaloes. The proceeds were devoted to the service 
of I he pagoda. 

The Taungnyo township, as it was called before the Annexation, passed 
y,. entirely into the hands of the rebels in May 1&86 and 

remained so until the end of that year. It was the 
main support of Buddha Yaza, who levied men and money from the people 
but at the same time maintained order and checked iuter-village dacoity. 
His headquarters were usually m the difficult country lyii^ round the 
headwaters of the Sin-the stream between Yamithin and FSnnroana, and 
a!* a further place of retreat he had thi- Yomas, between Vamethin and 
Magwe. 

TAUNG-NYO.— A circle in the .Maymyo township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, including four villages. 

Taungnyo villag«: is situated seven miles south east of Maymyo. it had 
a population of two hundred and ninety-eight per^-ons at the census of 1S91. 

TAUNG-PA-LE. — A village in the Nga-kwi circle, Scikpyu township, 
PakAkku siilidivision an'l district, with a populatiou of fortv-six persons, 
according to the census o( 1^91, ana a revenue of Ks. 120. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



341 



TAUNG-PU-LU. — A revenue circle in the Pyinmana subdivision of 
Yamfethin district. 

It was founded in the time of King Alaung-paya, when much of this 
part of the country was systematically colonized. On first settlement it 
had one hundred households, which had dwindled to sixty-four in 1892. 

There is a hillock near the village which once bore the name BUatautig, 
. . Two brothers found a medicinal root on it, according to 

*^" ' the Yamfithin official records. They ate the root and 

one became a Bilu and the other a tiger. A monk from Taungpulu preached 
the law to them and warned the ogrebrother back to civilization, but the 
tiger-brother proved intractable. The name of the hillock was accord- 
ingly changed from BWnfaurtg to Taungpulu. 

TAUNG-5A-YE (North). — A revenue circle in the Taungdwingyaung 
township, Mingin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes a single village and paid a revenue of Rs. no in 1897. 

TAUNG-SA-YE (South). — A revenue circle in the Taungdwingyaung 
township, Mingin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

!t contains a single village and paid Rs. 130 revenue in 1897. 

TAUNG-SHE. — The headquarters of the circle of that name in the Pang- 
tara State, Myelat district of the Southern Shan States. 

It is the residence of the myedaing, or headman of the circle, and is also 
the chief village of the Danawrace [v. Part I). It contained in 1892 twenty- 
five houses, with a population of one hundred and eight persons, who paid 
Rs. 204 annual revenue. 

TAUNG-SHE (East). — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and sub- 
division of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered eighty-nine persons, and the t hatha' 
meda amounted to Rs. 207. No land revenue was assessed in the circle. 

TAUNG-SHE (West). — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

Fn 1895-96 the population numbered ninety persons, and the thathameda 
amounted to Rs. 105. No land revenue was collected in the circle. 

TAUNG-TA-LON. — A village of one hundred and seventy-four houses 
in Ava township of Sagaing district, seven miles east of Myotha. 

It derives its name from a conspicuous isolated hill with a pagoda at its 
summit, Annual pagoda fairs are held 

TAUNG-THA. — A township in the Myingyan subdivision and district, 
King along the eastern bank of the Irrawaddy river, south of the Taungtha 
hills. 

Its .Trea is appro.ximatcly five hundred and sixteen square miles. Its 
boundaries are : on the north the Myingj'an township ; on the south the 
Kyaukpadaung township; on the east Meiktila district; and on the west the 
Irraivaddy. 

The number of revenue circles in 1896-97 was sixty-eight, and the popula- 
tion was estimated to be forty-nine thousand nine hundred and ninety-four 
persons. For 1895-96 the land revenue amounted to Rs. 5,547, the thatha' 
meda to Rs. 63,557, ^"•^ ^^^ gross revenue to Rs. 75,130. 

3t 



24^ 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAU 



The township is aflFected by frequent periods of scarcity, as the rainfall 
is capricious and scanty. Most of the township is high ground, except on 
the west, where the hills slope to the river, jaggery is extensively made 
and cotton, sessamum, paddy and fyaung are also grown. The headquarters 
are at Taungtha. 

TAUNG-THA. — A revenue circle in the Sa-le township, Pagan subdivision 
of Myingyan diitrict. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three hundred and fifty persons 
and the thalhameda amounted to Rs. 472. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

TAUNG-THA. — A village in the Myingyan subdivision and district and 
the headquarters of a Tnwnshin Officer, is situated to the south of the 
Taungtha hills on the Myingyan-Meiktilaroad. 

A large amount of jaggery is made from the juice of the ^«^/*palm, which 
grows in abundance near the village. 

The public buildings are a court-house for the Township Officer, a 
Public Works Department bungalow, and a bazaar. In 1895-96 the circle 
numbered twelve thousand one hundred and twenty-five persons, and the 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 17,881. No land revenue was collected. 

TAUNG-THA-MAN. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura township and 
subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It includes three villages. The land revenue amounted to Rs. 1,735 in 
1891. 

TAUNG-THA-MAN. — h. village in the revenue circle of the same name, 
Amarapura township and subdivision of Mandalay district, two miles 
south-east of headquarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and fifty persons at the census of 
1891, and paid Rs. 410 th at h anted a-iax. 

Near the village are Buddhist shrines of great sanctity, erected bv old 
Burmese Kings. 

TAUNG-THWIN.— A village in the Shwe-gyin town.ship, Ye-u subdivi- 
sion of Shwebo district, with an area of two-and-a-half square miles of 
village lands. 

The population in 1892 numbered one hundred and forty-nne persons, 
and there were twenty-three acres of cultivation. Paddy and jaggery 
are the chief products. The village is fourteen miles from Ye-u, and for 
1896-97 paid Rs. 330 thathameda revenue. 

TAUNG-U. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan sub- 
division of Myingyan district.. 

In 1895-96 the population numbor<*d two thousand one hundred and 
thirty-five persons, and the thathameda Simown^^d to Rs. 3.320. No land 
revenue was collected in the circle, 

TAUNG-U. — A village in the Taungu rirtle, Yeza-gyo township, Pa- 
k^kku subdivision and district, with a population of one thousand and live 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,950 for 1897-98. 



tAUl 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER, 



H3 



TAUNG-U. — A village in the Pauktdwnship and subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of one hundred and seventeen persbns, according 
to the census of 1891. 

TAUNG-WIN.— A circle in the Pyinmana subdivision of Yamfethin dis- 
trict. 

It was founded, according to Maung Bo Haik, in 872 B.E, (1510 A.D.), 
, , by one hundred and fifty men of the Taungwin regi- 

Legendary history. ^^^^_ under orders from the King of Toungoo. It was 
included among the sixteen Karen villages of the Fifty Two Cities of Toun- 
goo. As there was not much cultivable land near it a number of other 
villages were founded round about, the chief among which at the present 
day appears to be Thawatti, with two hundred and fourteen houses in 1897 • 
which was first founded by thirty of the Zanitpala aA;««^rt« in 1198 B.E. 
(1836. A.D.) 

TAUNG-WIN. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of 
Shwebo district, nine miles from Ye-u town. 

It lias two hundred and thirty-eight inhabitants and a cultivated area of 
two hundred and thirty-one acies, besides 3204 acres of State land. Pad- 
dy is the chief crop. For 1896-97 the tkathameda revenue amounted to 
Rs. 970. 

TAUNG-YA-SEIK, — A village in the Indaing township, Tantabiu sub- 
division of Shwebo district, on the Mu river, fifty-seven miles from Ye-u. 

The population in 1891 numbered two hundred and forty-five persons, 
mostly paddy cultivators. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted 
to Rs. 200. • 

TAUNG-YA-SI. — A village in tho Aligan circle, Myaing township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
twenty-iix persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs, 210 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-YAUNG. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township of Magwe 
district, including the villages of Taungyaung and Kyin-gva. 

TAUNG-YIN. — A village of one hundred and thirty houses, eighteen 
miles north-east of Sagatng and two miles from Padu, in the Sagaing sub- 
division and district. 

It has a large area of fertile wheat lands. 

TAUNG-YO. — A village in the Sinzein circle, Myaing township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and fifty-three 
persons, according to the census of 1891. , 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 300 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-YO-ZA-LOK. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, 
Myingyan subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and thirty-five per- 
sons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 132. No land revenue was 
collected in the circle. 

T.AUNG-YVVA.— .A circle in the Natmauk township of Magwe district, 
including the single village of Taung-ywa. 



244 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAU 



TAUNG-YWA. — A village in the Nyaungdaw circle, Yeza-gyo town- 
ship, Pakdkku subdivision and district, with a population of four hundred 
and seven persons, according to the census of tSgt, and a revenue of 
Rs. 910. 

TAUNG-YWA. — A village in the Thamantabo circle, Yeza-gyo town- 
ship, PakSkku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred 
and one persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 320. 

TAUNG-YWA. — A village in the Kyauksauk circle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
forty-three persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 680, included in that of Kyauksauk. 

TAUNG-ZA-LAUNG. — A village in the Chaungz6ngyi circle, Myaing 
township, Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of seventy- 
seven persons, according to the census of 189 1, and a revenue of Rs. 200, 
included in that of Chaungz6ngyi. 

TAUNG-ZIN.— A revenue circle in the Pagan township and subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand eight hundred and 
fifteen persons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 2,415. No land re- 
venue was collected in the circle. 

TAUNG-ZIN. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three hundred and thirty persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 590. No land revenue was coltectcd 
ill the circle. 

TAUNG-ZIN.— A circle in the Natmauk township of Magwe district 
including the villages of Thazi, Kani, Se-gyi, and Myinzu. 

TAUNG-ZIN, — A village in the Taungzin circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and six 
persons, according to the census of 1895. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 180 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-ZIN NORTH. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung town- 
ship, Pagan subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and thirty persons, and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 871. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

TAUNG-ZIN SOUTH.— A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung town- 
ship, Pagan subdivision and district. 

In 1 895-96 the population numbered one thousand one hundred and ninety- 
five persons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,705. No land reve- 
nue was collected in the circle. 

TAUNG-ZIT, — A revenue circle in the Nato-gyi township, Myingyan 
subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand seven hundred and 
thirty persons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. a, 100. No land 
revenue was collected in the circle. 



TAU TAW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



345 



TAUNG-ZON. — A village in the Taungzon circle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and 
twenty-four persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs 1,730 for 1897-98. 

TAUNG-ZU. — A village in the Paung-bedan circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of eighty-six persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 120. 

TAUNG-ZU. — A village in the Kunfat circle, Myaing township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and seven per- 
sons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 200, included 
in that of Ywa-ma. 

TAUNG-ZU. — A village in the Thigfin circle, Laung-she township, Yaw- 
dwin subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population of two hundred 
and sixty-one persons, according to the census of iSgi, and a revenue of 
Rs. 640 in 1897. 

TAUNG-ZU-GA-LE. — A village in the Al&-gyaw circle, Yeza-gyo town- 
ship, Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred 
and fifteen persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 295. 

TAW.— 5tf^ under Katha. 

TA-WA. — A revenue circle with three hundred and twenty-two inhabit- 
ants, in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district. It is situated on 
the banks of the Tinzon stream, which flows into the North Yama, and it 
includes Tawa and Letkabya villages. 

Paddy is the only crop raised. The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to 
Rs. 850 from thathameda, and Rs. 86 from State lands. 

TA-WA. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township. Pagan sub- 
division of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and twenty persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 936. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

T.\WAN. — The Tawan river rises in the north-east of the Hu Kawng 
valley and Hows south-west into the Tanai/tArt, just above Mashi. 

It runs in a bed three hundred yards wide, and in January has a breadth 
of water of one hundred yard 5 and a depth of three feet, just above Sana. 
It is fordable in the cold weather at many places, and is navigable for 
pdngaivs. See also under Chindwin. 

TA-WAN-TZE. — A village on the eastern side of the Salween river, in 
the Ko Kang circle of the Northern Shan State of North Hsen Wi (Theinni). 
It is situated on the steep slope of the hills overhanging the Chingpwi 
stream, facing the Ken Pwi ridge. 

In 1892 it contained six houses, with a population of forty-seven persons, 
all Chinese, They cultivated opium, maize, and Indian-corn, the last for 
the manufacture of spirits, which they flavour with stramonium. 

TAW B£. — A village in the Kodaung subdivision of the Northern Shan 
State of Hsi Paw, bounded on the north by Hin Hpok, on the east by Man 
Pit, on the south by Hkun Kaw, and on the west by Pung Long. 



246 



THE lJt>PKR BURMA GAZETTEER. 



(TAW 



TAW-BO. — A village in the Min-ywa circle. Ku»hna-ywa township, Gan- 
gaw subdivision of Pakokku district, with a population of one hundred and 
sixly-eight persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 470 for 1897-98. 

TAW-BON. — A village of fifty houses irregularly scattered within a circu- 
lar double fence, on the left bank of the Irrawaddy river, in the Shwegu 
subdivision of Bhamo district. 

Some of the villagers are fishermen, and seventy baskets of mayht paddy 
are worked annually. There are a hundred buffaloes in the village, which 
produces a fair amount of fruit ol various kind. 

TAW-BU. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision 
and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three hundred and seventy-seven 
persons, the thathameda amounted to Rs. 402, the State land revenue to 
Ks. 577-5-2, and the gross revenue to Rs. 979-5-2. 

TAW-BU. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of Man- 
dalay district, north-east of Mayapin. 

It has eighty houses, and its population in 1897 numbered three hundred 
and fifty persons approximately. All are cultivators. 

The Tawbu Settaw-ya temple was built by Rahan U Gaung in 1820 A.D., 
in the reign of King Ba-gyida\v. 

TAW-BYA.— A revenue circle in the Pagan township and subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered two hundred and ninety-five persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 464. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

T.\W-DAN. — A \il!agc in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, twenty-two miles from Ye-u, with three hundred and 
lorly-six inhabitants, who paid Rs. 6ao thathameda revenue for 1896-97. 

They are all rice farmers. 

TAW-DWIN. — A village and revenue circle in the Amarapura township 
and subdivision of Mandalay district, eleven miles east of headquarters. 

It had a population of one hundred and eighty persons at the census of 
1B91 and paid Rs. 240 tkathameda-tzx. 

TAW-DWIN. — A village in the Ainggyi revenue circle, Patheingyi town- 
ship, Aniarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, eighteen miles north- 
east of headquarters. 

It had a population of one hundred and ten persons at the census of iSgi, 
and paid Rs. 190 thathamcda-iax. 

TA-Wfi. — A village of sixty-four houses, nine miles south of Myotha in 
the township of that name of Sagaing district. 

TAW-GA-LUN. — A village in the Yaw township, Yawdwin subdivision 
of Pakokku district, with a population of one hundred and nine persons, ac- 
cording to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 310 for 1897-98. 

TAW-GYALNG.— A village in the Yc-u township and subdivision of 
Shwebo district, nine miles from Ye-u, wilh a population of tno hundred 



TAW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



347 



and eighteen persons and a cultivated area of 12^'6 acres, most of which 
is under paddy. 

The thatkameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 470. 

TAW-GYAUNG. — A villa2;e in the Mayasjan township, Ye-u subdivision, 
of Shwebo district, nine miles from headquarters. 

It has one hundred and eleven inhabitants : rice cultivation is the chief 
industry. The thatkameda for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 250. 

The Shwetaw-gyaung pasfoda is of some sanctity. 

TAW-GYIN. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with twenty-seven square mites of attached land. 

The population in iSgi numbered one hundred and twenty-six persons 
and there were s^ven acres of cultivaHoti. Paddy and thitsi zx^. the prin- 
cipal products. The village is thirty-five miles from Ye-u and paid Rs. 390 
thathameda revenue for 1896-97. 

T.-WV HSANG. — A daing, or circle of MSng Lang sub-State of Hsi Paw, 

_,. . . Northern Shan States, in charge of a nebaing, and with 

an arta of about sixty square miles. It is bounded on the 

north hy Mang Kung, on the east by Mong Mit State, on the south by 

Man Kang, on the north-west by Nam Hpan, and on the southwest by 

Sang Hun. 

It had in i8g8 a population of one thousand and seventy-eight persons, in 
five hundred and twenty-nine households and nineteen villages. 

The net revenue paid was Rs. 9.316, with some Rs. 3,600 for tea and 
about two hundred and eightv-seven baskets of paddy. Taw Hsang is the 
most important tea circle in the whole of M<ing Long, and is only exceeded 
in production bv Pang Nim and Kyawk Pin in Hsi Paw State. The people 
are almost all Palaungs, but Shans work the lowland paddy. 

Taw Hsang village is known to the Burman pedlars who come up from 
_. ... Mandalay as Kyu-dawsin and is the next most important 

age village to Mong Long itself. It contained in 1898 two 

hundred and thirty-one people, in one hundred and seven households. It is 
the largest centre for tea in the sub-State: it is situated at an ele- 
vation of about four thousand feet on a steep but improved bullock-track, 
leading from Mang Kung and Kang Kang to Ka La Kwai. A track also 
leads Taw Hsang from to just west of Man Kang, whence caravans go via 
Hsi Hku and Hsum Hsai Myohauig to Mandalay. 

TA-WIN-MY.-\W. — A village in the Yaw-wa circle, Seikpyu township 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of ninety-four persons 
according to the census of 1891, 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. iQO for 1897-98. 

TAWK or TROC— .\ village of Chins of the Tashfin tribe in the 
Central Chin Hills. It lies on the west slope of a spur running down to Pao 
river, and can be reached via Minkin, Lyenhai, Ral6n, and intermediate 
villages, distant thirty-three miles. 

In i8q4 it had fifty-one houses. Bikarr was its resident chief. 

Tawk is a Kweshin village and pays tribute to both Falam and Haka, 
There is no good camping-ground near and notmurh water, though there 



248 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



is an abundant supply on the road from Ral6n. 
ficant fence. 



The village has an insigni- 



TAWKA.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 15, Bhamo district, situated 
in 24° 27' north latitude and 97° 16' east longitude. 

In i8g2 it contained twenty-eight houses, with a population of one hundred 
and forty persons. The headman has no others subordinate to him. The 
inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Sadan sub-tribe, and own six buffaloes, 
There is good water-supply, but no camping-ground. 

TAW-KA-SHAT. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, fourteen miles from Ye-u. 

There arc one hundred and nineteen inhabitants: paddy is the chief cul- 
tivation. Thathameda amounted to Rs. iSo for 1896-97. 

TAW-LAN. — A village of nine houses on the Nga-bat stream, in the 
Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district, 

_ TAWLANG.— .\ village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It 
lies eighteen miles south-west of Lungno and can be reached from Lungno 
across the high range, or from Rawywa. 

In 1.S94 it had six houses. Kaiyaung was its resident chief. 

Tawlang is under the influence of the Aika chiefs. It was partially 
disarmed in 1895. 

TA WLAWK. — A Palaung'village of eleven houses in Tawng Peng State, 
Northern Shan States, 

The population numbers twenty-one men, twenty women, six boys and 
four girls. They cultivate lowlying paddy fields and a little tea, but are 
poor and possess no cattle. 

TAW-MA. — A revenue circle in the Lega-yaing township and subdivision 
of Upper Chindwin district, including fourteen villages. 

TAW-MA. — A circle in the Ti-gyaing township, Katha subdivision and 
district, including three villages, with one hundred and thirty-six houses. 

The villagers are Burman and Shan traders, and also cultivate kaukkyi, 
tnayiti, and taungya, 

TAW-MA. — A village in the Tawma circle, Myaing township, Pakflkku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and eleven 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The //irtf/zawr^/^ amounted to Rs. 910 for 1897-98. 

TAW-MA. — A village in the Tawma circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, Gaa- 
gaw subdivision of I^akflkku district, with a population of four bunilred and 
sixty-five persons, according to the census of i8gi. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 910 for 1897-98. There is a Dis- 
trict Bungalow in the village. 

TAWNG BAT. — A village in Maw Son State, Myelat district of the 
Southern Shan Stales, close to the village of Paw Myin on the Paugtara 
border. 

It contained thirty-one houses in 1897, with a population of one hundred 
and forty-two persons, and paid Rs. i j i annual revenue. 

TAWNG HIO. — .A township in the Kawn Kang;, or Mid Riding of Mang 
Lan West, Northern Shan Sta"tes. It lies south'of Na Long, in the same 
scrub-jungle-covered plain. 



TAW] 



*HirUPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



249 



There are possibilities for much more wet cultivation than at present 
exists, but of the four villages two are of Yang Lam, who seldom or never have 
any but dry crops. There were forty-three houses in 1892. The township 
marches with Nawng Ep (Hke Si Man Sam) on the west and with the Mong 
Awt township of Mong Hsu on the south. Here also there is room for a 
very much larger population, but previous to the British occupation there 
was much border raiding. A small amount of cotton is grown. 

TAWNG HKAM.— A circle in the Hsum Hsai sub-State of Hsi Paw, 
Northern Shan States. 

Tavvng Ilkam was in 1892 by much the largest and the most prosperous 
of the Hsum Hsai townships. It lies along the Nam Tu and occupies 
nearly the whole of the south of the StatCi but water is so scarce that some 
villages have to seek it several miles away. Latterly, barrels mounted on 
carts have been brought into use, and water is systematically bought and 
sold. The supply is said to have been gradually failing for the last ten years. 

The fine pongyi kyaungs in Tawng Hkam show that the population must 
have been very much larger formerly than it now is. Even now it has be- 
tween a third and a quarter of the population of the whole State. There is 
exceedingly little cultivation and what there is necessarily all dry. There 
were nineteen thousand and ninety-three thanatpct trees in 1892, or over 
a half of the total for the whole State. The number of villages was forty- 
one, with five hundred and sixty-two houses, an average of about fourteen 
houses per village, which is far beyond that of any other township of Hsum 
Hsai. There were also thirty-nine resident traders, and twenty-seven 
carts plyed in the township. Altogether, it was the only portion of 
Hsum Hsai which was not depressing, and the water difficulty is therefore 
all the more annoying. A few fisher-villages are situated on the slopes over 
or on the banks of the Nam Tu. 

TAWNG LAWNG. — A petty Wa State about which very little is known. 
It lies between Ngek Hting, Loi Long, and Mang Lon in the Northern Shan 
States and seems to be in subordinate alliance with, but independent of all 
three. 

There do not appear to be more than two or three villages in the State, 
which in 1893 presented some fragments of silver as tribute to the British 
Government. 

TAWNG LET.— A district of the Mong Long sub-State of Hsi Paw, 
Northern Shan States, in charge of a nebaing, with an area of about one 
hundred and sixty square miles. Tawng Let (the taurtglet) is bounded on 
the north by Man Sam ; on the north-east by Hsa Pawng ; on the east by 
Hsip Ku ; on the south-east by Pang Ti circle of Hsum Hsai sub-State ; on 
the south-east by Ye-u circle, of that State ; and on the west by Muk Hso. 

It had in 1898 a population of one thousand five hundred and thirty-three 
persons, in three hundred and seventy-six'households and thirty-nine villages. 

The net revenue paid amounted to Rs. 2,899-8-0, with one thousand four 
hundred and seventy-one thanatpet trees, taxed at two annas each, and 
about fifty baskets of paddy, equivalent to Rs. 183-14-0 money-payment. 
Tawng Let is the only circle in Mong Long in which there is thanatpet. 

The population is almost exclusively engaged in taungya paddy cultiva- 
tion. Besides this a little sugarcane is grown and some thitsi o\\ extracted. 
A good deal of sessamum, but very little cotton, is grown on the taungyas. 

3^ 



?5o 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAW 



The circle suffered much from the dacoit gangs which have infested, and 
which even in 1898 infested this part of the country, 
istory. jj^g people are mostly Danus. '' Burman " Danus pre- 

dominate, but there are also '' Shan," Danus and Shans. The chief village 
is Ka La Kwai, formerly a place with a considerable population. When 
Heng Nga Maung found it no longer safe to make it his headquarters it 
gradually diminished, until in i88g there were no more than four houses. It 
is, however, now steadily growing again. The same is true of the other vil- 
lages of the circle, which nevertheless are far fewer than they were in 
Burmese times. 

TAWNG MA. — A circle in Tawng Peng State, Northern Shan States, 
including in 1897 twelve Palaung and twenty-one Shan villages, with 
one hundred and eighty-three and one hundred and ninety-eight houses 
respectively. 

The races are under separate headmen. There are extensive forests in 
the circle, and the inhabitants cultivate about five hundred acres of tea. 
Tawng Ma has an area of about four hundred and fifty square miles, and is 
extremely hilly. There is a ferry across the Nam Tu at Li Hi. The Shan 
villages are poverty stricken. 

TAWNG NI. — A circle in Mong Long sub-State of Hsi Paw, Northern 
Shan States, in charge of a ttehaing. The circle is bounded on the north by 
Ruby Mines district, on the cast by Myohaung, on the south by Man Sam, 
and on the west by Man Tsam. 

The population is Shan, and in 1898 numbered two hundred and thirty 
persons, in one hundred and thirteen households and ten villages. 

The net revenue paid amounted to Rs. 846, with about one hundred and 
forty baskets of paddy. The people work lowland paddy to some extent, 
but have a greater area of hill cultivation. 

TAWNG PENG (Burmese TAUNG-BAING) or LOl LONG —called by 
the Chinese indifferently Ta Shan [big hills, a literal 
Boundanes. translation of the Shan name), or Clt'A Shan [tea liflls)— 
is the most north-westerly of the Northern Shan States, and the bulk of the 
population is Rumai or Palaung, to which race the Sawhioa belongs. It is 
m shape roughly like an inverted pear and is bounded on the north and 
north-west by Monsj Mit (Momeik), temporarily administered as a sub- 
division of Ruby Mines district ; on the west and south by Mong Long, a 
sub-fcudatory of Hsi Paw, and by Hsi Paw main State ; and on the east by 
North Hsen W'i. The State has no natural boundaries and the frontiers 
have not yet been precisely laid down. 

The Nam Tu (Myit-ng&) river runs through Tawng Peng from north to 
^ , south, cutting off a strip on the eastern side about ten miles 

a ura ures. \^^q^^ by thirty long. Tliis part of the State is compara- 
tively level undulating country, with a low range of hills running pai allel and 
close to the Nam Tu, breaking up on the eastern border into hills and valleys, 
West of the Nam Tu the State is excessively hilly. In the south-western 
portion occurs a series of small valleys, running east and west and averaging 
perhaps ten miles long. These vary in width from not more than a few 
hundred yatds on the east to about four miles on the west, as at Mong Ngaw. 
Elsewhere the valleys, with one or two exceptions, are mere gorges, with no 



TAW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



251 



level ground fit for cultivation. The main ridge, Loi Hpa, roughly in the 
centre of the State, runs from a little north of Hsi Paw town and gradually 
increases in height towards Nam Ilsan, where it is a little over five thousand 
five hundred feet above aea-lcvel. There it bifurcates, one ridge running 
westward toSa Ran at the same height and culminating to the north in a 
peak reaching seven thousand feet. The point of bifurcation is called 
Hpak Tu M6ng, the gate of the country. From this range radiates a confu- 
sion of hills, running into one another and cut up by numerous streambeds, 
following in channels three thousand feet deep. The highest peak is a little 
under seven thousand feet and the ranges run to between five and six 
thousand feet above sea-level. 

The approximate area of the State is one thousand five hundred square 
miles. 

Though Tawng Peng is a Rumai or Palaung Slate, there are many other 
races settled in it. On the north the Kacbins have been 

Races : the Pa- gradually advancing during the last half century and 
have been driving the Rumai villages southwards one 
after the other. They, like the Palaungs, live on the hills, and in the valleys 
the inhabitants are chiefly Shans. The Palaungs, according to their own ac- 
count, are divided into a number of different clans, details about which will be 
found in the chapter on ethnology [». Fart I]. The main division, however, is 
into the Palaungs proper and Pa-lcs. The former are alleged to be the original 
settlers and claim to be slightly different in origin. However this may be, 
it is certain that to the outsider very few traces of difference now exist, and 
apparently even Rumai have to ask one another to which branch they belong, 
Ihe Palaungs proper, it maybe noted, that is to say their women, dress more 
gaily, wear more ornaments on festal occasions, and generally appear to be 
belter off than the Pa-Ies, perhaps because they are more frequently tea-grow- 
ers. They seem to be confined to the central ridge south of Nam Hsan and all 
round the capital. The distinctive dress of the Pa-le women seems to be a 
coarse blue and pink petticoat with horizontal stripes and dark-coloured 
gaiters. Many of the sclt-arrogated Palaungs proper, however, wear this as 
their working dress. The men everywhere dress alike and have mostly 
adopted the Shan style, East of the Nam Tu there are a few Pa-les to the 
north and a couple of villages in the south, but tlie majority of the population 
is Kachin on the hills and Shan in the lowlands, the latter predominating. 
The inhabitants of the M6ng Ngaw valley in the south-west are chiefly 
Shans. Indeed the Valley population generally is Shan. On the highest 
ridges there are scattered Lihsaw villages, small here, as they seem to be 
everywhere in the Shan States. 

The following is a translation of what professes to be the State history. 

Traditional his- It is a singularly unsatisfactory document, 
lory. Thel^endof When Alaung-sithu of Paukkan (Pagan) was on his 
the tea-seeds. way back from the Sambuthara country (Kambawsa) 

he arrived in Tawng Peng on his magic barge. While there he built the 
Taungmi Zedi, casing over the pagoda which previously stood there, and 
beneath it he placed nine pieces of nun-tha (a scented wood). This was 
in the year 445 B.E.(io83 A.D.) and the building was dedicated at noon 
on Friday the fifth waning of Tabauitg (March) of that year. Three days 
later he crowned the building with a hti (umbrella) and then moved his 
camp to a village called Tapintha, east of Taung Mt;, and there, at the Loi 



■ 



452 THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. [taw 

Sawog pagoda, he kept festival for seven da3rs and nights. While the pwes 
were going on he sent for two TaungtAu cultivators -and handed over to 
them the labisan (tea>seeds) which he had obtained from the craiv of a bird. 
These tea-seeds he ordered them to plant between the two images of birds 
which stand to the north-west of the pagoda. The Taungthus were boorish 
creatures and held out but one hand to receive the seeds from the King, 
whence the name let-pet given to the plant (from let-ta-pet^ "one hand"). 
[Frequently the Palanngs, Taung-yos, and Burmese call the leaves natthit- 
ywet (leaves given by the natsy]. 

He then ordained an annual festival to be held on the full moon of T abating 
at Taungm^ and Pa-mya pagodas, and appointed the Minister Bala Kyaw- 
thu Sao Hkun to the charge of the country. This was in the year 5,000 of 
religion. [This does not correspond with the previously given date of 
445 B.E.] 

He had previously ascertained that the Palaungs were the descendants 
of a Naga Princess by Thuriya, Prince of the Sun (the legend is given in the 
account of the Palaungs), and that the Palaung Chief who built S^ Tun Hsam 
was a relation of the Paukkan rulers, Min-rama, as well as of the Emperor 
of China. In memory of this the ruling caste wear a garment that resem- 
bles the skin of a naga. 

From the time of Mo-hnyin Mintaya-gyi, in the year 1 1 13 B.E. (1751 A.D.) 
to the present day there have been thirteen Sawbwas of Tawng Peng Loi 
L5ng, as follows : — 



tAW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



253 



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254 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAW 



The following is the list of the ^awbwas appointed by the British Gov- 
ernment since the Annexation :— 



No. 


Name 


Vear in which 
he reigned. 


Age on 
accession to 
5'ijaiiwjship. 


How many 
years he 
reigned. 


1 

2 


Hkam Tan MOng 
Kun Shin Ga Le 


B.E. (A.D.) 

i24g (1887) 
1258 (1896) 


34 
27 


9 

1 



A5 a history this is singularly inadequate, and little has been as yet ascer- 

A the to h' tained by enquiry among the people. It would seem that 

^" for a time at least the Chinese armies sent to invade 

Burma or the Shan States maintained themselves in Tawng Peng, but 

whether Ihey were driven there from the plains or chose the hills because 

of the better climate is by no means clear. 

In the timcof King Mind6n the Sa7cbwa called Ba Kan Hkun Shin Yfe in 
the list, but usually referred to as Hkun Hsa, rebelled against Burmese 
authority and an army was sent against him led by the present Sawb^va 
of Hsi I "aw. After ten months' fighting Hkun Hsa was killed in battle 
and his head was brought in. 

Hkun Kyan was then installed as Siiwiwa, and it is frequently said that 
he as Sawbwa was the first Sawbwa of Tawng Peng appointed by tlie 
Burmese Government. Hkun Kyan also refused to acknowledge the supre- 
macy of the Burmese Government and was seized and brought to Mandalay, 
where he died in jail. 

Aung Tha succeeded him (1862 — 1868) and was murdered by a rival 
named Kwan KAn, who reigned from 1868 to 1877. This Sawbwa remained 
on good terms with the Burmese Government; he is said to have paid 
homage at Mandalay every year. 

He was succeeded by his elder brother, Hkun Hkam Mong, who is known 
/ under the name of Naungdaw [royal elder brother). This Sawbwa was 
/ believed to be a man of weak mind, and King Mind6n gave him as advisers 
l^-^^ Burmese joint-Governor, named Sitke Nga Hpi^, and a Palaung Hpongyi^ 
said to belong to the SaTobwa's family. These two men were the real 
rulers of Tawng Peng, and the old Sawbwa was merely a figurehead. 
The Palaungs themselves say that Hkam Mong was merely very pious. How- 
ever that may be, he refused to meet the first British party which went up to 
Nam Hsan in 18S7. An attack was made on the rear-guard of the British 
party and the capital was found deserted. 

Subsequently Hkam Tan Mong, his son, was put forward as Sawbwa and 
submitted peacefully to the Superintendent of the Shan States in March 
18SS. 

He died in 1897 and a cousin was installed as Regent until final arrange- 
ments could be made. Hkam Mong still lives in religious seclusion in a 
monastery. 

Tawng Peng was carefully inspected in 1896-97 by Mr. W. G. Wooster, 
who gives the following details. 



TAW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



25s 



The State numbers two hundred and twelve villages, with a total number 

of three thousand two hundred and ninety-two houses. 

tion oTiS^'"'^'* ^^ ^'"^^ °^ '^^*^ under cultivation was roughly estimated 
as follows ;•— 



(a) Lowland rice fields 

(b) Taungyas and other hill cultivation 

(c) Tea gardens (or ifriHJt) 






((i) Vegeuble gardens 



Acres. 

042 
2, So I 

5'3 ' 5 
141 



Total 



9.199 



Head {6) includes a little cotton and vegetables, and a little scssamum. 
The gardens often have the taung-sein leaf planted in them. This leaf 
is used very extensively for packing pickled tea, and sells a^ Rs. 2 
thousand leaves. 



per 



The population was estimated at— 



Adults, Children. 



Male 

Female 



6,010 
6.075 



2.393 
2.330 



16,307 

The inhabitants of the seventy-eight monasteries in the State are included. 
Races. The race population by households was as follows : — 

Houses. 

Palaungs ... ... ... ... 1,949 

Shans ... ... ... ... 950 

Kachins ... ... ... ... 341 

LihsawB ... ... ... },'& 

Chinese ... ... ... ... 14 



Total 



3.292 



Shans form the chief population of the Mong Ngaw, Pang LOng, Kyawng 
Sa, Nam Hsan, Tawng Ma, and the Eastern circles. In the capital and 
suburbs there are thirty-nine houses, twenty-eight of which are in Nam 
Hsan itself. The Kachins are found mostly in the Northern circle, and 
there are fifty-six houses in the E.istern circle. Lihsaws are found isolated 
here and there: twelve out of the fourteen houses of Chinese are in Nam 
Hsan and the other two in Myothit. 

Each circle pays its revenue through pawlatns who live at Nam Hsan. A 
pawlam is responsible for the collection of the revenue 
^Revenue : thatha- ^j j^jg circle and is generally an old man, sixty or seventy 
years of age, and some connection of the Smebwa. 
He draws ten per cent, commission on all collections, and takes it before 
the revenue is actually paid to the Sawiwa, There are only two recognized 
taxes : — 

(i) Thathatneda. 
(2) A tax on wet and dry tea. 
Thathameda is assessed on the P.^laungs at the following rates : 
Palaungs who are natives of the village they live in and possess lea gardens 



256 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAW 



pay Rs. 4 per head and Rs. 4 afire-place ; if /fl-workers or lowlying paddv- 
land cultivators, Rs. 3 a head and Rs. 3 a fire-place ; and if owners of cattle 
who do not work paddy or tea, Rs. 2 per head and Rs. 3 a fire-place, irre- 
spective of wealth or the number of cattle or amount of other property pos- 
sessed. Amongst the Shans the rate varies at the discretion of the headman. 
The Kachins are assessed at Rs. 5 a house, but as a matter of fact pay 
nothing. The Lihsaws are as.sessed at Rs. 2-8-0 a house. The collection 
is made twice a year, once in June and once in December. 

The tax on wet and dry tea is imposed at the following rates : Every 
Tea-tax. bullock-load of letpei-so {wet tea) to be taken out of the 

State, whether by traders from elsewhere or by vil- 
lagers, and intended for the .Mandalay market, is taxed at Re, 1 in cash 
and two ph of rice, or in cash only at Rs. 2. If the tea is taken elsewhere 
than to Mandalay, Re. 1-8-0 per bullock-load is charged. If ponies are 
used as a means of transport, Re. 1-4-0 a load is collected. A man's or 
coolie's load of dry tea is taxed at Re. 1 for every twenty viss. Smalt loads 
under ten vjjs are not charged. A bullock»load of dry tea is charged at 
Rs. 2. The Sa-xbwa's records showed Rs. 19,416 as realized under this 
head for i895-C)6. It was estimated that fifteen thousand bullock-loads 
of pickled tea are sold annually, and that about 25,450 viss of dry tea 
are manufactured, out of which some ten thousand viss might be taken to 
represent the quantity reserved for home consumption and the balance the 
sales to bullock-traders and hawkers and the barter for ngapi, dried fish, and 
rice. The quantity exported annually fluctuates of course with the demand, 
but as a rule very little is left in the pits at the end of the year. The 
collection of the tax is left to the headmen of villages, who very often 
appoint an agent to look after and collect the money for them. Tea per 
cent, on collections is paid as commission to the paivlams, who share as 
much as they please with the village or circle headmen. This commission, 
however, instead of coming out of the sum paid to the Sawbieas, is an excess 
collection. 

Besides the above taxes a toll of Rs. 5 for every ten animals in a caravan 
conveying merchandise to Mandalay is charged, but the amount collected 
in this way is very small, not exceeding Rs. 200 at the outside. 

The principal industry of the State is the cultivation and manufacture of 

, . ... ,. Iffpei or tea. Every Palaung and nianv of the Shans 

Inaustries : tea. ' . ., , • ■ , . 'i 1 

engage in the work, either as planters or dealers. 

There are four recognized crop3 or pickings : — 

(t) Shwepyi, plucked from Kasdn to Xityun (May 10 June). 

(2) Hka-gyin, plucked from Waeo to Wngaung (July to August). 

(3) Ilka-rawl, plucked from Tawthalin to Thadingyut (September to Octo- 

ber). 

(4) Hki-reng, plucked in TnsauHgmon (November). 

The hka-reng is only gathered by a few of the poorer planters and it 
is, unless mixed with hka-rawt or hka gyin, not palatable. 

In the making of let pet so (pickeld or wet tea) the first process is to steam 

, , _ the leaves : this is done in a wooden strainer with a per- 

'^''" foralcd bamboo bottom, which is placed over the mouth 

of a large cauldron of boiling water for a minute or two only, so as to moisten 

and soften them. The process enables the leaves to be easily and quickly 



TAW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



257 



rolled with the hands on a mat, whilst another batch is being steamed on 
the cauldron. After the leaves have been rolled into a pulp, they are thrown 
into baskets provided for the purpose and left till the next day, when the 
baskets are put into compressors or pits in the ground. A cover is plact'd 
over each basket and heavy weights are placed on the top of these. The 
pits are round and vary in size considerably. 

Dry tea is manufactured by spreading the steamed and rolled leaves in 

Letpet chauk ^^^ ^""' ^"'^ ^^^ ^^'^^ ^^^ '^ ^^^^ dried as soon as possible 

after passing through the steaming process. As the 
leaves are always steamed at night, the next day, if fine, is the earliest time 
to dry. 

Prices range as follows for letpet so : — 

(1) Shvepyi Rs. 25 the hundred viss at Zeyan ; 
Prices. (2) Hka-gyin \ q, .ul jj- j 

(3) Hka-rawiS '° ^^^ hundred viss, mixed ; 

and for dry tea the prices are — 

Ptr viss. 
Rs. A. p. 

(1) Shvipyi ... ... ... ,.. ... 100 

(3) Hkit-gyin ... ... ... ... ... o 12 o 

(3) Hka-raivt ... ... ... .. .,. 080 

(4) HkartHg ... ... ... ... 040 

Zeyan produces the most and the best letpet, and in a good year as many 
as six thousand bullock-loads of tea are sold by this village alone. 

At the other principal villages the prices are— 

Price per 100 viss. 



Kun Hai 
Kun Hawt 
B.an Nawk 
Kyawk Pyii 
Tawng Ma 
Nam San 
Nan Kang 



Rs. 


A. 


p. 




Rs. 


A. 


1 


30 








to 


22 


8 





ao 








to 


32 


8 





33 


8 





to 


23 








33 


8 





to 


23 








19 








to 


20 








20 








to 


23 


8 





18 








to 


20 





• 



P. 



Cultivaiion 
processes. 



and 



Man Loi No, Nam Liu, Manloi Taii and Roa Ring are the chief centres of 
the manufacture of dry tea. It takes three years to obtain 
a crop from the plants. After ten or eleven years the 
plants weaken and the crops become poor : the gardrn 
is Lhen often cut down and burnt. Fresh shoots spring from the stumps and 
in three years a fresh garden has begun to bear. In Mong Ngaw circle 
where there is a little tea only, dry tea is made and is bartered for ngapi, 
dried fish, salt and tobacco. The tea tree is not really cultivated in the 
European sense of the word. The plants are merely left to grow and, 
beyond weeding at the end and the beginning of the rains, very little atten- 
tion is paid to them. When young they are shaded by trees left standing 
with that object. Sometimes they are transplanted at the end of a year, 
but not always. 

The only thing which requires skill and experience is the picking and 
drying. The former is done at the rate of a viss (three and two-third lbs.) a 
day by each picker. The leaves when dried have a withered yellowish-green 

33 



358 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



fTAW 



Rice. 




appearance. The pickled tea is taken out of the pits or vats and examined 
from time to time, aiidoccasjonally re-steeped. If the fermentation has been 
unsuccessful the leaves are dried and sold as dry tea. The bulk of the tea 
is grown on steep hillsides at a very considerable elevation, but the Shan 
cultivators also grow a little on the slopes of the valleys. This is entirely 
for their own use, for they have no skill in picking and curing. The latter 
especially requires experience, but it is not clear in what the knack consists, 
and the Falaung planters keep their secret. The first picking is alwaya the 
best. Exposure to rain is said to make the leaves watery, when a larger 
amount of green leaves will be required to make the same amount of dry tea 
The amount of tea pickled is probably four times that dried. '1 he Chinese 
buyers in Mandalay are said to be far better judges of the quality of the tea 
produced than the Palaungs. They poke a stick into a basket and sniff it 
and can often tell the tract and even the garden the tea comes from. This 
argues acute techinral acquaintance, and no Palaung has it to such an extent. 
The tea-gardens are never in the market, but relatives and friends as a 
matter of convenience sometimes sell gardens amongst themselves. 

The soil in the Mung Ngaw valley is exceptionally fertile. Sometimes 
as much as one hundred and twenty baskets of rice are 
reaped for one of seed, although the land may have been 
worked regularlv for many years. The Shans in the valley do not sell their 
fields, and in fact can only lay claim to them so long as they live in the val- 
ley and work them. Some, however, leave their land and sh.-ire the crop 
with the cultivator. The Palaungs occasionally sell their fields, but never to 
Shans. From fifty to sixty rupees is the price of a piece of laud (hat can 
be sown with one b.isket of seed or, roughly, an acre. 

There are fine stretches of pine forest in the Kun Haw!, Myothit and 

Forests Tawng Ma circles, Wood-oil is got in Man San, and, 

as elsewhere in the Sban hills, oaks and chestnuts are 

everywhere plentiful. A Title teak occurs in the Pang Long circle near the 

Hsi Paw border. Kverywhere the forests are being ruined by the wasteful 

method of hill cultivation and the consequent fires. 

The onq^ celebrated silver mines of Bawdwin-gyi have now been un- 
worked for a generation. Most of the metal seems to have been extracted. 

Tigers arc particularly numerous in Tawng Peng. On the Nam Tu rhi- 
noceros are occasionally seen. 

Though the country is so hilly, the main roads are broad and good for 
caravan purposes. They branch from Nam Hsan and Sa Ran or Zevan in 
every direction. There is a good road due south to Hsi Paw. The main 
route to Mandalay passes through Mong Ngaw and meets Government 
cart-road at Pyawng Kawng, 

The following tables show the results of Mr. W. G. Wooster's inspection : — 



TAW] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



359 



to 

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26o 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tTAW 



J, 

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u 

S 

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o 
u 

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a 2 

O 

< 

ee 
u 

< 




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J3 


Capiul town and Singye-b6n ... 

Zeyan 

Kun Hai 

Myothit 

Kan Wan T6k ... 

Kun Hawt ... .„ 

Mong Ngaw 

Northern circle — 

Kachin villages ... 

Palaung villages „, 
Tawng Ma circle — 

Palaung villages ,.. 

Shan villages 
Eastern circle — 

Shan villages ... ,„ 

Palaung villages „, 

Kachin villages .„ 

Total 






•ON |W»S 


»• w w * 10 o» esoo 0\ 





tAW] 



THE UPt»ER BURMA GAZETTEER. 
Table C— Other Products. 



261 



Serial 
No. 



10 



Circle. 



RiCB. 



Yield per basket 
of seed. 



Low- 
lying 
fields. 



Nam San and Sin- \ 40*60 
gye-Mn. \ 

i 

Zeyan ... j .« 



Kun Hai 



Myothit 



Kan Wan TAk ... 



Kun Hawt 



Northern circle ... 



Eastern circle ... 



Tawng Ma circle 



Mdng Ngaw 



40*60 



40*60 



40-50 



3050 



40*60 



6o'ioo 



Tttung- 
yas. 



«5-25 



15-30 



20-30 



20-40 



20-30 



10-30 



10-40 



15-40 



20-30 



Crops other than rice. Remarks. 



Pumpkins, mustard, 
peas, some tobacco 
and a few cabbages. 

Plantains, beans, 
peas, tobacco (a 
little), pumpkins, 
mustard and a few 
cabbages. 

Jackfruit, plantains, 
peas, mustard, 
pumpkins, taung- 
sein leaf, and a few 
cabbages. 

Plantains, a little su- 
gar-cane, mustard, 
pumpkins, and j 
taungsein leaf. | 

Plantains, a little su- 
garcane, a few pine- 
apples, mustard, and 
pumpkins. 

Plantains, pumpkins. Pumpkins very 
mustard, and tating- fine and large. 
sein leaf. 



Plantains, jackfruit, 
mangroes, beans, 
pumpkins, mustard, i 
and a little cotton. 

Sugarcane, pump- 
kins, mustard, and i 
a few peas. i 



Sugarcane, guavas,'| 
pumpkins, and mus-j 
Urd. 

Plantains, beans, 
pumpkins, and mus- 
tard. 



262 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 
Statement D. — Prices. 



[TAW 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Red cloth used for blank- 


A piece 


ets. 




Silk tameins 


, Each 


Cotton cloth 


A piece (40 yards) 


Silk handkerchiefs 


, A set of eight ... 


Silk velvet 


A piece 


Cotton muslin 


do 


Silk jackets 


Each 


Cooking-pots (copper) ... 


do 


Straw hats 


do 


Iron cooking-trivets 


A viss 


Garlic 


' do 


Ngapi 


1 do 


Ngapi kaung 


1 do 


Dried fish ... 


' do 


Cigar leaf {ihanatpet) ... 


1 do 

1 1 


Betelnut 


! do .: 


Betel-leaf ... 


i do 


Cutch (for eating) 


do 


Kerosine oil 


• A case 


Sessamum ... 


1 A tin 


Cotton lungyis 


' Each 


Tobacco 


1 A viss 


Salt 


do 


Candles (small) 


1 A packet 


Cocoanut oil 


A viss 


Umbrellas (Shan) 


1 Each 


Shan cups ... 


! do 


Tray (eating) 


A viss 


Tobacco (for eating) 


do 


Shan paper ... 


Per 100 sheets ... 


Dha strings 


Each 


Dhas 


do 


Dry tea 


A viss 


Letptt 


Per 100 viss 


Cotton 


Per 5 viss 


Carpets „. 


Each 


Jaggery ... 
Scissors (iron) 


A viss 


Each 


Betel boxes ... 


do 



Prices from 



Rs. A. p. 
5 8 o to 



Rs. A. p. 



14 

6 

12 

20 

2 



8 8 
6 o 



5 
o 
I 
I 
I 
I 

3 
2 
I 
1 
I 
I 

10 
6 



o 12 
o 10 



10 

1 8 
o 6 

2 8 
4 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



18 o o to 

I 8 o to 

4 8 o to 

3 8 o to 

o 6 o to 

o I 6 to 

o 8 o to 



16 

8 

14 

25 
2 

9 
9 

13 



1 8 

2 o 



o to 
o to 



to 

to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



I o 
O 12 

o 6 

10 

1 8 

t 4 

4 

1 8 
o 14 

2 O 

8 
4 o 

1 o 



25 
I 
6 

3 
o 
o 



o 

12 
O 

O 

8 

3 



O 12 



Remarks. 



From L&-gya 



Manufactur- 
ed in the 
State. 



Chinese' 

make. 
English. 



TAWNG TALONG.— A circle in the Hsum Hsai sub-State of Hsi Paw, 
Northern Shan States. It lies on the Maymyo border in hilly country, and 
suffers from some scarcity of water. 

All the cultivation is upland. There were one thousand five hundred 
and tweoty*eight ihanatpet trees in 1892, but the circle does not seem by 



TAW] 



THE I'PPKR BURMA GAZETTEER. 



263 



any means to be prospering, 
houses. 



It includes eleven villages, with seventy-five 



TAWNG TEK.— A circle in the Northern Shan State of Hsi Paw. Tl.e 
boundaries are, — on the north Ton Pe, on the east Nam Lan, on the south 
Nawng Long circle of Lawk Sawk Southern Shan State, on the south-west 
Man Htam, and on the north-west Pung Wo and Tijn Pe. 

It included in 1898 thirty-three villages and had a population of one thou- 
sand nine hundred and ninety-eight persons. It is in charge of a ncbatng. 
In the same year it paid Rs. 4,8t3-<S-o net revenue, and supplied no paddy. 
It had also eleven thousand two hundred and eighty-one revenne-paying 
tnavititpet trees, for which Rs. 1,269-2-Q was rendered. The population 
is almost exclusively engaged in laungya paddy-cultivation. 

TAW NTO (called Malipa by the Chinese*. — A village in the Ko Kang 
Trans-Salween district of North Hsen Wi, Northern Shan States. 

Taw Nio is of no great size, having only forty houses, with brick walls 

and thatch or tiled roofs, but it is the chief, in fact the 

The baraar. only market in Ko Kang, all the other bazaars being 

of the most, petty and local cliaracter. Market is held 

in the ordinary Shan fashion, once every tive days, and there is a very 

large attendance of Chinese from beyond the border. l3eyond Chinese 

blue cottons, felt hats, shoes and rock-salt from Mong Hkawng, there is 

no great display of native produce. Manchester goods are cluetly brought 

for sale bv the Huitze of Pang Long. These Panthays are the only carriers 

for Ko Kang to the British side at present. All the local muleteers trade 

to China. 

From Taw Nio it is eight caravan marches to the town of Kung Ma, six 
to Mong Ting, fourteen to Yang-chang (called Mcng 

Communications. Sang by the Shans), and seventeen to 1 c'ngy(ich(Mong 
Myen or Momien). The road from Taw NioloYung- 
chang is said to be level and good for the greater part of the way, but there 
is one steep range to cross, apparently on the frontier of Yunnan proper. 
It seems more probable that this is the " long descent" of .Marco Polo than 
the route througii Lungling (Miing Long), wliicli would make most naturally 
for Nam Hkain. Near Taw Nio the streams are all spanned by stone 
bridges and there are traces of the regular Chinese causeway roads whirh 
are so substantial and usu.'tlly so bad : — " good for two y<'ars and bad for 
ten thousand." 

A good deal of cotton is grown near Taw Nio and sold in the bazaar, but 
opium is the chief commodity and fetches an average pric? of ten rupees the 
viss, though in the harvest season it is mucli less, falling to seven oreveni-ix 
rupees. The drug is sold as it is collected by the farmer and has to be 
boiled down by the consumer. The Ko Kang Chinamen smoke the 
orthodox opium pipe, different indeed from the pipe of the coast ports but 
with the same broad flat top and tiny aperture, and do not condescend to 
the make-shift of the Shan, the Palaung or the Kachin. 

A fair sized joss-house stands to the south of the bazaar and is tenanted 
by a Chinese monk, with the approved coat of many coloured patches. It 
is the only regular joss-house in Ko Kang and is cf very creditable size 
and style of ornamentation. 



264 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAW 




Since i8g6 Taw Nio has been the headquarters of a detachment of a 
company of Military Police, under an Assistant Commandant. The barracks 
are built on a low hill over-looking the village and are surrounded by an 
earthen ramp and ditch. The inhabitants of Taw Nio are all Chinese, but 
there are several small Shan villages in the low valley which extends north 
and south. Cha-tzii-sliu, the chief town of the State, is eleven miles distant 
and about three thousand feet above Taw Nio. 

Taw Nio village is thus picturesquely described by Mr, VV, A. Graham : 

*' It consists of one long street which every fifth day presents a busy scene, 
as it is the market to which all the neighbourhood comes, not only Ko Kang 
people, but many from across the border. This market is of much interest 
as so many people of different races come to it: the Chinaman with his 
pack mules or his pig in a crate ; the Shans (women to sell fruit and vege- 
tables and buy housi-hold necess.Tries, and men to gamble) ; Lishas and 
Mutso from the mountain tops and Lahs from the villages round about. 
Each race wears its distinctive costume. The Chinese go wrapped in half- 
a-dozen blue coats, .ill too large for them apparently ; the Shan in his baggy 
trousers and huge turban practises the ' Tiger walk' up and down before 
the girls; the l.isha with his blue putties and call-bird stares about at so 
much civilization; the Chinese women hobble and flap and scream ; the 
Shan girls sit in rows chatting under their broad hats, or flit along with their 
white limbs half concealed half displayed beneath the red skirt ; the squat 
Mutso women straddle about in their absurd short kilts: and the pigs shove 
their way through all. On non-market days the pigs have the street to 
themselves and make pretty short work of the rotten melons, oranges, maize 
cobs, droppings of flour and paddy, which are left behind by the marketers." 

TAW-SEIN. — \ village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with an area of attached lands of one square mile. 

There are thirty-nine inhabitants and thirty-two acres of cultivation. 
Paddy is the chief product. The village is nineteen miles from Ye-u and 
paid Rs. igo thathameda revenue for 1896-97. 

T.\W-THA. — A revenue circle and village in the north of the Min- 
taingbin township of Lower Chindwin district, with one hundred and eleven 
inhabitants. 

The revenue amounted to Rs. 90 thathameda for 1896-97. 

TAW-WE-GAN. — A village in the Myotha circle, Myaing township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and 
six persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 30, in- 
cluded in that of Daung-o. 

TAWYAN.— A village of Chins of the Tashfln tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies about ten miles east of Tloirtang and can be reached via 
Hmunli and Tlorrlang. 

In 1894 it had one hundred and forty-three houses. The resident chief 
was L6n Kho. 

Tawyan consists of a group of four villages : Tawyan, Singyawl, Khitam, 
and Khawtang The people are Torrs and are related to the Terrs of Haka. 
They are tributary ti Falam. 

TAW-YAN-GON. — A village in the Pakan-gyi circle, Yeza-gyo town- 
ship, Pak6kku snbdivision and district, with a population of forty persons^ 
according to the census of i8gi. 



TAW-TAV) 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



265 



The Ihathameda amounted to.'Rs. 210 for 1897-98. 

TAW-YAUNG.—A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of ninety-five persons, according to the 
census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 570. 

TAW-YWA. — A village in the Thamantabo circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
seventeen persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 370. 

TAW-YWA. — A village in the Lingadaw circle, Myaing township, Pa- 
k6kku subdivision and district, with a population of four hundred and 
sixty-seven persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The ihathameda amounted to Rs. 1,000 for 1897-98. 

TAW-YWA. — A village in the Kyigan circle, Myaig township, Pa- 
kAkku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
fifty-nine persons, according to the census ol 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 970, 
included in that of Kyigan. 

TAW-ZA-LK. — A village in the Ku-hna-ywa township, Gangaw subdivi- 
sion of Paki*»kku district, with a population of sixty-three persons, according 
to the census of i8gi. 

The Ihathameda amounted to Rs. t8o for 1897-98. 

TAW-ZUN. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadauug township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the populaticin numbered two thousand live hundred and five 
persons and the thathatneda amounted to Rs. 4,480. No land revenue 
was collected in the circle. 

TA-YA. — A revenue circle in the Salingyi township of Lower Chindwin 
district, including the villages of Taya, Kandwin, TJianbo and Myezan, 
with eight hundred and twenty-seven inhabitants. It lies in the south 
of the township, on the left bank of the South Yama chaung. 

The soil is fertile and water plentiful. '1 he principal food grains are 
dry and wet weather paddy, yoa'^r, sessamum and peas. 

The revenue amounted to Rs. 585 from State land and Rs. 1,540 from 
ihathameda for 1896-97. 

TA-Y.AW-DAW. — A revenue circle in the Budalin township of Lower 
Chindwin district, south-west of Budalin and some five miles from the 
Chindwin river. 

It includes the villages of Tayawdaw and Y6n-hle>g6n, with one thou- 
sand two hundred and twenty-four inhabitants. The revenue for i896>97 
amounted to Rs. 2,500 from thuthameda. 

'^ A-YAW-GAING, — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Kakftkku district, with a population of one hundred and sixty-nine persons, 
according to the census of 189 1, and a revenue of Rs. 460. 

TA-YAW-GON — A revenue circle in the Sa-le township, Pagan subdivi- 
sion of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand and thirty persons 
and the thathanteda amounted tn Rs. i,8o2. No land revenue was col- 
lected in the circle. 

34 



TAW-TAY] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



265 



The thathameda amounted to.'Rs. 210 for 1897-98. 

TAW-YAUNG.— A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of ninety-five persons, according to the 
census of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 570. 

TAW-YWA. — A village in the Thamantabo circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
seventeen persons, according to the census of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 370. 

TAW-YWA. — A village in the Lingadaw circle, Myaing township, Pa- 
k6kku subdivision and district, with a population of four hundred and 
sixty-seven persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs- 1,000 for 1897-98, 

TAW-YWA. — A village in the Kyigan circle, Myaig township, Pa- 
k6kku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
fifty-nine persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 970, 
included in that of Kyigan. 

TAW-ZA-LK. — A village in the Ku-hna-ywa township, Gangaw subdivi- 
sion of Pakokku district, with a population of sixty-three persons, according 
to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 180 (or 1897-98. 

TAW-ZUN. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaurig township, Pagan 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In i895-9f) the population numbered two thousand livt- hundred and five 
persons and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 4,480. No land revenue 
was collected in the circle. 

TA-YA. — .^ revenue circle in the Salingyi township of Lower Chindwio 
district, including the villages of Taya, Kandwin, TJianho and Myezan, 
with eight hundred and twenty-seven inhabitauts. It lies in the south 
of the township, on the left bank of the South Yama chaung. 

The soil is fertile and water plentiful. 'J he principal food grains are 
dry and wet weather paddy, yoTt'sr, sessamuin and peas. 

The revenue amounted to Rs. 585 from State land and Rs. 1,540 from 
thathameda for 1896-97. 

TA-YAW-D.WV. — .\ revenue circle in the Budalin township of Lower 
Cliindwin district, south-west of Budalin and some five miles from the 
Chindwin river. 

It includes the villages of Tayawdaw and YAnhle-gfin, with one thou- 
sand two hundred and twenty-four inhabitants. Ihe revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 2,500 from thathavtcda. 

TA-YA W-GAING. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
PakAkku district, with a population of one hundred and sixty-nine persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 460. 

TA-YA W-G6N — A revenue circle in the Sa-le township, Pagan subdivi- 
sion of Myingyan district. 

In 18^5-96 the population numbered one thousand and thirty persons 
the thathameda amounted tu Rs. i,8o2. No land revenue was col- 
l in the circle. 

34 



266 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TAY— TAZ 



TA-YWIN-BO. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision 
and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered five hundred and twelve persons 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 6S4; the State land revenue was 
Rs. 70-10-6 and the gross revenue Rs. 754-10-6. 

TA-YVVIN-DAING. — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and 
subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered four thousand one hundred and 
thirty-five persons and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 5,774. No land 
revenue was collected in the circle. 

TA-ZAN. — A village in the Ku-hna-ywa township, Gangaw subdivision 
of Palcokku district, with a population of one hundred and seventeen per- 
sons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thatkamt'iia amounted to Rs. 180 for : 897-98. 

TA-ZAUi"v — A revenue circle in the Nato-gyi township, Myingyan sub- 
division and district. 

In 1 895-06 the population numbered one thousand two hundred and ninety 
persons and the thathameda amounted to Rs. i,«44 No land revenue was 
collected in the circle. 

TA-ZAUNG. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision 
and district. 

In 1895-96 tie population numbered two hundred and seventv-four per- 
sons. The thtthameda amounted to Rs. 200, the State land revenue to 
Rs. 2 1 3- 1 1-6, and the gross revenue to Rs. 41 3-1 1-6. 

TA-ZE. — .\ township of the Ye-u subdivision of Shwebo district, is bound- 
ed on the nurth by the Indaing township, on the east by the Myedu town- 
ship, on the south by the Ye-u and Shwe-gyin townships, all of Shwebo 
district, and on the west by Upper Chindwin district. 

It has one hundred and thirty-nine villages and a population of nineteen 
thousand four hundred and seventy-seven pers'>ns. The headquarters are 
at Taz&, a few miles west of the Mu river. 

TA-ZE. — The headquarters nf the Ta-z& township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, near the lake of the same name. 

There is a Civil Police post. The population in i8gi numbered one 
thousand four hundred and seventy-seven persons. 

Paddy was the chief crop. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amount- 
ed to R.s. 3,t6o. The village is fifteen miles from Ye-u. 

TA-ZIN- — A village in the Linbin circle, Pakokku township, subdivision 
and district, with a population of five hundred and fiftv-five persons, ac- 
cording to the census of iSgi, and a revenue of Rs. 1,050, included in 
that of Linbin. 

TA-ZO. — A prosperous village in the Natogyi township, Myingj'an sub- 
division and district. 

It has a great many palm groves, and a large trade in jaggery and cotton 
is carried on. Many pagodas and kyauitgs have been erected. There is a 
Civil Police thana to the north-west of the town. 

TA-ZC)N. — A revenue circle in the Homalin township, Lega-yaing sub- 
division of Upper Chindwin district, including four villages. 



TA2-TEG] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



267 



TA-ZU. — A village'in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pakokku 
district, witli a population of sixty persons, according to the census of 1891, 
and a revenue of Rs. 570. 

Tit. — A village in the Yau- townsbip, Yawdwin subdivision of Pakokku 
district, with a population of two hundred and sixty-five persons, according 
lo the census of 1891. 

The i/iatkameda amounted lo Rs. 550 for 1897-98. 

TE-BIN. — -A village in the I'aung-gwe circle, Myaing township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and ninety-eight 
persons, according to the census of 189 1. 

The that/tamcda amounted to Rs. 300 for 1897-98. 

TE-BIN"-GAN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pa- 
kokku district, with a population of one hundred and twenty-three persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 490. 

T^DAW. — A circle in the Ti-gyaing township, Katha subdivision and 
district. 

The name Tfedaw is said to have been given because the village was estab- 
lished in a jungle where fig trees were abundant. 

The circle has seventy-live houses. The villagers cultivate kaukkyi and 
ttiavin, but no ttiungya; they are Burmans and Shans. 

T£-DAW. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, sixteen miles from Ye-u, 

The population numbers three hundred and twenty-six persons, mostly 
paddy cultivators. The thathamcda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to 
Rs. 511. Near Tfedaw is the locally celebrated Sbwemokdaw pagoda. 

Tfi-DAW-YA. — A village in the F'auk township and subdivision of Pa- 
kAkku district, with a population of three hundred and forty-four persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 800. 

Tfi-GON. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of Mandalay 
district, on the east bank of the Shwetac/tfl««^, between Madaya and 
Taungby6n. 

It has thirty houses, and its population niuiibered in 1897 one hundred 
and twenty persons approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

Tfi-GON. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, sixteen miles from Ye-u. 

The population numbers four hundred ami seventy-eight persons: rice 
cultivation is the only industry. The thathamcda revenue for 189S-97 
amounted to Rs. 580. 

T£-GYI. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, twelve miles from Ye-u. 

There are seventy-one inhabitants : paddy cultivation is the chief industry. 
The thathamcda revenue in 1890 amounted to Rs. 130. 

Tfi-GYI.— A village in the Nyaungok circle, Myaing township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and seven persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 330, included in that 
of NyauDg-6k. 



270 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ITEN-THA 



It contained sixteen houses in 1894, with a population of sixty persons. 
The revenue paid was four annas per household. The villagers owned five 
bullocks, ten buffaloes, and five mules and ponies. The price of paddy was 
twelve annas the basket. The people wer« paddy cultivators and trad- 
ers by occupation. 

TENSHl.— A village of Yotun Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It 
lies twenty miles south of Lungno, and can be reached from Lungno, across 
the Myittlia, and also from Tilin. 

In 1894 it had thirty houses. Lobwa was its resident chief. The village 
is under the Lungno chief and has blood feuds with the Chin mis. It is 
not stockaded: there in good camping-ground with plenty of water. 

TRP HSAI.— A village in the home circle of M6ng Ya^ the capital of 
the Northern Shan State of South Hsen Wi. 

There were in March 1892 fifteen houses, with a population of fifty-three 
persons. The villagers are exclusively engaged in paddy cultivation, except 
when called on for service by the Saiv/iwa, which they render in place of 
paying tribute. 

TERONG. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 3S, Myitkylna district, situ- 
ated in 25" 45' north latitude and 97'^ 46' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained thirteen houses : the population was unknown. The 
inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Sadan sub-tribe. The headman has 
no others subordinate to him. 

TET-KAUNG. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, fourteen miles from headquarters. 

The population numbers two hundred and sixty persons, most of whom 
are engaged in rice cultivation. The thathameda revenue for 1 896-97 
amounted to Rs. 730. 

TE-TUN. — A revenue circle in the Magwe township and district. 

The soil of the circle is very fertile and much maize is exported, as well 
as maize leaves for cigar wrappers. 

The thugyi was formerly a man of great power and influence and was 
perpetually at war with the myothu^yi of Magwe. 

TEUN PYE. — .'\ village in the Mogaung subdivision of Myitkyina dis- 
trict, about a quarter of a mile south of K6nmana. 

TE-ZU. — A village in the Chindaung circle, Seikpyu township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and sixty-eight 
persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 880, included 
in that of Chindaung. 

TE-ZU. — A village with three hundred houses south of Pindali in the 
Wundwin township, Northern subdivision of Meiktila district. 

A few iron and gold workers li\e here. The rest of the population is 
entirely agricultural. 

THA-BAN-GYO. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myin- 
gyan subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the popuhtion numbered four hundred persons and the tha- 
thameda amounted to Rs. 450. No land revenue was collected in the 
circle. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



371 



THA-BEIK-KYIN. — A township of the Ruby Mines district, forming the 
southern portion of the Tagaung subdivision. It is bounded on the north 
by the Tagaung township; on the east by the Mong Mit (Momeit) State 
and the Mogok township of Ruby Mines district ; on the south by Mandalay 
district ; and on the west by Shwebo district. 

Its approximate area is six hundred and eighty-eight square miles and its 
population about ten thousand persons. 

There are thirty headmen in the township the revenue in iSqj-qS was — 

Rs. 

Thnthameda ... ... ,., ... 14,645 

Land revenue ... .., ... ... 5,700 

The headquarters are at Thabeikkyin on the Irrawaddy river, fron> which 
place a cart-road starts to Mogtik and Bernardwvi?, distant sixty-one 
miles. There is a Public Works Department inspection bungalow in 
Thabeikkyin, which has detachments of a Burma Regiment and of the Ruby 
Mines Battalion of Military Police. The village consists of a straggling 
line of houses along the river bank and a good many of the villagers live 
on rafts moored alongside. There is a ferry across the Irrawaddy which 
brings in about Rs. 4.000 a year. The irrawaddy Flotilla Company's steam- 
ers running between Mandalay and Bhamo call at Thabeikkyin, and there 
is a smaller steamer from Mandalay twice a week. 

THA-BEIK-KYIN.— The headquarters of the township of that name of 
Ruby Mines district. 

The village is of some size and has a population of one thousand five 
hundred and ninety-five persons, most of whom are Burmese. It is sit- 
uated on the Irrawaddy river, twenty-three miles south of Twinng& and an 
hundred and thirty miles nortli of Mandalay. Thabeikkyin is the river post 
and base for Mngdk and the Ruby Mines villages. 

THA-BEIK-LE. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, twenty miles from Ye-u. 

'I here are one hundred and thirty-four inhabitants, .iccording to the pre- 
liminary census returns of 1891. Rice cultivation is the chief industry. 
The thathamcda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs, 350. 

THA-BEIK-TAN.' — A village in the P6ndaw-naing-ngan revenue circle, 
Amarapura township and subdivision of Mandalay district, nine miles south- 
west of headquarters. 

It had a population of one hundred and sixty-five persons at the census 
of 1891 and paid Rs. 290 thathameda-ia\. 

THA-BUT-KON. — Belonging originally to the Tama-gyi circle, an agri- 
cultural village of seventy houses in the Ma-hlaing township, Northern 
subdivision of Meiktila district. 

The dacoit leader Bo Kya Bin, with' a small force, disturbed the sur- 
rounding country after the Annexation. 

TH.A-BUT-PIN. — A village of one hundred and fifty-six houses in the 
Myotha township of Sagaing district, six miles west of Ava. 

There are two pagod.ns here, the Kyantha-gyi and the Shwetaza. 

THA-BUT-SU. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pakfikku district, with a population of three hundred and fifty-eight persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 830. 



272 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ITHA 



THA-BYE-BIN. — A village of twenty-seven houses on the eastern bank 
of the Third Defile of the Irrawaddy river, in the Bhamo subdivision and 
townsJiip. 

Some Hpuns once lived here, but emigrated many years ago. The vil- 
lagers carry on a considerable trade with neighbouring Kachins, and some 
of them work also a little taungya. They have no cattle. 

THA-RYE-BIN. — A ward in the town of Myingyan, in the subdivision and 
district of that name. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered two thousand eight hundred and 
eighty persons and the thathameda amounted to Rs. a,6l6. No land reve- 
nue was collected in the circle. 

THA-BYE-BIN. — A village in the Pyin-u circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
forty-three persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 230 for 1897-98. 

THA-BYE-BIN. — A village in the Thabyebin circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
PakAkku subdivision and district, with a population of ninety persons, ac- 
cording to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda revenue amounted to Rs. 1,130 for 1S97-98. 

THA-BYE-DON. — A village in theOyin circle, Myaing township, Pak6k- 
ku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and forty- 
six pcrsonsv according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 270, in- 
cluded in that of Twin-ma-myauk-ywa. 

THA-BYE-GYIN. — A circle in the Py6ntha township, .Maymyo subdivi- 
sion of .Mandalay district, in the Gyaung valley. 

Thabye-gyin is the only village in the circle. It lies seven miles north- 
east of Pyintha and has a population of one hundred and twenty persons 
at the census of i8gt. The thathameda revenuti paid for 1896 amounted to 
Rs. 370. The people are Burman pein and ginger cultivators. 

TH.\-BYE-Iir,A. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, north of Kywe-gya. 

It has fifty houses, and its population numbered in 1897 *^*^ hundred 
persons, approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

THA-BYE-HLA. — A village in the Kyun-le-ya circle, NgasingTi town- 
ship, Madaya subdivision of Mandalay district, north of Myasein-gyun. 

The village has twenty-five houses, and the papulation numbered in 1897 
one hundred and twenty-five persons approximately. The villagers are cul- 
tivators and fishermen. 

THA-BYE-I>A. — S. village on the left bank of the Irrawaddy river in the 
Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district, with sixty-three houses. 

Most of the villagers are fishermen, and a little mayin is worked yearly, 
besides tobacco for home consumption. Salt is procured from Sheinmaga 
and fetches sixteen rupees the hundred viss. 1 he village is much under 
water in the rains. 

THA-BYE-OK. — A village in the Leiksangun revenue circle, Amarapura 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, ten miles south of head-* 
quarters. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



273 



It had a population of six hundred persons at the census of 1891 and paid 
Rs. 620 that hameda-tA%, 

THA-I3YE-WA. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan 
subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred persons and the thatha- 
meda amounted to Rs. 108. No land revenue was collected in the circle. 

THA-BY£-WA. — A village in Thazi township, Southern subdivision of 
Meikfila district, with one hundred and fifty-two houses and a population 
of four hundred and fifty persons. 

THA-BYUN-GON. — A revenue circle in the Katha subdivision and dis- 
trict, including in 1897 * single village with twenty-six houses. 

The annual average revenue was Rs. 220 from thathamcda and mayin 
tax Rs, 60. The village is locally noted for its grass mats. 

THA-DE. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan sub- 
division and district. 

Fn 1895-96 the population numb» red two hundred and five persons, and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 273. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

THA-D1-G6N. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 6, Bhamo district, situat- 
ed in 24'^ 17' north latitude and 97° 15' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-five houses: the population was unknown* 
The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants arc Shan- 
Burmese, Shan, and Burmese, and own no cattle. 

TIIA-DIN. — .\ revenue circle and village in the north-east of the Min- 
taing-bin township of Lower Chindwin district, with two hundred and 
ninetceji inhabitants. 

The thathamcda revenue amounted in 1896-97 to Rs. 580. 
THA-DO-DAN. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township and subdivi- 
sion of .Magwe district, twelve miles west of Taungdwingyi. 

The Shwe Aung-daw pagoda was formerly the scene of an annual festival. 
It is a large building of the ordinary shape with no pretence to architec- 
tural beauty. 

THA-DCN. — A village of one hundred and twenty-seven houses in the 
Kyauk-yit township, Myinmu subdivision of Sagaing district, six miles 
from Kyauk-yit [q. v!). It falls within the A-lft-g)'un. 

THA-DUT. — A village in the Thadut circle, Myaing township, Pakokka 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and twcnty-tive 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The revenue thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,990 for 1897-98. 

THA-GA*UNG. — A village in tb» Thagaung circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and 
two persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathamcda amounted to Rs, 400 for 1897-98. 

THA-GA-YA. — A village on the east bank of the Irrawaddy river in 
Myitkyina district, where the northernmost trade route to the Jade Mines 
debouches on the river. 

35 



374 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[THA 



There are, however, only three peiti^aws and one tet-hl}, or upper river 
boat here, n he traders usually march north to Waingmaw and Ywa-daw 
before crossing to ThayagAn. Thagaya has thirteen houses of Rurmfse- 
Shans, who moved here about 1870. They own eight huffaioes which they 
employ used in irrigated paddy cultivation, the yearly return from which is 
about seven hundred baskets; sessamum-oil is also expressed to a small 
extent. 

THA GA-YA. — A village with one hundred and seventy houses and a 
population of six hundred and forty persons, in Thazi township, Southern 
subdivision of Meiktila district. 

It was built, according to local tradition, by King Sawnumhnit. 

THA-GA-YA. — A village of nine houses on the Theiii-Iin river, in the 
Bhamo subdivision and district. 

The inhabitants own ten buffaloes and work le and a little laungya. 
The village was formerly in the Moyu Kayaing. 

THA-GYIN. — A village of two hundred and eighty-eight houses in Myo- 
tha township of Sagaing district, sixteen miles north-west of Myotha, 

It had formerly Military and Civil Police posts, but now has no police. 
Within Tha-gyin circle is the Ingyaung-det fishery, which rents at from 
Rs. 1,625 to Rs. 3,000. 

THAIK-CHAUNG. — A circle in the Maymyo township and subdivision 
of Mandalay district, including three villages. 

THA-KUT-TA-NE. — A revenue circle with three thousand one hundred 
and seventy inhabitants in the north-west of Biulalin township of Lower 
Chindwin district, on the boundary between the Budalin and Kani town- 
ships. 

The circle comprises the villages of Thakutta-nc. Pogon, VVetlu-aing, 
M6n-o, Pyudu, l^gyi, Zaba-zin, Ma-gyi-6k, Paya-gyi, Nyaung-gdn, Sutpyet, 
Gwebin-gyin north, Gwebin-gyin south, Thitk& east, Thitkfe west, Letki^k- 
k6n, Ywa-thit and SAngfln. The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 
5,950, fr^m Shathameda. The circle is noted for its manufacture cA p6nr\ii' 
fans, the value of the annual outturn being estimated at Rs- 800. 

The Maha Lawka Marazein pagoda or Hayagyi, near Payagyi village, 
is so called because it is the largest pagoda in the township. Its height is 
one hundred and twenty cubits and its perimeter at the base two hun-lred 
and forty cubits. The pagoda was erected in 1849 A.D. by U Nyeya, 
Thathiinabain^ of Mandalay. in King MindAn's reign. Its cost was 
Rs. 26,000 The history of the founding of the pagoda is engraved on a 
slab of alabaster, kept under cover within the precincts. 

. THA-KUT-TAW.- A village in the Sheinmaga township of Shwebo 
district 

A considerable quantity of salt is manufactured in the village, which is 
fifteen miles from Shwebo, In 1891 it had a population of one thousand 
four hundred and ninety-six persons, and the revenue paid amounted to 
Rs. 5,937- 

THA-KYIN. — A village in the Thiikyin circle, Laung-she township, Yaw- 
dwin subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population of fortv-three 
persons and a revenue of Rs. 70, in 1897. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



275 



THA-LA-l.IN, — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
PakAkku district, with a population of forty-three persons, according to the 
census of 1831, and a revenue of Rs. 230. 

THA-LFl — A village in the Yaw township, Yawdwin subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of one hundred and fifty-two persons, 
according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. aoo for 1897-98. 

THA-LS-GON. — A revenue circle in the Pathein-gyi township, Amara- 
pura subdivision of Mandalay district. 

Thal&gfin is the only village in the circle and is situated ten miles north- 
east of headquarters. It had a population of sixty-five persons at tho. 
census of iSgi, and paid Rs. 230 thatfiatnedd-iaiX and Rs. 62 land revenue. 

THA-LIN. — A revenue circle with five hundred and thirty-four inhobiL- 
ants, in the Kani township of Lower Chiudwin district. It is situated on 
the b.Tnk of the Yewa chattfig, east of the Mahudaung range, and includes 
four villages, Thalin, Yebya, Ya-gyi, and Yeyin. 

The only crop cultivated is paddy. The revenue for 1896-97 amounted 
to Rs. 1,170, from thatkameda. 

THA-l6N-TH\VE. — .\ revenue circle in the Sa-le township, Pagan sub- 
division of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-9G the population numbered four hundred and sixty-five persons 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 588. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

THA-LUN-BYU.— A village in the Madaya circle, township and sub- 
division of Mandalay district, north-east of Madaya- «)!j£»»»tf. 

It has ore hundred and twenty houses, and its population numbered in 
1897 four hundred persons approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

THA-MA-DAW. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
PakAkku district, with a population of six hundred and seventy-three per- 
sons at the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 700, included in that of 
Yebya. 

THA-MAING-GYI. — A village of twenty-nine houses on the east bajik of 
the Irrawaddy river, in the Bhamo subdivision and township. 

The village, which stands on high ground, consists of two groups of 
houses divided by a small stream. .\ll the inhabitants are Shans. 

The villagers calch fish by the Shwe hli method. A strip of plantain 
bark is stretched along the length of a small boat, so as to be submerged 
on its farther side. The boat is then moved to the bank and the lish jump 
Irom the water on to the bark platform and thence into the boat. A certain 
amount of taungya is worked and some cotton is grown for home consump- 
tion. There arc no cattle in the village. 

THA-MA (ING).KAN.— f. infra et sub Hsa Mong Hkam. 

THA-MA-KAN. — The headquarters of the Assistant Superintendent of 
the Myelat district of the Southern Shan Slates. It is situated on the Gov- 
ernment cart-road, seventy-three miles from Thazi Railway station and 
thirty-three miles from Taunggyi. 



276 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TIIA 



Thamakan is frur thousand two hundred and forty-four fer-t above mean 
sea-level and is a mile away from the village of Hsa Mong Hkam [the Shan 
form of the word [g v.)} , the residence of the Ngwekun-hmu of the Hsa Mong 
Hkam State. 

A detachment of the regiment at Fort Stedman (thirty-five miles away 
by the cart-road and twenty-one miles by the bridle-road to the lake) is 
stationed here, and there is also a police force of two sergeants and thirteen 
constables under a native oflicer. A combined post and telegraph office 
and a furnished bungalow for travellers have been built, and a brick hospital 
is under construction. 

Water is scarce in the dry weather. There are no shops at Thamakan, 
but a bazaar is held every fifth day at the Ngwe-kun-hmu's village, where a 
few of the necessaries of life can be had. 

THA-MAN. — Two villages of about one hundred and lifty houses in Ava 
township of Sagaing district, twelve miles south-west of Ava. 
Near Thaman is the Kyettu-yw6 pagoda. 
THA-MAN-DA-LIN.— A circle in the Magwe township and district. 

It includes the villages of Thamandalin, Pokkon, Gaung-daw-u and 
Danda-lun-san. 

THA-MAN-GAN. — A village in the Saiug-gaung circle, Myaing town- 
ship, Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of fifty-five 
persons, according to the census of 1891, 

The thathaniedii revenue amounted to Rs. 390 for 1897-98. 

THA-MAN-GAN. — A village in the Myotha circle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
eighty-three persons, according to the census of 1891. 

Thatkameda amounted to Rs. 394 for 1897-96. 

THA-MAN-GYAN.— A village in the Kyat circle, Pakokku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population nf forty-nine persons, according 
to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs, 80, iacludcd in that of Kyat. 

TH A-MAN- lA-BO. — A village in the Thamautabo circle, Yeza-gyo 
towuship, Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of three 
hundred and sixty-nine persons, according lo the census of 1891. 

Thathumeda amoualed to Rs. 980 for 1897-98. 

THAMBA-YA. — A revenue circle in the Taungdwin-gyaung township, 
Miugiu subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes a single village and paid Rs. 480 revenue in 1897. 

THA-MlN-bE, — A revenue circle in the Nato-gyi lownsiiip, Myingyan 
subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered iwo hundred and fifty persons and 
the thathatneda amounted to Rs. 394. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

THA-MIN-BOK. — A village in the Kandein circle, Myaing township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and 
twenty-six persons, according to the census of 1 691, and a revenue ot Rs. 450, 
included in that of Kandein. 



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THE UPPF.R BURMA GAZETTEER. 



277 



THA-MIN-DWIN. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivi- 
sion of Shwebo disirict, with an area of attached lands of one-and-a-half 
square miles and a population of ninety-five persons. 

There are forty-six acres of cultivation, chirtly under paddy. The village 
is fourteen miles from Ye-u. Ihe ihathameUa revenue amounted to Rs. 
3q6 for i8»ji6-97. 

THA-MIN-GAN. — A village in the Nga-kwe circle, Seikpyu township, 
Fak5kku subdivision and district, with a p:ipulation of eighty persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. lOo. 

THA-MIN-GYAN. — A village in the Sagaing subdivision and district, 
situated on the same island as Paukwfe. 

.\bout thrcr-fourths of the villagers are cultivators of beans, Indian-corn 
and vegetables. The village has an hundred houses. 

THA-MIK-GYAUK. — .\ village in the Ywa-sh6 cirrle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
twenty-five persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 390 for 1897-98. 

TH.\-MIN-THAT. — A revenue circle and village with fifty-eight inhabii- 
ants, in the Kani tovvnshipof Lower Chindwin district. Itliesin the south- 
west of the township, on the Thabyed6n stream, in a forest of »'«-trees. 

Paddy is the only crop raised. 

Local etymologists account for the name of the village by tht- following 
story : A King of L'enares came to this part of Bur.ua 
Legend. ^ ^^y years ago to hunt thamin (the brovv-antlered deer) 

and with the help of his hunters caught a large number alive, and ordered 
tliat, as long as he was in camp, a thamin should be killed every day so 
that his table might be regularly supplied with venison. The etymology Is 
more obvious and less interesting than it might have oeen. 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 150 from thatharmda. 

THA-M6N-GAL\G,— .\ revenue circle in the Myingyan township, sub- 
division and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand dnd ten persons, and 
the thatnameda amounted to Rs. 1,337. No land revenue has yet (1897) 
been assessed in the circle. 

THA MYA. — A circle in the Natmauk township of Magwe district, in- 
cluding the villages of Nyaungyatpin, Lingado, Thamya, and Kyaung6n. 

THA-MYA-BA. — A village of seventy-three houses in Ava township of 
Sagaing district. It lies fourteen miles south of Ava, in the midst of a 
thick jungle of toddy palms, on the bank of the Panlaung river, opposite 
Sawyfe in Kyauks6 district. 

At Sawye there is a Government rest-house. Under the Thamyabu 
thugyi is the village of Shwebaw-kyun. 

THA-NAT-PIN-ZIN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision 
of Pakflkku district, with a population of one hundred and sixty-two persons, 
according to ttie census ol 1891, and a revenue of Rs, :i2o, included in that 
of Indein. 



378 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER* 



[THA 



THA-NAT-YIN. — A village in thr Bahin circle, Myaing township, 
Pakdkku subdivision, and district, with a population of two hundred and 
eighty-two persons, according lo the census of 1891. 

The thathameda revenue amounted to Rs. 660 for 1897-98. 

THAN-BAUK. — A revenue circle in the Mingin township and subdi- 
vision of Upper Chindwin district, including seven villages. 

The revenue paid in 1897 amounttd to Rs. 1)065. 

THAN-BA-YA. — A revenue circle in the Katha subdivision and district, 
including in 1897 two villages with sixty houses. 

It yielded the following revenues in that year : thathameda Rs. 560, 
kaukkyi'XAf. Rs. 12, mayin Rs. 22, and taungya Rs, 2. Thanbaya village is 
fourteen miles south of Katha. 

TH,^N-B.\-YA. — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
Pak6kku district, with a population of forty-nine persons, according to the 
census of 1894, and a revenue of Rs. 1 10, included in that of Shawbyubin. 

THAN-BA-VA. — A village in the Min-ywa circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, 
Gangaw subdivision of Pakdl^ku district, with a population of two hundred 
and sixty-eight persons, according to the census of 1891. 

Thathameda amounted to Rs. 690 for 1897 98. ^'"^ inhabitants are 
Taungthas. 

THAN-BA-YA-GYIN. — A village in the Aligan circle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
twenty-two persons, according to the census of tSgi. 

Thathameda amounted to Rs. 420 for 1897-98. 

THAN BIN — A village in the Seingan circle, Myaing township, Pakdkku 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and sixty-three 
persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs, 490, included 
in that of Sein-gan. 

TH.\N-BO. — A revenue circle in the Taungtha township, Myingyan sub- 
division and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and thirty-Tive persons 
and the revenue from thathameda amounted to Rs. 854. No land revenue 
was collected in the circle. 

THAN-BU. — A village in the Chaungz6ng\'i circle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
sixty persons, according to the census of iSgt, and a revenue of Rs. 750, 
included in that of Chaungzongyi. 

THAN-BU. — A village in the Tawma ciicle, Myaing township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population ol one hundred persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 250, included iu that of 
Tawma. 

THAN-BYA'AING.— A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pakfikku district, with a population of live hundred and twenty-nine per- 
sons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 1,290. 

THAN-DAUNG. — .A revenue circle with four hundred and eight inhabit- 
ants in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin district, on the banks of 
the >iorth Yama stream. 



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THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



279 



The villages included in the circle are Thandaung, Sinzwt and NyinthagAn. 

The chipf crops raised are paddv, ioitar and pea«. The revenue for 
1896-97 was Rs. 1.520, from thathameda, and Rs. 106 from State lands. 

I^ocal etymologists say that the village was so called because it was 
established by a giant whose footprint was one standard cubit {than' 
daung) long. 

THA-NGfi-DAW. — A circle in the Amarapura township and subdivision 
of Mandalay district. 

Tha-ngfe-daw is the only village in the circle and is situated four miles south 
of headquarters. It had a population of one hundred and ninety-five 
persons at the census of i8ot. and paid Rs. 290 t/iafharrteda-tax. 

THANGYAUNG. — A villaeeJn the Thanpyaung circle, Yeza-gyo town- 
ship, Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred 
and twenty-one persons, according to the census of 1891. 

Thnfhavteda amounted to Rs. 1 50 for 1897-98. 

THAN-GYAUNG. — A village in the Kunlat circle, Myaing township, 
Pakftkku subdivision and district, with a population nf sixty-five persons, 
according to the census of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 140, included in that 
of Ywa-ma. 

TH.^N•GY.A.UNG. — A village in the Sinzein circle, Myaing township, 
PakAkku subdivision aud district, with a copulation of one hundred and 
fiftv-one persons, according to the census of 1891. 

Thathamedt amounted to Rs. 270 for 1897-98. 

THAN-LWIN-G5N. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township of Magwe 
diFtrict, including the single village of Thanl\ving6n. 

THAN-MA-DAW. — A revenue circle in the Pathein-gyi township, 
Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district. 

Thanmadaw is the onlv village in the circle and is situated eight miles 
north-east of headquarters. It had a population of two hundred and sixty- 
five persons at the census of 1891, and paid Rs. 393 thirtfiameda-i&s. and 
Rs. 236 land revenue. 

TH.^N-MA-DAW, — A revenue circle and village with five hundred and 
sixty inhnbitants, in the Budalin township of Lower Chindwin district, south- 
west of Budalin, and some four miles from the Chindwin river. 
The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 370 from thathameda, 
THAN-THE. — K village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of Shwebo 
district, three miles from Ye-u town, with a population of fifty-six persoaa 
and a cultivated area of 17 acres, besides 26-7 acres of State lands. 

It paid for 1896-97 Rs. 190 thathameda revenue. It stands on the 
Ye-u-KunAn road. 

THAN-U-DAW. — A village in the Kyetmauk circle, Myaing township, 
PakAkku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and five 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

Thathameda amounted to Rs. 240 for 1897-98. 

THANYIT. — .\ revenue circle in the Lega-yaing township and subdi- 
vision of Upper Chindwin district, including seven villages. 



2S: 



THE UPPRR BURMA GA7ETTF.ER. 



[THA 



bank because they disliked their Kayaing-Sk, U San Win. It lies on the 
main road to the Jade Nflnes, About six hundred men and three hundred 
mules pass through it yearly, carrying pots, fryingpans, umbrellas, opium, 
iawsam, spirits, and fruit, but they do not use this road on their way back 
from the Mines. 

THA-YA-KA. — A vilIao[e in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
Pak6kkii district, with a population of one hundred and thirty-six persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 320. 

THA-YA-PI. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of one hundred and thirty-eight persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 391-8-Oj included in that 
of Lfelan. 

THA-YAUK-MYAUNG.— A circle in the Pyintha township, Maymyo sub- 
division of Mandalay district. 

Thayauk-myaung is the only village in the circle and is situated eight 
miles east of Pyintha : it has a population of one hundred and seventy- 
one persons, at the census of 1891. The (hathamecia revenue paid in i8g6 
amounted to Rs. 340. The villagers raise ginger and pcin. 

THA-YAUNG. — A revenue circle in the Legayaing township and subdi- 
vision of Upper Chindwin district, including nine villages. 

THA-YA-WA-Dl. — -A village in the Ngasingu township, Madaya sub* 
division of Mandalay district, south of Kya-u-yin. 

The village has fifty houses and its population numbered in 1897 '^'o 
hundred and fifty persons approximately. The villagers arc traders and 
cultivators. 

THA-YA-WA-DI. — A village in the Taung-by6n-ngfe A-she circle, Madaya 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, east of Gwedaw. 

It has thirty houses and its population numbered in 1897 one hundred and 
twenty persons approximately. The villagers are cu'tivators and coolies. 

THA-YET. — A revenue circle in the Mintaingbin township of Lower 
Chindwin district, with six hundred and sixty-one inhabitants. 

It includes seven villages, Zibyugftn, Yeso, S5ng6n, Tandaw taik, Cliaiinj^- 
na, Mye-neg6n and Thayet. The /A //AffOTfi/a revenue amounted to Rs. 
1,900 for [896-97. 

THA-YET-BYA.— A village in the Utaik circle, Pwe La State, Myelat 
district of the Southern Shan Sfa'es, situated in the north of the Slate on 
the Pangtara border. 

In 1897 it contained sixty houses, with a population of two hundred and 
sixty-eight persons., who paid Rs. 322 annual revenue. 

THA-YET-CHfN. — A village in the Yaw township, Yawdwin subdivision 
of Pak6kku district, with a population of one hundred and forty-three per- 
sons, according to the census of 1891. 

Thathameda amounted to Rs. 280 for 1897-98. 

THA-YET-GAN. — .\ village in (he Tliayetgan circle, Pak6kku township 
subdivision and district, with a population of ninety-seven persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891. 



THfe UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



Thathameda amounted to Rs. 220 for 1897-98. 

THA-YET-GAN. — A village in the Oyin circle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of four hundred and 
twenty-three persons, according to the census of 1891. 

Thathameda amounted to Rs. 750 for 1897-98. 

THA-YET-GAN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of one hundred and fifty-eight personst 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 330, included in that 
of Yega. 

THA-YET-GON. — A village of thirty-one houses in the Shwegu subdivi- 
sion of Bhamo district, at the edge of the Aleyo, a marshy plain south of the 
Irrawaddy river. 

There are two hundred buffaloes in the village and yegya, yielding two 
hundred baskets yearly, and mayin, one thousand and five hundred baskets, 
are worked. There are some toddy-palm, jack and guava trees. 

TH.'\-YET-G6N (YA-Y6N-Y[N).— a village in the Shwe-gyin township 
Yc-u subdivision of Shwebo district, with four square miles of village lands. 

According to the preliminary census of 1891 the population numbered 
one hundred and four persons and there were thirty acres under cultivation. 
Paddy and jaggery are the chief crops. The village is thirteen miles from 
Ye-u. It paid in 1896-97 Rs. 324 thathameda revenue. The village is 
under the thttgyi of Shwegu. 

THA-YET-GWA. — A village in the Myotha circle, Myaing township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
ninety-nine persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 380 for 1897-98. 

THA-YE-THA.— A village in the Kwe-myok circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
ninety-four persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 

430- 

THA-YET-KAING. — A revenue circle in the Saling)'i township of Lower 
Chindwin district, on the right bank of the Chiudwin river, in the south-east 
of the township. 

The villages included in the circle are Thayelkaing and Ywathit. The 
population numbers three hundred and ninety-nine persons, and the revenue 
lor 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 750, from thathameda. 

THA-YET-KAN. — A revenue circle in the Natogyi township, Myingyan 
subdivision and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one hundred and thirty-five persons' 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 138. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

THA-YET-KAN. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, eighteen miles from Ye-u town. 

It has two hundred and twenty-seven inhabitants, who paid Rs. 510 tha- 
thameda revenue for 1896-97. They are all rice farmers. 

THA-YET-KAN. — A village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of 
Shwebo district, ten miles from Ye-u town. 



284 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



The population numbers seventy-two persons and the are.i under culti- 
vation is 406 acres. Paddy is the chief crop. Thathamcda revenue, amount- 
ing to Rs. 290, was paid for 1896-97. The village is in the Kon6n thugyis\\\^. 

THA-YET-KAN (NORTH).— A village in the Madaya township and sub- 
division of Mandalay district, on the east bank of the ShwetafAdw/;^. 

It has one hundred houses, with a population of four hundred persi^ns on 
an approximate calculation in 1897. The villagers are cultivators. 

THA-YET-KAN (SOUTH).— A village in the Madaya township and sub- 
division of Mandalay district, on the east bank of the ShwetacA«j tt«^, adjoin- 
ing Kabaing village. 

It has one hundred and fifteen houses, with a population of three hundred 
and forty-six persons on an approximate calculation in 1897. The villagers 
are cultivators. 

An indigo factory was put up in this village in the reign of King Mindon 
but is now out of repair. 

THA-YET-K.AUNG. — A village in the Mayagan township, Y'e-u sub- 
division of Shwebo district, sixteen miles from Ye-u. 

The population numbers one hundred and three persons, and the chief 
industry is paddy cultivation. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 320. 

THA-YET-KON. — A revenue circle in the Pathein-gyi township, Amara- 
pura subdivision of Mandalay district. 

ThayetkAn is the only village in the circle and is situated thirteen miles 
north-north-east of headquarters. It had a population of fifty persons at the 
census of 1891 and paid Rs. 100 thaihameda-\dk^ and Rs. 7 land revenue. 

THA-YET-KON. — A village in the Nga-kwe circle, Seikpyu town.ship, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and three 
persons, according to the census of i'!^9i, and a revenue of Rs. 240. 

THA-YET-KON. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivi- 
sion of Shwebo district, with one square mile of attached land. 

There are fifty-three acres under cultivation. 'I he chief products are 
paddy and jaggery. The village is thirteen miles from Ye-u and paid forty 
rupees thathameda revenue for 1896-97. It is in the Nyaungli circle. 

THA-YET-KON.— A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Yc-u subdivi- 
sion of Shwebo district, with two-and-a-half square miles of attached land. 

It had a population of two hundred and three persons in 1891, and there 
were seventy one acres of cultivation. The principal products are paddy 
and jaggery. The village is thirteen miles from Ve-u and for 1896-97 paid 
Rs. 324 thathameda revenue. It is under the Ywatna thugyi. 

THA-YET-KYIN.— A village in the Thayetkyin circle, Laung-she town- 
ship, Yawdwin subdivision of Pakdkku district, with a population of fiftv- 
seven persons and a revenue of Rs. 120 in 1897. 

THA-YET-PIN, — A circle in the Ma\ myo township and subdivision of 
Mandal.'iy district, including seven villages. 

Thayetpin village is three miles west of Maymyo, and has a population of 
three hundred and seventy-four persons, according to the census of 189 1. 

THA-YET-PIN. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivisioa 
of Shwebo district, fourteen miles from Yc-u. 



TUA] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



285 



There arc forty-eight inhabitants, mostly paddy cultivators. The thatha- 
meda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Ks. 150. 

THA-YET-PIN. — A village in the hidaing township, Tantabin subdivi- 
sion of Shwebo district, on the I'yaungthwi: stream, fifty-four-and-a-half 
miles from Ye-u. 

The population in 1891 numbered eighty-five persons, mostly rice farmers. 
The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 was Rs. 270. 

THA-YET-PIN. — A village in the Myinwun circle, Fak6kku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and one persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Ks. 460, included in that 
of Myinwun. 

THA-YET-PIN. — k village in the Tha-g>aung circle, Scikpyu township> 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of ninety-four persons> 
according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 100 for 1897-98. 

THA-YET-PU.— A village in the Kambaiii circle of the Hsa Mong Hkam 
State, Myelat district of the Southern Shan States. 

In 1S97 it contained eighty houses, with a population of three hundred 
and seventy-six persons. The amount of revenue paid was Rs. 328. The 
village stan<ls on the Government high road. 

THA-YET-TA. — A revenue circle in the Katha subdivision and district, 
embracing in 1897 a single village with twenty-five houses. 

Its annual Ihathameda-ia.'n was Rs. 230. It is the northernmost Burmese 
village in the Katha tow^nship. Formerly there was a Military Police post 
here to supervise the Kachins, but it has now been withdrawn. The 
villagers act as middlemen to the neighbouring Kachins. 

THA-YET-TA-BIN. — A revenue circle and village in the I'athein-gyi 
township, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district. 

It had a population of seven hundred and sixteen persons at the census of 
1891. The circle comprises has seven villages, inclusive of Thaycttabin, 
which lies north of the subdivisional headquarters, at a distance of about 
seven miles by road and water. The circle paid a land revenue of Rs. 2,540 
and a thathamc<ia-\.a.% of Rs. 2,440 for 1896-97. 

TH.-^-YET-TAN. — A village in the Madaya circle, township and subdivi- 
sion of Mandalay district, south-west of Madaya- »j_ytf. 

The houses in the village numbered ninety and the population counted in 
1897 three hundred persons, approximately. The people are cultivators, 

THA-YET-TAVV.— A village in the Linbin circle, Pak6kku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of four hundred and thirty persons, 
according lo the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 850, included in that 
of Linbin. 

THA-YET-TAW. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of one hundred and seventy-nine persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 790. 

THA-YET-TAW. — A circle in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, west of Madaya, including nine villages. 



286 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZlil I KKk. 



[THA 



THA-Y6-ZET. — A circle in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, north- west of Madaya, including four villages. 

Thay&zet village is situated east of Powa. It had eighty houses, and a 
population of three hundred and twenty five persons, on an approximate 
calculation, in 1897. The villagers are cultivators, 

THA-ZI SUBDIVISION.— 5-^t' Southern. 

THA-ZI. — A township in the Southern subdivision of Meiktila district. 

It has an area of 54039 square miles and had in 189 1 a population of forty- 
two thousand five hundred and sixty-two persons. 

Thazi village is the headquarters of the subdivision and township. Ii has 
a large bazaar, frequented by people from Meiktila, lllaingdet, Yamethin 
and Mandalay; there is besiues a bhan wasng, where traders from the Shan 
States house their cattle and goods. 1 his is not much used now as the 
Shan traders prefer to put up in brokers' houses. 

THA-ZI. — A revenue circle in the M6n-ywa township of Lower Chindwin 
district, eleven miles north-east of M6nywa. It lies atoiii,' the Thazi creek 
and in 1891 had a population of si.\ thousand four hundred and twenty-five 
persons. 

The circle is the largest in the township, and includes the villages of Thazi, 
Pauk-ngcdaw, Twin-gyaung, Thitkyin-gyidaw, Mftksogon, Danpin-de, Te- 
gyi-g6n east, Te-gyi-gon west, Kanbya, Pegon and Thadaung-sasu. For 
1896-97 the revenue from thathameda amounted to Ks. 1,305-8-0. The 
principal products aie jotcar and scssamum. 

THA-ZI. — A circle in the Myingun township of Magwe district, including 
the villages of Nyaungbinlha and Thilyagauk. 

TIlA-Zl. — A revenue circle in the Taungdwin-gyaung township, Mingin 
subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes two villages and paid Rs. 420 revenue in 1897. 

TH.VZl. — A village of seven hundred and ihirty-two houscs in the circle 
of the same name of Lower Chindwin district. 

In 1891 the population numbered three thousand four hundred and eighty 
nine persons. A large number ol toddy trees are grotvn, and from them 
jaggery is supplied to traders in M6nywa. There is a police-station in the 
village. 

THA-ZI. — A village in the Tadaing-she South revenue circle, Amarapura 
township of Mandalay district, about half a mile east of Nalsu. 

Thazi is a new village. It has a population of sixty-four persons, and there 
are twenty-six assessable households. 

THA-ZI. — A village of twelve house.<^ on the Selkala chaung, an affluent 
of the Irrawaddy river, in the Shwcgu subdl\ ision of Bhamo district. 
It was settled in 1S92 from Mankha in Kyidaw and Nga-yat. 

THA-ZI. — A village in the Thazi circle, Yeza-gyo township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and seventy-two 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 620 for 1897-98. 

THA-ZIN. — A village of one hundred and forty-five houses in the Sagaing 
subdivision and district, twenty-eight miles north-west of Sagaing. 



THA-THE ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



287 



There is a large jhtt near the village. 

THA-ZO.— A revenue circle in the Nato-gyi township, Myingyansubdivi- 
sion and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three thousand persons and the fha- 
thameda amounted to Rs. 4,597. No land revenue was collected in the 
circle. 

THfi-BON A-N.-MiK.— A village in the Waya circle, Yeza-gyo township. 
Pakokku Subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
ninety-eight persons, according to the census of i89i. 

The thathametfa amounted to Rs. 630 for 1897-98. 

THfi-BON A-SHE. — A village in the Waya circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
Pak'jkku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
fourteen persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 780 for 1897-98. 

THR-BYU-GY.M)NG, — A village in the Sa-le-ywe circle, Nga-singu 
township, Madava subdivision of Mandalay district, east of Gwebin. 

It has twenty-five houses and its population numbered in 1897 o"^ hundred 
persons approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

THE-BYU-WA. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivi- 
sion and district. 

In 1895-95 the population numbered three hundred and seventy-five 
persons, the thathameda amounted to Rs. 544, the land revenue to Rs. 62-5-0 
and the gross revenue to Rs. 606-5-0. 

THfe-DAW. — A village in the Kyauktat circle, Yeza-gyo township, 
PakAkku subdivision and dist.ict, with a population of four hundred and one 
persons, according to the census of i8gT. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 830 for 1897-98. 

THK-DAW. — A village in the Wundwin township, Northern subdivision 
of Meiktila district, about two miles from Wundwin. 

It includes four villages, under a thu^yi subordinate to the Wundwin 
thugvi. The villages have a population of four qx five hundred persons, m^ist 
of whom have settled here since the railway was made. Many of them are 
natives of India and Chinamen, attracted by the railway and the large 
bazaar which has been lately built by Government. The village has no 
historic interest. There i.sa small Public Works rest-house. 

THE-GAN. — A Kachin village in Tract No, 12. Bhamo district, situated 
in 24'' 26' north latitude and 97° 28' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained fifteen houses : its population was unknown. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are Chinese- 
Shan, and own no cattle. No supplies are obtainable. 

TH6-GAW. — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of Man- 
dalay district, south-west of Madaya town. 

It has seventy houses, and its population numbered in 1897 three hundred 
persons approximately. The villagers arc cultivators. 

THE-GON. — A village of sixteen houses north of the Taping c/whw^, in the 
Bhimo subdivision and district. 



388 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



{THE 



All the households are Shan-Chinese. The village was founded in 1880 
by Pu Han Wai from Tawmu. The settlers sold all their cattle before coming 
down and now have no land or cattle of their own. They borrow buffaloes 
and rent land at the rate of ten baskets of paddy the pe ; half of the house- 
holds work fields belonging to Myothit, and half fields belonging to the 
Pdnlein Kachins A little taungya is also worked and some of the villagers 
go to Sipet as coolies. 

TH^-GON— A village in the Maw Son Slate, Myelat dist^^t of the 
Southern Shan States, south of the chief village. 

It contained fifty-six houses in iSyy, with a population of two hundred and 
eighty-one persons, who paid Rs. 168 annual revenue. The greater number 
of the inhabitants are occupied in the manufacture of shoes and umbrellas, 
which are sold all over the Myelat. 

THfi-GYU.V.— A village in the Alegan circle, Myaing township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and thirl^-five 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathanteda amounted to Rs 360 for 1897-98 

TH6-GYUN. — A village in the Madaya township and snli'^ivlsion of 
Mandalay district, west of Powa North. 

It had sixty houses with a population of two hundred and fifty persons, 
on an approximate calculation in 1897. The villagers are fishermen. 

THfi-IN. — A village in the Naung-u circle, Yeza-gyo township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a popnlation of three hundred and fifty-five 
persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 560. 

THEIN-BAVV. — A local name for the Kachins of the Hu Kawng valley, 
and Katha and Upper Chindwin districts. See under Hu Kawng. 

THEIN-DAW. — The headquarters of the Tindeik circle, in the Sagaing 
township and di?trict. 

It consists of three villages. Konywa, Theindaw and Tindeik. In the 
village are a pagoda and temple erected by King Thiri-dhamma Thawka. 

THElN-DAVV.- — .\ village in the Myitchfe circle. Pakdkku township, sub- 
division and district, with a population of three hundred and fifty-two 
persons, according to the census of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 710, included 
in that of .MyitchS. 

THEIN-GA-BO. — A village in the Pyathi circle, Myaing township, 
Pakftkku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred ami fifty- 
eight persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 330. 
included in that of Pyathi. 

rHEIN-Gf)N. — A revenue circle in the Taungdwin-gyaung township, 
Mingin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes one village only and paid Rs, 200 revenue in 1897. 

THEIN-GON. — A village in the Maw State, Myelat district of the South- 
ern Shan Slates, about two miles east of Kyaukmyaung, where the Ng'we- 
kuu-h'itu lives. 

In 1897 it had a population of two hundred and ninety-one pcri^ons, all 
Diinus. living in forty-eight houses, of whicli tl]irty-fi\e were tjxed and paid 
Rs. aOo annual revenue. 



THE] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



389 



THEIN-GON.— A village in Anauk Tadan circle, Pang-tara State, Myelat 
district of the Southern Shan States. Ft is situated in the north of the 
State towards the Lawk Sawk border, and contains thirty-six houses with a 
population of one hundred and seventy-six persons, who pay Rs. 397 
revenue. 

THEIN-GON, — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandaiay district, on the east bank of the ShwetafAa«»^, between Madaya 
and I'aungljin. 

It has twenty houses and its population numbered in 1897 eighty persons 
approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

THEIN-GON. — A village in the Kwe-my6k circle, Yeza-gvo township, 
Paki!ikku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
thirty persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 500 for 1897-98. 

THEIN-LIN. — '.\ village on the stream of the same name, in the Bhamo 
subdivision and district. 

The inhabitants own sixty-five buffaloes, and get a yield of eleven 
hundred baskets of kaukkyi, besides practising a tittle taungya. Roads 
lead to Kangyi, Sawadi and Kawap6n. 

Theinlin was formerly the headquarters of a line of hereditary paW' 
niaings, who controlled the villagers from Theinlin to Faukgon (EJhamo), 
but the line failed in King Thibaw's reign, and thugyis were then appoint- 
ed to each village. 

THEIN-LIN. — The Theinlin chaung rises in the Kachin Hitls east of 
Bhanio and flows westward into the Irrawaddy river, about four miles 
below Bhamo. 

Its average width in its course through the plains is forty yards, and its 
depth from two to four feet. Small boats can ascend ail the year round. 
At the ford on the Bhamo-Mansi road it is forty yards wide by two feet 
deep in January, with a sandy bottom. On the Bbamo-Sawadi road near 
its mouth it is crossed by a wooden cart-bridge. 

THEIN-LON. — A village of fifteen houses on the M0I& chaung, in the 
Bhamo subdivision and. district. 

It was resettled about i860 from Man-the, now destroyed, after it had 
remained deserted for eight years, and was controlled until the Annexation 
by pawmaings. 

The inhabitants hire buffaloes from the neighbouring Kachin villages, 
and get an annual yield of some three hundred baskets of paddy. 

There is a road via Laitanyang and TatpAn to Warasang, where it 
divides, one branch going north to Nanyat and Lema, the other south to 
Laungpu. 

THEIN-NI.— The Burmese name of the Shan State of Hsen Wi [q.v.). 

THEIN-YVVA. — A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision 
and district. In 1895-96 the population numbered five hundred and 
seventy-five persons and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 784. No land 
revenue was collected in the circle. 

THEIN-YVVA.— A revenue circle in the Pagan subdivision of Mying)'an 
district. 

37 



290 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[THE 



In 1895-96 the population numbered two hundred and eighty persons 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 423. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

THEIN-YWA. — A village in the Nga-singu township, Madaya sub- 
division of Mandalay district, north of Mye-zun. 

The village has one hundred and ten houses and its population numbered 
in 1897 five hundred persons approximately. The villagers are cultivators 
and coolies. 

THEKE-GYIN. — A village in the Wayobyin circle, Seikpyu township 
Pakdkku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
twenty-six persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 430 for 1897-98. 

THEK-Kfi-GYIN. — A village in the Indaing township, Tantabin sub- 
division of Shwebo district, sixty-four-and-a-half miles from Ye-u, on the 
Maingwan stream. 

The population in 1891 numbered four hundred persons, mostly paddy 
cultivators. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to three hun- 
dred and seventy rupees. 

THE-SAUNG. — An Indawgyi lake village, now deserted, in the Mo- 
gaung subdivision of Myitkyina district. 

THET-KAN-CHAING. — A circle in the VVetwin township, Maymyo 
subdivision of Mandalay district, containing two villages. 

The village of this name i.s situated seven miles north-west of Wetwin. 
Danu paddy is cultivated. The circle paid Rs. 170 thathameda for 1896. 

THET-KAN-GON. — A circle in the Wetwin township, Maymyo subdi- 
vision of Mandalay district, including a single village, seven miles north- 
west of Wetwin. 

Danu paddy is cultivated. The circle paid Rs. 480 thathameda-t^x in 
1896. 

THET-K£-DAW. — A village in the Shwe-gyetyet revenue circle, 
Amarapura township and subdivision of Mandalay district, five miles south- 
west of headquarters. 

It had a population of one hundred and twenty persons at the census .of 
1891 and paid Rs, 200 thathameda-Xay.. 

THET-Kft-G6N. — A village in the Myaing township, Pakfikku sub- 
division and district, with a population of two hundred and forty-seven 
per.sons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 530, includ- 
ed in that of Myaing-ashe-zu. 

THET-KE-GYIN.— A village in the circle of the same name, in M6nywa 
township of Lower Chindwin district, fiye miles south-east of M6nywa, 

In 1891 the population numbered five hundred and forty-five persons. 
For 1896-97 the revenue from thathameda amounted to Rs. 769-9-0. 

The principal products are joviar and sessamum. The village is noted 
for its manufacture of combs, 

THET-KE-GYIN. — A village in the Ma-hlaing township, Northern sub- 
division of Mciktila district, with two hundred houses. It is situated on the 
borders of Mciktila and Myingyan districts. 



THE-THI] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



sgt 



In Burmese times the village was undtr Nyaung6k. Its Mw^yr' followed 
the Nyaung6k Bo in the Myingun Prince's rebellion and his lands were 
confiscated. He was subsequently pardoned by King Mind6n and his circle 
separated from Nyaung6k. 

The dacoits Bo Shwe Yaing and Bo Tok gave much trouble here at the 
Annexation. 

THET-KE-GYIN. — A village in the Nyaungdwin circle, Myaing town- 
ship, Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred 
and sixty-two persons, according to the census of 1S91. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 540 for 1897-98. 

THET-Kfi-GYIN. — A village and revenue circle in the Pathein-gyi 
townshipj Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, twenty-four miles 
north-north-east of headquarters. 

It had a population of seventy persons at the census of 1891, and paid 
Rs. \Z^ thaihame(ia-idi%. 

THET-LA, — A revenue circle in the Lega-yaing township and subdivi- 
sion of Upper Chindwin district, including four villages. 

THET-PAN. — A village of thirty houses in Ava township of Sagaing 
district, twenty miles south of Ava. 

The Thetpan thugyi has also the village of Tedawya, thirty-three housesi 
under his charge. 

THET-PE. — A village in the Chauk-ywa township of Shwebo district, 
on the eastern bank of the Mu river. 

It grows considerable crops of different pulses, and millet in large 
quantities. It is eighteen miles from Shwebo and in 1891 had a population 
of one thousand four hundred and forty-eight persons and paid Rs. 3,210 
revenue. 

THETTA. — A village of Lai Chins in the Soulberti Chin Hills. It lies 
eighteen miles south of Haka and can be reached from Haka via Fonalan, 
across a spur and several streams. 

In 1894 it had one hundred and eighty houses. Randun, Vandun (VVund- 
wln), Tanling and Tirkwe were its resident chiefs. 

Thetta was formerly of much importance. It resisted the British troops 
until 1890, when it surrendered. It was totally disarmed in 1895. There 
are camping-grounds above and below the village, with a limited water- 
supply in nullahs, half a mile to the west. A small amount of rice is 
available. Thetta is sometimes called Shiikta by the Hakas. 

THET-YA-GAUK. — A circle in the Myingun township, of Magwc 
district, including the village of Thazi only. 

THET-YWA. — A village in the Pakhangyi circle, Ye-za-gyo township, 
Pakdkku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and 
s'xty-nine persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 790 for 1897-98. 

THl-BAW. — The Burmese name of the Shan State of Hsi Paw [q.v.) 
THI-BIN-GAING. — A\illage in the Chaung-z6ngyi circle, Myaing town- 
ship, Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a popuUtion of one hundred 



THE L'PPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



asd aercoif-iwo penom, aocordiag to Uw cnuas o< 1891, tnd a rerenoe ai 
R%. 400, iodoilM fai flat of Cbsaagi'zAafyi. 

THI-DTN-BIN.— A village in the Kraukkan cttdc, Mjaing township, 
Pak/jkku tubdivision aj>d diatrict, with a popuiatioa of two boodred and 
ftfty'Mveti persons, according to the ceiwa» of 1891. 

TTir thalhameda amoontcd to Rs. 640 for i^'j-^. 

THI-DON, — A village in the Thadat circle, Myaing township, Pakdkka 
'itbdivifion and district, with a popoUtion of ninely-five persons, according 
to the census of i8gi, and a revenue of R». 180, included in that of Thadot. 

THI-Gf)N. — A village in the Thjg6n circle, Lanng-she township, Yaw- 
dwin subdivision of PakAkku district, with a population of one hundred and 
eighty-fieven person* and a revenue of R». 420, in 1897. 

THI'GYAUK. — A village in the Pack township and subdivision of 
PakAkku district, with a population of one hundred and forty-four pefsons, 
accordin^^to the cmsus of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 260, included in that 
of Nyaungwanbauk. 

THI-GYAUK. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pak6k- 
ku district, with a population of eighty-one persons, according to the census 
of i8gi| and a revenue of Rs. 250. 

TIH-GYAUNG. — A circle in the Nalmauk township of Magwe district, 
including the villages of Thi-gyaung, Kyaukchaw, Tanaungg6n and Tha- 
inAnj^An. 

I III-GYIT.— iTrtf under Hsi-hkip (Yawng Hwe sub-State.) 

TIlI-KWfiL. — A village of Chins of the Tashon tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It li<s on the side of a hill north of the Pao river, in a valley south- 
east of Minkin, and can be reached via Minkin post and village, distant 
sixteen miles. 

Ill I 8q4 it had eight houses. Nycl-lycng was its resident chief. 

Thikwel is a Hmall unfenccd village and is related to Shimpi. It pays 
Iriliutc to I'aljiin. There is good camping-ground and water-supply. 

'rUI-LA-Gt)N. — A village in Madaya circle, township and subdivision of 
Manrlalay district, south-west of Thaycttan. 

It has thirty-five houses and its population numbered in 1897 one hun- 
dred and twenty persons approximately. The people are cultivators. 

THI-LA-YWA. — A circle in the Taungdwingyi township of Magwe 
district, including the villages of Thila-ywa and Paungbaing. 

THt-LA-YW.\. — A village in Nga-singu township, Madaya subdivision of 
MandaLiy di-strict, south-cast of Nga-singu myoma. 

It has thirty-six houses and a population of two hundred and eighty per- 
■Oni approximately. The villa>;crs are cultivators. 

T1IIM1V'\N-G0N.— ,\ revenue circle in the Pathein-gyi township, Amar- 
apura subdixisiou of Mand.ilay district. 

Tlumbangftn is the only village in the circle, and is situated seven miles 
cast uorth-rasl of lieadciuarlns. It had a population of one hundred and 
eighty persons at llic census of 1S91, and paid Rs. 400 thathametla-t^x and 
Rs. 396 land revenue. 



THI] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZEITEER. 



293 



THIMBAW-GON. — A village in the Myintha circle, Pakokku township, 
subdivision and district, with n population of twenty-nine persons, according 
to the census of 1S91. 

The thdthamcda amounted to Rs. no for 1897-98. 

THIMBAW-GYUN. — An island village in the Irrawaddy river below 
Bhamo, in the subdivision and district of that name. 

It contains forty-one houses : many of them, owing to the high rise of the 
river in the rains, are built on large t<aulks of timber and are in reality rafts. 
Most of the inhabitants are fishermen : some tobacco is also cultivated. 

THIMBAVV-IN. — A village north of the Irrawaddy river, in the Shwegu 
subdivision of Bhamo district. 

It was in i8go the residence of the Myothu^yi o{ the Mo-hnyin kayaitig. 

The villagers are chiefly fishermen, and work also mnyin and taungya. 
They own fifty buffaloes and four bullocks. The chief lish caught is the 
nga-tkaing, which is cooked for oil, the price being ordinarily eight annas a 
viss. There are a few cocoanut-palm and fruit trees in the village, which is 
flooded in the rainy season. 

Thimbawin was formerly the residence of an A mat, appointed from Mo' 
Historv hnyin-gyi in Mawlu by the Mo-hnyin Sawbaw. In Bodaw- 

paya's reign the Sa-ivb'ica rebelled and the Sa7t.<bwas\\\^ 
was in consequence abolished, and i»slead of the Jaa'^av? a IVutt was deput- 
ed from Mandalay, and the Amafs lost their former official status and were 
replaced by a Myothiigyi. Later still, in place of the Mo-hnyin Wun, a 
Lemyo Wun was appointed over the jurisdiction of Bhamo, Mo-hnyin, 
Shwegu and Kaungtdn. 

THIN-BAN-GYIN. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivi- 
sion of Shwebo district, with two square miles of attached lands. 

The population in 1892 numbered sixty-six persons, and there were four- 
teen acres of cultivation. Paddy and jaggery are the chief products. The 
village is fifteen miles from Ye-u. The thathamcda revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 270. The village is under the Shwegu thugyi. 

THIN-BAUNG. — A village in the Tha-gyaung circle, Seikpyu township, 
Pakfikku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and six 
persons, according to the census of iSgl. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 410 for 1897-98. 

THIN-BAUNG-GAN. — A village in the Myotha circle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku sudivision and district, with a population of three hundred and fifty- 
nine persons, according to the census of 1S91. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 600 for 1897-98. 

THIN-BON. — A village of sixty-eight houses in Ava township of Sagaing 
district, five miles south of Ava, on the Ava-Myotha road. 
Near it is a noticeable pagoda, the Shin-byinkw6-nyein. 

THIN-BYUN.— A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision 
and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand five hundred and 
twenty-five persons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs, 1,984. No land 
revenue was assessed in the circle. 



294 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[THl 



THIN-DAW. — A revenue circle in the Mingin (ownsliip and subdivision 
of Upper Chindwin district, including two villages. 
The revenue paid in 1897 amounted to Rs. 640. 

THIN-DEIN,— A village of thirty-two houses in Ava township of Sagaing 
district, twenty-one miles south of Ava, 

The neighbouring village of E-swa, twenty-three houses, is also under the 
Thindein thugyi. The jungle round is very thick, and leopards, wild pig 
and deer are plentiful. 

THIN-GA-DON. — A revenue circle witii ei^lit hundred and ninety inhabit- 
ants, in the Kani township of Lowrr Chindwin district. It includes seven 
villages, Mingfin, Bawdibin, Ywa-thit, Myaungg6n, Kftngyi, Yezo and Pahe, 
all situated on the Thingad6n chauug. 

The forests of the eastern slope of the Mahudaung range abound in teak 
and other valuable timber and a reserveof about sixty square miles has been 
delimited. 

The only crop cultivated in the circle is paddy. The revenue for 1896-97 
was Rs. ii55o from tliathameda, and Rs. 23 from State lands. 

TIHN-GA-DON. — A circle in the Maymyo township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district. It includes the villages of Thingadon and Thayetk6n, 
and lies eight miles south-cast of Maymyo. 

It had a population of one hundred and forty-four persons at the census 
of 189T. The tliatkanieda-iaL-x. paid in itJgS amounted to Rs. 400. Danu 
paddy is cultivated, 

THIN-G.\-DON. — A stream in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin 
district. It rises near Ya-gyi, flows northwards forsjme eighty miles, and 
enters the Chindwin river a little below the village of Kin. 

The following explanation of the name is given : Kathaba^ the Buddhist 
. d priest, who convened the First Synod after Gaudama's 

death, retired to the Webula hills at the source of the 
Patol^n stream. His disciples followed him, but when they reached the 
Thingadon stream heard that he had died at the Alaungdaw Kathaba cave, 
so they went no further, but shook the dust from their robes and returned 
to India. Thinga means a priest's robe and ddn to shake). 

THlN-G.^N-BUT. — A circle in the Taungdwin-gyi township of Magwe 
district, including the single village of Thiiiganbut. 

THl-NGfi-DAW.— A village of two hundred and eighty houses in the Ava 
township of Sagaing district, six miles southwest of Ava. 

The village of Chaungu, forty-four houses, is part of the Thingfedaw 
thugyCs jurisdiction. 

Thing^daw in the King's reign had to supply children from eight to ten 
History years of age as Court Pages and thi.<igave its name to the 

village. The parents of these children were allowed to 
work State lands irrigated by the Kandawkanhia tank, free of revenue. 
THIN-MAUNG. — The Burmese name for Hsen Mawrg {jj.v.). 
THIN-NUT. — The Burmese name of Hsen Yawt {q v). 

THIN-TA-PAVV. — A revenue circle in the Nato-gyi township, MyiQg}*an 
subdivision and district. 



THIl 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER, 



395 



In 1895-96 the popalation numbered six hundred and five persons, and the 
thathameda amounted to Rs. 770. No land revenue was collected in the 
circle. 

THIN-TAYA.— A revenue circle in the Natogyi township, Myingyan sub- 
division and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand six hundred and sixty- 
five persons, andthe thathameda amounted to Rs. 2,030. No land revenue 
was collected in the circle. 

THIN-THI. — A village in the Pakaiingfc circle, Yeza-gyo township, Pakftk- 
ku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and twelve 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

'Wit. thathameda amounted to Rs. 510 for 1897-98. 

THI-TA-YA. — A revenue circle and village with two hundred and fifty- 
three inhabitants, in the east of the Mintaingbin township of Lower Chin- 
dwin district. 

The thathameda. amounted to Rs. 740 for 1896-97. 

THIT-CHO. — A villasre in the Ma\-agan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, twenty-three miles from Ye-u. 

The population numbers one hundred and sixty persons, who paid Rs. 460 
thathameda revenue for 1896-97. They are all rice farmers. 

THIT-E-BIN.~A village in the U Talk circle of the Stale of Pang-tara, 
Myelat district of the Southern Shan States, due east of the Ngwe-kun- 
hmu's village. 

In 1892 it contained one hundred and sixty-six houses, with a population 
of nine hundred and ninety-five persons, who paid Rs. 731 annual revenue, 

THI-GYI DAW. — A village in the Kabyu circle, Yeza-gyo township, Pa- 
k6kku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
ninety-four persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda revenue amounted toRs. 8go for 1897-98. 

THIT-KAUK-SEIK.— A village in the Thit-kauk-seik circle, Yeza-gyo 
township, Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of four 
hundred and forty-eight persons, according lo the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 780 for 1897-98. 

THIT-K.\UNG-DI. — A revenue circle in the Taungdwin-gyaung town- 
ship, Mingin subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes a single village and paid a revenue of Rs. 530 in 1S97. 

THIT-KOK-KWIN. — A circle in the .Myingun townsliipof .Magwc dis- 
trict, including the villages of Thitk6kkwin and Gwedaukkon. 

THIT-KYI-DAVV. — A village in the Myotha circle, Myaing township, 
Pakfikku subdivision arfd district, with a population of one hundred and 
eighty-two persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 360 for 1897-98. 

THIT-KYI-TAING. — A revenue circle in the west of the Mintaingbin 
township of Lower Chindwin district, with seven hundred and seveuty-six 
inhabitants. 



stgS 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[THl 



It includes four villages, Thitkyitaing, Thekkfe-gyin, Kyaungdaw and 
S^bym. Thethaihamcda amounted toRs. 1,410 for 1896-97. The products 
are paddy and bamboo. 



THIT-MYO-DAN.— A village in the Leya circle, Pak6kku township, 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and seventy 
persons, acccording to the census of i8gi. 

The thathamedd revenue amounted to Rs. 410 for 1897-98. 

THIT-NYI.NAUNG.— A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of 
Pakftkku district, with a population of one hundred and seventy-seven 
persons, accordinij to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 279, included 
in that of Kyabyitkan. 

THIT-PIN-GYI.— A village in the Kandein circle, Myaing township, 
Paki'ikku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and 
eighty-seven persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 360, included in that of Kanbyu, 

THIT-PIN-SHI. — h revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivi- 
sion and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered two hundred and forty-five personsi 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 259. No land revenue was assessed 
in the circle. 

THIT-SEIN-BIM.— A village in the Ye Ngan State, Myelat district of 
the southern Shan States. 

In 1897 it contained fifty-six houses, with a population of four hundred 
and thirly-six persons, and paid Rs. 322-8-0 revenue. 

THIT-SEIN-GYI.— A village in the Sheinmaga township of Shwebo 
district, twenty-four miles from Shwebo town. It is an important trading 
station on the Irrawaddy liver, and stands on the eastern slope of the Min- 
wun range. 

The population consists almost exclusively of traders and numbered one 
thousand four hundred and thirty-six persons in 1891. The annual reve- 
nue then was Rs. 5,013. 

THIT-SI-BIN-HLA. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u sub- 
division of Shwebo district, with four-and-a-hall square miles of appro- 
priated lands. 

It has three hundred and ninety-seven inhabitants and sixty-two acres 
of cultivation. Paddy, jaggery and tliitsi are the chief products. The 
thathameda revenue for 1800-97 amounted to Rs. gio. Thitsibin-hla is 
sixteen miles from Ve-u, in the Katluma thugyis\\\^. 

THIT-SON. — .\ village south of the Moyu f/i(fa«_§', in the Shwcgu sub- 
division of Bhamo district. 

The inhabitants own sixty-four buffaloes and get an average yield of 
fifteen hundred baskets of paddy ; they do not work mayin. The thatha- 
meda revenue paid in 1893 amounted to Rs. 400. The village is four feet 
under flood in the rains. 

THIT-TAT. — A vill^e in the Taung-nga-kut circle, Laung-she town- 
ship, Yawdwin subdivision of f^akfikku district, with a population of ninety- 
five persons and a revenue of Rs. 200 in 1897, 



THI-THO] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



297 



THIT-TAUNG, — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and sub- 
division of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered seven hundred and fifty persons, 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,096, the State land revenue to Rs. 
627-2-0 and the gross revenue to Rs. 1,723-2-0. 

THIT-TAW-BYA SOUTH.— A village of twelve houses only in Ava 
(ovvnsliip of Sagaing district, twenty-one miles south of Ava. 

THiT-YAlK — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, twenty-eight miles from Ye-u. 

The population numbers three hundred and forty-five persons, and the 
villagers are alt eno;agpd in paddy cultivation. The thathnmeda revenue 
for 1806-07 amounted to Rs. 500. 

TMIT-YAUNG. — A village in thfi circle of the'same name, in Kani town- 
ship of Lower Chindwin district. It lies at a distance of a quarter of a 
mile from the Chindwin river, on the main road from Kani to Pa-le. 

It has one hundred and ninety-three inhabitants, most nf whom are 
cultivators ; paddy, joicary sessamum and peas are grown. The revenue 
for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 310 from thathameda and Rs. 35 froTi State 
lands. 

THIT-YON, — A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision 
and district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and sixty-two persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 924. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

THON-AING. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 

subdivision of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered three hundred and seventy persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 474. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

THON-DAUNG. — A village of one hundred houses, three miles north of 
the Nyaungok chaung in the Ma-hlaing township, Northern subdivision 
of Meiktila district. 

About a mile north of the village are three stretches of soap-sand, near 
the small hills which are said to have given it's name to the village. Like 
many other villages in the township, Th6ndaung has a great many /<7r/and 
cocoanut palms. There is a small in near the village, wflich dep'n^^s for 
its water-supply entirely on the rainfall. 

Thondaung in Burmese times was under the NyaungAk Bo Manng Maik, 
but became a distinct jurisdiction when he was outlawed. 

THON-DAUNG-AING.— A village three-and-a-half miles from Pin.Ial6 
on the main road to VVundwin, in the Northern subdivision of Meiktila 
district, with a population of four hundred and eighty persons. 

It is one of the few favoured villages of the subdivision, as it has a 
perennial water-supply, drawn from the Thinbfin stream. 

There are several ruined pagodas in the village, but their history is now 
forgotten. Bo Maung Min, the thiioyi in Burmese times, organized a band 
of dacoits and kept up an intermittent warfare for many years with the 
Ti-hlaing Bo, Maung San Galng, 

38 



igS 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ THo— no 



THON-EIN. — A village in the Kyaukmi revenue circle, Pathcin-o;vI 
township, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, ten miles east-north- 
east of headquarters. 

It had a population of twenty persons at the census of 1S91 and paid 
Rs. 60 t/tat/iameda-iA\. 

TH6N-LAN-BYI. — A ChinbAn village in the Th6nlanbvi circle, Laung-she 
township, Yawdwin subdivision of PakAkku district, with a population of 
eiphtv-one persons, and a revenue of Rs. 180 in 1897. 

TH6N-ZE.— The Burmese name of the Shan State of Hsum Hsai (^.w.). 

THON-ZE-BE, — A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, east of the Irrawaddy river. 

It has one hundred and eighty-five houses and its population uumbered 
in 1802 seven hundred and fifty persons approximately. The villagers are 
cultivators. 

THWE-NET. — A revenue circle in the Sa-Ie township, Pagan subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

In i8Q«;-q6 the population numbered four hundred and twenty persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 560. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

TI, — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of fifty-three persons, according to the census of 
iSgr, and a revenue of Rs. no. 

TNDAW-MO. — A village in the Kaungmun-chauk-ywa circle, Pathein-gyi 
township, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, seventeen-and-a- 
half-miles north-east of headquarters. 

It had a population nf three hundred and thirty- one persons at the 
census of 1891. 

TI-GON. — A village in the Kya-u-yin6n circle, Nga-slngu township 
Madaya subdivision of Mandalay district, south of Kya-u-yin. 

The village has forty houses, and the population numbered in 1897 °"^ 
hundred and twenty persons approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

TI-GYAING. — A township in the Katha subdivision and district, with a 
population, according to th** census of iSqi, of seventeen thousand four hun- 
dred and eighty-four persons, and an area of five hundred square miles. It is 
bounded on the east by the Irrawaddy river ; on the west by the MInwun hill 
range and the Kawlin and Wuntho townships ; on the north by the Katha 
and Manlfe townships ; and on the south by the Tagaung township of Ruby 
Mines district. 

The township in Burmese times was in the jurisdiction of the Myadaung 
w««, and was called the Mvadaung township. 

It formed until 1802 a part of the Mvadaung subdivision, which was then 
in Katha district, but since that year Myadaung has been made over to Ruby 
Mines district and Tigyaing joined to the Katha subdivision. 

There were in 1897 forty-one fhugyis and eighty-four villages in the 
township. Seven items of revenue are coilertrd, namely : — Thathameda 
Rs. 29,660, knukkyi Rs. 7,152, taun/rva Rs. 315, mayin Rs. 2,762, fishery 
Rs. 23,740, excise Rs. 360, tobacco Rs. 2,280, making a total of Rs. 64,269, 



TtG— TIIJ 



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299 



Ti-gyaing village is situated on the right bank of the Irrawaddy, and for 
a short time after the Annexation was the headtjuarters of Katha district. 
The name is dtTived by local etymologists from //ft an umbrella, and kyaing 
a staff or ward of office. It is the headquarters of the present township 
and has a court-house, bazaar, combined telegraph and post offices, a ddk 
bungalow, forest office, and Military and Civil Police lines. The town, with 
its over-hanging pagodas, is very picturesque. It is a calling station for the 
Irrawaddy Flotilla Company's sleamers, but trade does not seem to be 
noticeably rising. The exports are small and consist chiefly of m^./^/ and 
dried-fish. 

The population of the township comprises Burmans, Shans, and a few 
Chinese. Their principal occupation is petty trading, cultivation, fishing 
and wood-cutting. 

The Gangaw range ends at Ti-gyaing on the irrawaddy, after passing 
through ihe northern portion of the township. There are numerous large 
plains watered by numerous creeks in which there are fisheries, and there 
is much room for the extension of cultivation. Communications everywhere 
are easy at most seasons of the year. 

Tl-GYAING. •— A circle in the Katha subdivision of the district of that 
name, comprising four villages with four hundred and forty-iliree houses. 

In Burmese times Ti-gyaing was a small hamlet of some one hundred 
houses. After the Annexation, a court and a forest office were established 
and it became a flourishing town. 

There were in 1897 a bazaar and inspection bungalow, Civil Police lines, 
a potice-statiou, and combined post and telegraph offices. The moai and 
stone fort were destroyed when the military quarters were built. The 
villagers are mostly traders and cultivators. 

There are a few Chinese. They pray, so the Burmans put it, to the nat 
Kvet-san-ni, having no proper place of worship. 

In the circle is a lamous bill which adjoins the Mawlu and Manlfe town- 
j^ J ships and the Mo-hnyin hill range. On its summit in 

olden times a city was built by two princes named Yanda 
Pyissi and Nanda Pyissi. During their reign the Chinese invaded the 
country and the iwo princes defended ihemscives at Myingin with a large 
force of cavalry : the places where thtir ponies and elephants were stalled 
are still called Myingyon and Singyon, and on the spot where the city was 
built the ruins of a stone fort are still to be seen. 1 he Chinese were routed 
and the place where the victory was won was named ray6k Pauk. 

On the summit of the same hill is the Myata-lheindan pagoda, built, ac- 
cording to tradition, by King Ti)iri-dhamnia Thawka. King Nara-padi- 
sitLu went round the world on his Paung Sekkya, or magic barge ana saw 
this pagoda and made an offering of his emerald bell, valued at a lakh of 
rapees, to it. These gave a name both to the pagoda and to the hill on 
which it stands. Local etymology \y. supra} derives the name Ti-gyaing 
from A/j', the Royal umbrella, and kyatng the Koyal staff, which were pre- 
sented as an offering at the place. 

TIL. -A Kachin village in Tract No. 22, Myitkyina district, situate^ in 
35° 28' north latitude, and 97° 50' east longitude. 



3oo 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



I TIL 



In 1892 It contained fourteen houses, with a population of fifty-four per- 
sons. The lieadman has no others subordinate to him, The inhabitants 
are ot the Lcpai tribe and Sadan sub-tribe. 

TILL — A village of Chins of the Yahow tribe in the Central Chin Hills. 
It lies on a hill east of the Klairfln stream, south of Khein Khnm and 
near the south end of the Yahow valley, and ran be reached via Shunkla, 
Sekurr, Hmunpi, and Khein Khan. 

In ,894 it had twenty houses. The resident chief was Lyen Yam. Tili 
Is subordinate to Vannul and pays tribute to Falam. There is plenty of 
water along the mad, but no good camping-ground. The village is not 
fenced. 

TI-LIN'. — A township of the Pauk subdivisian of PakAkku district, con- 
sisting of three deep valleys runaing north and south, is bounded on 
the ecist by the Pondaung range, on the west by the Chin hills and the 
Maw river, on the south by the Yaw township, and on the north by the 
Gangaw subdivision. 

The hills are stony and barren, and very little cultivation besides paddy 
is attempted, and even this only near the different streams, so that in years 
of drought Titin is liable to partial famine. 

The area of the township is four hundred and ninety-three square miles, 
and it has a population of twelve thousand two hundred and two pt-rsoiis, 
divided between seventy-three villages. The amount of revenue paid in 
1897 was Rs. 23,460. The headquarters are at Tilin village. 
In the central parts of the township some iron is found and worked into 
Industr'es. dhas. Silk-worm rearing is practised, and the manufac- 

ture of silk and lacquerware is carried on to some extent. 
These industries are in the hands of the Taungthas [v, infra et sub PakAk- 
ku). 

Tilin was at first a Sawbu'as\\i^, peopled by Shans, captives sent from 
uj^j^ Mogaung. It extended north as far as Ka-le State and 

included all the country east of ihe Pondaung range 
as far as Myaing. During the reign of Naungdaw-paya, son of Alaung- 
paya, however, the Sawb'iva rebelled and was defeated and deposeO. A 
large part of his territory was taken away and a myothugyi sent to Tilin. 
About 1202 B.E. (1840, A.D.) Tilin came under the Wun of Ya\\ , who 
lived at Pauk. After the Annexation it was made into a township. 

About two miles south of Tilin is the famous Shwekungya-uk pagoda, 
A n.:^., ;.!.«, said tn have been erected by Nara-padi-sithu, King of 

ragan. Ihe story runs that, whilst he was travelling in 
a raft on the Maw river he saw a gold fish and pursued it, and evertually 
caught it in a deep pool under the cliff on which the pagoda now stands, 
A small tank was dug and the fish put in, and the tank was covered with a 
golden net, and a pagoda Imilt oyer it ; hence the pagoda was called the 
Shwe-kuu-gya-Ak, ' covered with a golden net.' 

Near the Shwekun-gya-6k is a village of pagoda slaves with whom 
ordinary Eiurmans have no intercourse. No Burman will eat with them 
nor intermarry with them, nor may tliey come up into a house without 
permission. Their origin is not quite clear., but the common account is 
that some hundred years ago there was a great famine and almost the 



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301 



whole country was deserted. A few families, some fourteen or so in number, 
who were starving, settled near the pagoda to live on the offerings made 
there, and so became pagoda slaves. They now number twenty house- 
holds. They were required in Burmese times to keep the precincts of the 
pagoda clean and clear off jungle. They now cultivate lands round the 
village. 

Scattered about the Tilin township, but chiefly in the central portion, 
The Taungihas. ''^''"S generally in villages by themselves, are found 
the Taungthas. Their account of themselves is that 
they came from Popa hill in the east. The first families settled near the 
Kyawyaw creek, which flows into the Myittha river just above Min-ywa. 
When their numbers increased so that enough subsistence could not be 
found in this settlement, they determined to emigrate. The three head- 
men, who were brothers, discussed the question of the direction they 
should take, but the point was settled for them by the branching of a 
huge Nyaungbin in the settlement. One of its branches pointed north, 
the other east, and the third south, so one brother and his followers settled 
in Gangaw, the second in Tilin, and the third went down to Yawdwln. The 
tree is still pointed out. 

The language spoken by the Taungthas is quite distinct from Burmese, 
but is very much like Chinbok. The names of the most common articles 
and the roots of all the principal verbs are the same in both languages. 
1 he men dress like Burmans, but the women, instead of the tamein, wear 
a white cotton petticoat reaching to the ankles .md fastened round the 
waist with a belt of shells or .silver wire. The Taungthas are devout Bud- 
dhists, but there is at the same time a good deal of nat worship among them. 
They arc more industrious than the Burmans and as a rule, especially the 
women, are more robustly built. Their features are less Mongolian than 
of the type of the native of India. 

Tl-LTN.— The headquarters of the township of the same name in the 
Pauk subdivision of Pakokku district. 

It is situated on the east bank of the Maw river and contained in tSga 
one hundred and twenty houses, with a population of nine hundred and 
eighty-tive persons, who paid Rs. 2,280 revenue. It lies on the Chin 
Hills frontier, and has a strong Burman police guard. 

The town was founded in no B.E. (748 A.D.). but was soon deserted 
Local etymology accounts for the name by the following tradition : — 

"In 557 B.E. (1195 A.D.) Nara-padi Sithu, King of Pagan, visited 
Legend ^^*'' ^'''^"•^O' ^^^ encamped near the site of the neighbour- 

^ ■ ing village of Tilin-ng&. The Royal umbrella was planted 

near the head of the king's sleeping-place. In. the morning it was found that 
the umbrella had opened of its own accord to protect the Royal head from 
the rays of the rising sun. The king in gratitude built a pagoda and called 
it ' Htidawya,' the ' place of the Royal umbrella' : the pagoda is still to be 
seen. He also founded a village which be called 'Htilin,' and this name was 
afterwards given to the present chief village." 

TI-LIN-NGE. — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of 
Pakokku district, with a population of four hundred and forty-one persons, 
according to the census of 1691, and a revenue of Ra, 1,030, 



304 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ TIP-TU 



There are nine other villages in tlie district, together numbering two 
hundred and seventy-four houses, according to the State reconls. Tin Tat 
is one of the districts of the Pet Ho Hoi of Keng Tung. 

TIPUI. — A village of Chins of the Haka tribe in the Southern Chin Hills* 
It lies fourteen miles north of Haka and is reached direct from Haka or by 
a branch road from the Falam-Haka mule-track. 

In 1894 it had one hundred and thirty houses. Shan Nya, Tin Tan, and 
Sir Hnin were the resident chiefs. 

Tipui pays tribute to both Shwe Lyen and Lyen Mo. It is slightly stock- 
aded. There are good ramping-grounds with abundant w^ttpr-supply. The 
people are mostly Lais, but there are some Shunkla families. 

Tl RI, — A village in the north-east of the State of Nam Hkai, Myelat dis- 
trict of the Southern Shan States, close to the Loi Maw frontier. 

In i8g7 it contained twenty-seven households, with a population of one 
hundred and twenty-five persons. Only nineteen houses paid revenue, 
contributing Rs. 152 between therr. The people are Taungthu and have no 
ir.igated lands. 

TIT-CHAN-RE. — A village in the Kandein circle, Myaing township. 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a populition of one hundred and 
sixty-three persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The ihathameda amounted to Rs. t8o for 1807-98. 

TIYON or TIYA.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyina district, 
situated in 25** 5a' north latitude and o?*' 55' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained thirty houses ; the population was not known. The 
inhabitants are of the l.epai tribp. The headman has no others subordinate 
to him. 

TI-ZAUNG. — A revenue circle of two hundred and ninety-nine houses, 
four miles north-east of Myinmu in the Mvinmu subdivision of Sagaing dis- 
trict. 

The circle contains a large area of wuttajran land, which pays one-fourth 
of its produce to the great Kaung-hmu-daw pagoda near Sagaing. 

TIZERL. — A village of Chins of the Yaliow tribe in tlie Central Chm Hills. 
It lies near the Whenoh village of Tizerl and can be reached via Yalkum 
and Loteron, 

In 1894 it had sixteen houses. Tho resident chief was Hmunlwa. Tizerl 
is subordinate to Vannul and pays tribute to Falam. 

TIZERT or TWILAI.— A village of Chins of the Whenoh tribe in the 
Central Chin Hills. It lies twelve miles west of K;itapyal and is reached via 
thai village. 

In 1894 Vantiao was its resident chief. It pays tribute to Falam. 

Tizert is called Twilai by the Norihern Chins. The village was disarmed 
in 1893 and is slightly stockaded. There is good camping-ground with good 
water-supply to the north-west. 

TLANGYAWLor TLANGKVVEL,— A village of Chins of the Whenoh 
tribe in the Central Chin Hills. West of Shingnai. 

In 1894 it had twi^lve housts Tirra Kal was iis resident chief. Tlang- 
yawl pays tribute to Falam. 



TtA-TONl 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



30s 



TLAO or KLA. — A village of Chins of the Yahow tribe in the Central 
Cliin Hifls. I't lies low down in a valley half a mile by track north of the 
Klao stream, and can be reached via Shunkia and Yatlier, eighteen miles 
from Falam post. 

In 1 894 it had one hundred and forty houses. Vannul was its resident chief. 
Tlao is the Yahow capital and pays tribute to Falam. There are good 
camping-grounds all along the Tlao stream, with water all the year round. 
The village is in four hamlets, each surrounded by a hedge. It could best be 
attacked from the road, as the ascent from the stream is easy and the track 
good. 

TLORRTAUNG or TWETTEN.— A village of Chins of the Tashon 
tribe in the Central Chin Hills. It lies four miles east of S6ngwa and can 
be reached vid Hmunli and Songwa, fifteen miles east of Falam. 

In 1894 it had fifty houses. Kwahmon was the resident chief. 

Tlorrtaung is a Shunkia village and pays tribute to Falam. It is undefend- 
ed ; plenty of water can be drawn from a small stream near, and good camp- 
ing-ground is available. 

TOK-HLAUNG. — A circle in the Myothit township of Mag^ve district, in- 
cluding the villages of Kanzwe and Kanthit. 

TOKLAING or MWITL'N.— A village of Chins of the Siyin Iribe in the 
Northern Chin Mills. It lies seven-and-a-half miles west of Fort White 
and is reached by the mule road from Fort White to old Fort Wliite (Tok- 
laing). 

In 1894 it had eighty houses. The resident chief was Nokatung, 

Toklaing is inhabited by the Toklaing clan of Siyins. It was destroyed 
in 1889 and the site confiscated for a post; the people then 
History. settled down in Pomba, Shak, and Yo, all of which were 

destroyed in the expedition of 1892-93. The settlers were 
disarmed and returned to their original site in the year following and 
Kamlaung, the chief, was deported to Kindat Jail, where he died. Noka- 
tung was then appointed chief, Kamlaung's son being rejected. Nokatung 
has visited Rangoon. 

The village is not stockaded and is easily attacked. Water is brought in 
by leads. Camping-grounds are available either above, on the site of old 
Fort White near the water-supply, or near the village by the Mwilwun and 
Ne Kui streams. 

TOK-SU. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pakokku 
district, with a population of two hundred and forty persons, according to 
the census of i8gi, and a revenue of Rs. 510. 

t6K-TA-T6k. — A village near the Mu river in Taz6 township, Ye-u 
subdivision of Shwebo district. 

The population in 1891 numbered seven hundred and forty-five persons. 

The chief crop is paddy. The thithamcda revenue for 1896-97 amounted 
to Rs. 1,135. Th* village is twenty miles from Ye-u. 

TON. — A revenue circle in the Mingin township and subdivision of Up- 
per Chindwin district, including four villages. 

It paid a revenue of Rs. 11467 in 1897. ' 

39 



3o6 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[TON 



TON. ^A revenue circle in the Salin-gyl township of Lower Cliiiidvvln dis- 
trict, including Ton, Y\va-tliit,Tanda\v-gyi, Alfedaw and Thegaw-gyj villages, 
with one thousand and fifteen inhabitants. It lies along the right bank nf 
the Chindwin river. 

The revenue amounted to Rs 2,690, from thathameday for 1896-97. 

TON-BAN. — A revenue circle in the Mingin township and subdivision of 
Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes one village only and paid a revenue of Rs, 510 in 1897. 

TON-BAW. — A revenue circle in the Katha subdivision and district. 
Half way between the Katha and Yeb6k circles. 

It included in 1897 four villages, with ninety-two houses. It pays an 
annual thathameda tax of Rs. 870, kaukkyi Rs. 64, mayin Rs. 7 1, and 
taungya Rs. 36. 

TON-BO. — A village in the Mayagan township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, twenty mites from Yc-u. 

The population numbers ninety-four persons : paddy cultivation is the chief 
industry. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 220. 

TON-BO. — A village in the On-gyaw revenue circle, Patheingyi town- 
ship, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, thirteen miles cast of 
headquarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and ten persons at the census of 1891, 
and paid Rs. 470 thathameda-\.3.ii.. It was formerly a military outpost. 

T6N-B0. — A village of one hundred and fifty houses in the Sagaing 
subdivision and district, eighteen miles north-east of Sagaing. 

The manufacture of lime is carried on to an inconsiderable extent. 

TON-DIN. — A village in the Laung-she township, Yawdwin subdivision 
of Pak6kku district, with a population of forty-one persons and a revenue 
of Rs. 70. 

TON-GAN. — A revenue circle in the west of the Mintaingbin township 
of Lower Chindwin district, with eight hundred and sixty-four inh.-ibitants. 

The circle includes eight villages : Shwelan, Thazi, Padaukkon West) 
Chinbyitkyin ta«ni(, Chinbyitkyin myauk, Pyawbvvekyin, Tongan, and Pa- 
daukk6n East. The villagers are chiefly cultivators and bamboo mat-makers. 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 2,340, from thathameda, and 
Rs. 57 from State-lands. 

TONG LONG —A village in the South Riding of the Northern Shan 
State of Mang Lon West. 

It is in charge of the htatnong of Ung Tung and lies not far from that 
village. There were nine houses and a population of fifty-three persons in 
April 1891. Upland and lowland rice and some cotton were cultivated. 
The people seem to have a good deal of Yang Lam blood in them. 

TONG NA. — A village of nineteen houses standing on a low hill on the 
east bank of the Nam Hpa, in the Ko Kang circle of the Northern Shan State 
of North Hsen Wi (Theinni). 

The residents are Las and migrated here from Son Mu many years ago. 
There are also five households of Shans, who had just settled in the village 



TON] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



507 



at the beginning of iS<j2,hes\des a. pdfi^yi kyaung with s'w monks The total 
population in 1892 numbered one hundred and nine persons, and agriculture 
was the general occupation. About an hundred acres of irrigated land were 
worked along the banks of the Nam Hpa, besides twice that quantity of 
highland rice. A few pack animals were kept to carry the grain for sale to 
opium-cultivating Chinese villages. A small five-day bazaar is held, but the 
attendance is cunliiied to the villages in the immediate neighbourhood. 

t6N-G6N. — A village in the Taung-by6n-Ngfe Anauk circle, Madaya 
township and subdivision of Mandalay district, west of Pinya. 

It hns thirty houses and its population numbered in 1897 one hundred 
and twcntv persons approximately. The villagers are coolies. 

TONGSHIEL.— A village of Chins of the Sokte (Nwengal) tribe in the 
Northern Chin hills. It lies nine miles north-west of Tiddim,and is reached 
from Tidiiim via Lalbo, three miles: Laikem ford, three-and-a-half miles; 
thence, ascending to the north-east, two and-a-half miles. 

It has twenty-five houses. The resident chief is Shwungnul. The in- 
habitants are Kanhow immigrants: they were in 1893 disarmed and driven 
out of Mwial, where they had settled after being burnt out of Tiddim. 
Tongshicl is subordinate to Howchinkup. There is good water-supply from 
two streams on the north and south of the village. 

TGNG TA. — A village in the Mong Hsim district of the Southern Shan 
State of Keng Tung. It is fifty-two miles west of the capital and a stage on 
the main Keng Tung road. 

The village has eleven houses. The Nam Hsim is crossed here. In 
the dry months the river is fordable, but the crossing must be made by boat 
after heavy rains. 

TONG TA. — Latitude 21*^ 20'; longitude gg° 25'. A ferry over the 
Nam Hsim, on the northern road from Keng Tung to the Kaw lerry. The 
river is fifty yards wide, with a rapid current, by two-and-a-half feet deep 
in March. In the rains it has to be crossed by boat. There is one boat at 
the ferry. 

The village is on the right bank and contained fifty houses in 1894. 
The best camping-ground is on the left bank. No large supplies are obtain- 
able. 

TONG UN. A Shan village in the Mong Set circle of the Northern 
Shan State of South Hsen Wi. 

It had only just been established in March 1892 and then contained two 
houses, with a population of eleven persons. There was a commencement 
of upland rice cultivation, to be followed the next year with paddy on 
irrigated land. 

TON-GYI. — A revenue circle in the Taungdwin-gyaung township, Mingin 
subdivision of Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes one village only and paid a revenue of Rs. 1,100 in 1897. 

TON-GYI. — A \illage in the Nga-singu township, Madaya subdivisi<m of 
Mandalay district, on the river bank between Yedavv and Sa-gyet. 

It has two hundred and sixty bouses, with a population of one thousand 
and forty persons, on an approximate calculation made in 1897. The vil- 
lagers arc traders and cultivators. In I lie village is the Su-daungbyi pagoda. 



3o8 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEHR. 



[TON 



TUN-HON. — A village in the Kodaung township of Ruby Mines district^ 
situated in the hills north of the Shweli river, about sixty miles north-east 
of Momeik. 

T6nh6n and the neighbouring village of Lwe-saing offered considerable 
resistance to a military column sent to restore order in 1892, and the Duwa 
of T6nhAn, M.itinhla, a man of considerable influence, fl-d to China. His 
brother, Waranaw, is Duwa of Manpat {q. v.). In 1893-94 Matinhia was 
induced (0 r<'turn to his village and did excellent scivice against tlie outlaws 
who were still giving troublf, and he has since done good service in charge 
of the trart of hilly country on the rij^ht bank of the Shweli, west of the 
Lw^wein circle His cbarg;e includes the Chauktaung and contains In all 
forty-two Kachin and four Palaung villages. 

T6N-H6n or TINKHON.— A Kachin viilane in Tract No. 3, Bhamo 
district, situated in 28° 36' north latitude and 97° 11' east longitude. 

In 1893 it contained fifteen liouscs, with a population of forty-si.\ persons. 
The headman lias no others subonlinate to him. The inhabitants are of 
the Lepai tribe and Lawhkum sub-tribe, and own no cattle. There is good 
camping-ground, and water can be had froro two small streams. 

TON HONG. — A township in the Kawn No or North Riding of Mang 
Lon West, Nor^he^n Shan States. It lies to the north of Na Lao, in a little 
bay in the hills west of the Salwcen ridge and running into the Tang Yan 
plain. 

Next to Nawng Hkam this is the most prosperous township in the Mang 
Lon State. TUrre were in 1892 sixteen villages in Ton Hung, with one 
hundred and eighty houses. The amount of lowland paiidy land is con- 
siderable and some quantity of sugarcane and areca-nut is also cuUiv.nted. 
Towards the Salween much betel vine leaf is grown and there are extensive 
orange groves, here as elsewhere, hovxever, quite untendcd. The bazaar, 
though not so large as that at Nawnj; Hkam, is of some pretensions, and 
there are twelve resident traders, with a couple of hundred pack bullocks. 
Numbers of people from Tang Yan and Mong Keng come to the bazaar. 
There is a notable banian tree grove at Ton Hong- 

Thf^ township is picturesque and attractive. The revenue paid is nearly 
one-half of the total amount collected in the Kaion No. Thtrc is consider- 
able room for expansion and probably twice the population existing in 1892 
(one thousand one hundred and eight persons) could find gr.iund to culti- 
vate. 

The ht among of the circle fled on the assumption of authority by T6n 

Hsang, and returned with Sao Maha in 1893. During the 

History. disturbances which followed all the Ton Hong villages 

were burnt. No recent details arc available, but it is certain that most 

of the villages have been rebuilt, and probably the former prosperity has 

been restored. 

Ton Hong is notable as the birth-plnce of Hkun Sang, the Sawbwa of 
North HsC'n Wi. The htamongship of Ton Hong was hereditary in his 
family. 

TON HONG. — A village in the M6ng Pat township of the Northern Shan 
State of South Hson Wi, 

It had twenty-nine houses in 1897. The people are Shans, and number 
one hundred and one adults and fifty-three Lhildren. I he only occupation 



TON-TOW 1 



TliE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



309 



is cultivation. The villagers own forty-two buffaloes aud grow a little 
tobacco. 

TOiN-KAUK. — A village 0/ seventeen houses south of Shwegu, in the 
Shwegu subdivision of Bhamo district. 

The villagers own twenty-five buffaloes and grow paddy. 

t6N-MA-TET. — A revenue circle in the Uyu township, Lega-yaing sub- 
division of Upper Chindwin district, including six villages. 

TON NUM.— A Shan village in North Hsen VVi, Northern Shan State* 
in Mong Si di^'trict. 

It contained eighteen houses in 1894, with a population of sixty per.^ons. 
The revenue p.Tid was two rupees per household, and ihr people were 
paddy cultivators by occupaiion, and owned forty bullorks, fifteen buffaloes 
and five ponies. The price of paddy was eight annas the baslcet. 

TON PE. — A circle in the Northern Shan State of Hsi Paw. It is in 
charge of a ttehaiug and is bounded on the north-east by Loi Mawk, on the 
north-north-west by Nam Sam, fn the east by S^Mun and Nam Lati, on the 
south by Tawiig Tck and on the west by Nawng Kwang. 

It included ten villages iu 1898 and had a population of nine hundred 
and thirty-three persons. In the same year it paid Rs. 1,747-S-o net 
revenue, and supplied tiiree hundred and sixty-five baskets of paddy. It 
had also nine hundred and eijjht thanatpct trees, for which Rs. 102-8-0 wcru 
rendered. The population is engaged in paddy cultivation, both upland and 
lowland. 

TON POK.— A small village of Las, situated on a low hill overlooking 
the Nam Hpa, in the Ko Kang circle of the Norihern Shan State of North 
Hsen VVi (Theinni). 

In 1892 there were six houses, with a population of twenty-three pcrsuns. 
They settled here from S<in Mu many years ago, and cultivate about fifty 
acres of irrigated rice land and twice that area of highland cultivation. 

T6N-WA — A village of Chintong Chins in the Southern Chiu Hills. It 
lies fifteen miles south-east 1 f Shurkwa and is reached from Min-yv\a 
across several ridges and small streams. 

In 1894 it had one hundred and forty houses. Nunkon,Saboand Tirkaw 
were its resident chiefs. There is no stockade and the water-supply is bad, 
but a camp can be formed inside the village between the two small wells. 
T6nwa formerly paid blackmail to the Ydkwa?, but their claims are now 
disallowed. It was partially disarmed in 1895. A small amount of rice is 
available. 

TON-YWA. — A revenue circle in the Sa-Ie township, Pagan subdivision 
of Myingan district. 

in 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and five persons and the 
thathamida amounted to Ks. 923. No land revenue was collected in the 
circle 

TOVVLON. — A Kachin village in Ruby Mines district, situated in 33° 
47' north latitude and 97° 47' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses; the population was not known. 
The inhabitants are of the Maran tribe and Lana sub-tribe. 



310 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ TRI-TUN 



TRINMAW or LOIMAVV.— A Kachin villagf; in Tract No. 2, Bhamo 
district, situated in 23° 45' north latitude and 97° i east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses, with a population of sixty persons. 
The headman has two others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of 
the Lepai tribe and Kara sub-tribe, and own twenty bullocks and thirty 
buffaloes. 

TSINGHSANG (SING H3ANG).— A village on the eastern side of the 
Salween river, in the Ko Kang circle of the .Northern Shan State of North 
Hsen Wi (Theinni), It is situated at a height of four thousand seven hun- 
dred feet, on the hills overhanging the iJalween, midway between the 
Singhsang and Man Pang ferries. 

Iti 1802 it contained twelve houses, with a Chinese population of sixty- 
two pers'^ns. They cultivate the poppv, maize and hill-rice. The village 
is built on a flat terrace, at the western end of which is a fine banian tree. 

TSUN-KANG (SUN- KANG). —Called by the Shans Man Mau, a village 
on the east side of the Salween river, in the Ko Kang circle of the Northern 
.Shan State of North Hsen VVi (Theinni). It stands on the summit of a high 
spur nortli-east of Kin Pwi, at a height of 5,700 feet. 

It had only just been built in January 1892 and contained then five houses, 
with a Chinese popul.ition of twenty-three persons. The new settlers 
owned six buffaloes and eight bullocks and had already cultivated a consider- 
able area with hill rice and poppy. From here a road follows the summit 
of the Salween ridge by which a lightly-laden man can reach the Taw Nio 
bazaar in four days. 

TU-GYAUNG. — A village near Shwegu town, in the subdivision of that 
name of Bhamo district. Some maytn paddy is cultivated. 

TL'KU. — .■K Kachin village in Tract No. 7, Bhamo district, situated in 33" 
40' north latitude and 97° 25' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained thirty-two houses, with a population of seventy-seven 
persons. The headman has two others subordinate to him. The inhabit- 
ants are of the Lepai tribe and Kara sub-tribe, and own seven bullocks 
and si.x buffaloes. Tuku lies on the Man Si-Nam-Hkam trade route. There 
is good camping-ground in the paddy-fields below the village, with plenty 
of water and grass. 

TU-MAU.NG.— .^ village in the Ye-u township and subdivision of Shwebo 
district, eight miles from Ye-u town. 

The population numbers five hundred and twenty-scveu persons and the 
area under cultivation is five hundred and thirty-four acres, chiefly of paddy. 
There is a considerable industry in tlie shape of manufacture of lacquer- 
ware, />J»^>'/ fans, bowls, stands.'and the like. For j 896-97 the thathameda 
revenue amounted to Rs. 1,160, 

TU NAW. — A Chinese and Kachin village in North Hsen VVi, Northern 
Shan State, in Ho Tao circle. 

It contained sixteen houses in 1894, with a population of ninety-six per- 
sons. The revenue paid was Rs. 3 per household, and the people were 
paddy, maize, and opium cultivators by occnpation, and owned twenty-live 
bullocks, twelve buffaloes, two ponies and one hundred and eighty pigs. 
The price of paddy was eight annas the basket. 



TON] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



3»i 



TUN-BIN. — A revenue circle in the Kindat township and subdivision of 
Upper Chindwin districti containing two villages, with an approximate area 
fii one-and-a-half square miles of appropriated lands. 

The population in 1891 numbered one hundred and ninety persons and 
the revenue amounted to Rs. 481. 

TUN-DON. — A revenue circle in the Pathein-gyi township, Amarapura 
subdivision of Mandalay district, including two villages. 

Tundon village is situated seven-and-a-half miles east-north-east of head- 
quarters It had a population of three hundred and ten persons at the census 
of 1891, and paid Rs. 657 tka/hameria-ta\ and Rs. 726 land revenue. 

TUNG HLVVUNC— A village of Chins of the Tash6n tribe in the Central 
Chin Hills. It lies four miles north of Yaltu and can be reached via Hmunli 
and YaUu. 

In i8()4 it had fifteen houses. The resident chief was Koom Sung. 
Tung-hlwung is a Shankia village related to Hmunli and pays tribute to 
Falain. Water is scarce at and near the village. 

TUNGSH.^. — Also called Hwang Sow Hpa or Kalong, a Chinese village 
on the eastern side of the Salween river, in the Ko Kang circle of the 
Northern Shan State of North Hsen \Vi (Theinni). It stands at a height of 
three thousand five hundred feet, on the shoulder of a steep spur runninw 
down to the Salween, and numbered in 1892 six houses, with a total popu- 
lation of forty persons. 

The villagers cultivate wide fields of opium on the slopes above the vil- 
lage, besides a considerable area of hill rice. 

TCNG SING^A village jn the Mong Hang circle of the Northern Shan 
State of South Hr.en \Vi. 

It 5s situated at the foot of the hills which form the boundary with 
Mang L6n anr^ contained in .Xpril 1892 ^ight houses, with a population of 
thirty-seven persons. Lowland paddy cultivation was the chief ocfU[iation. 

TUNGTUUNG.— A village of Chins of the Kanhow tribe in the Northern 
Chin Hills. It lies one-and-.i-half miles east of the road to Tunzan from 
Tiddim, and is reached by that road. 

In 1894 it had twenty-five houses. The resident chief was Put Vum. 
The people are Kanhows and are subordinate to Howchinkup. The village 
is not stockaded and has been disarmed. There is a fair water-supply. 

TUN HSO.— A circle in the Northern Shan State of North Hsen VVi. 
It lies on the range of hills forming the western boundary between North 
HsL^n Wiand Tawng Peng States and adjoining Mong Mit, and consists of 
wooded hills. 

In 1898 it had three Kachin and one Lihsaw village, with forty houses 
and a population of about two hundred persons. 

The main village contains ten houses and a population of about fifty per- 
sons and is situated on a wooded ridge of the main range. 

TUNTUI.— A village of Chins of the Tashon tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies in a valley on the north slope of the hills to the south of 
the Manipur river and east of Falam, and can be reached via Snungt^, 
seventeen miles; or y/rr Saungt&, Ngan Yawl, and LyentS, twenty-four miles. 



3»2 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



ITUN-TWE 



In 1894 it had eighty houses. The resident chief was MSngshim. Tuntui 
is a Shunkia village related to Lyentfe, and pays but little tribute to Falam, 
though subordinate to it. There is no ground suitable for camping, but there 
is a good stream with plenty of water on the east of the village. 

TUN-YWA. — A village in the Ku-she circle, Scikpyu township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and thirty persons, 
according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 260, included in that 
of Ku-she. 

TUNZAN.— A village of Chins of the Kanhow tribe in the Northern 
Chin Hills. It lies eighteen miles north of Tiddim and is reached by a road 
running across the hillsides of Tang, across four small streams. 

In 1894 it had one hundred houses. The resident chief was Howchiakup. 
Tunzan stands at an altitude of three thousand three hundred and sixty-three 
feet. Howhinckiip rendered excellent service during the Chin Hills distu.*-- 
bancps. Water is obtained from various streams. There are two good 
camping-grounds, one below the village, the other five hundred yards norlh- 
we.«:t on the Manipur road. Tunzan has been partially disarmed. 

TUNZAN,— A village of Chins of the Klangklang tribe in the Southern 
Chin Hills. It lies twelve miles north of Munlipi and is reached from Haka 
via Lonzert, thirty-seven miles. 

Id 1894 it had ten houses. Sandun was its resident chief. The village 
is under Law-Ie of Klangklang, It was fined and partially destroyed in 
1892 ; it was at the time slightly stockaded. There is a fair camping-ground 
four hundred yards north of the villagr", with good water-supply from the 
nullahs below. The best camp is on the Bovar, two miles from the village 
on the Munlipi road. 

TUPAUYAN.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyjna district 
situated in 25" 55' north latitude, and 97°53' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses ; the population was nbt known. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. 

TWAYLAM. — A village of Chins of the Klangklang tribe in the Southern 
Chin Hills. It lies eight miles west of Klangklang and can be reached by 
the Haka-Fort Tregcar road. 

In 1894 it had sixty houses. VVunkarr was its resident chief. It is slightly 
stockadetJ. 1 waylam was disarmed in 1805, and the old stockades are now 
in ruins. There is good camping ground on the stream below the village. 

TWE-DI. — A village in the Shwe-gj-in township, Ye-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with seven square miles of attached land. 

The population in 1891 numbered twenty persons and there were four 
acres of cultivation. Paddy and thitsi are the chief products. The distance 
from Ye-u is forty miles. The village paid one hundred and seventy rupees 
thathameda revenue for 1896-97. It is under the Taw-gyin thugyi. 

TWKLMU. — A village of Chins of the Kanhow tribe in the Northern 
Chin Hills. It lies n nc miles north-west of Tiddim and is reached by a 
Chin path. 

In 1894 it had eight houses. There is no resident chief. The people are 
Yos, subordinate to Howchinkup. There are two good streams and a 
camping-ground. Twelmu has been disarmed. 



TW«— TWi] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER, 



313 



TWET-NI — A village in Kan-anauk circle, Pang-tata State, Myelat 
district, of the Southern Shan States, in the hills south-west of Pang-tara 
main village. 

It contained in 1897 thirty-nine houses, with a population of three hundred 
and fifteen persons, and paid Rs. 177 annual revenue. 

TWEYAT.— A village of Chins of the Tash^n tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies on a spur south of the Manipur river running down to Tweya 
ford, and can Le reached via Saungti, near Tunti, distant twenty-threfl 
miles. 

In 1894 it had twcnty-five houses. The resident chief was Hie Mon. 

Tweyat is a Kweshin village and pays tribute to Falam, and some of the 
families are under Haka influence. There is neither good camping-ground 
nor water close to the village, but there ar« both in a valley one mile distant 
to the west. The village has a weak fence round it. 

TWIN. — A revenue circle in the Kani township of Lower Chindwin dis- 
trict, including the villages of Twink8nbaw, Twind^, Chindaung, Ywathit, 
Linp6nyi, Taungpyauk and Lechi. 

It numbers one thousand seven hundred and sixty-three inhabitants. 
The main road from Palfe to Kani passes through it. The revenue for 
1896-97 amounted 10 Rs, 3,900, from thathameda, and Rs. 55 from the 
lease of the Twin fisheries. Paddy, jomar, and sessamum are the principal 
products, and these are raised for home consumption only. 

TWIN. — A village near the edg^ of a lake in the crater of an extinct 
volcano, which rises from a ridge of hills about three miles north-east of 
Semy^, in the Budalin township of Lower Chindwin district. 

The summit of the ridge is seven hundred and forty-seven feet above sea 
.J,, y. I level. The ridge runs in a north-easterly direction and 

c ocano. meets the Chindwin river at right angles at Shwezayft. 
(There is another village of the same name on the south edge of the ridge.) 
The crater is a circular basin two thousand yards in diameter and four 
hundred feet deep. The lake is four thousand and two hundred feet broad 
and some one hundred feet below the level of the river ; it has a greatest 
depth of one hundred and eight feet and is of a bright green colour, tasting 
strongly of sulphate of soda ; the ssind at its bottom is black. There are 
several small clums of toddy, cocoanut and plantain trees round the edge 
of the lake. The earthquake of June 1897 was distinctly felt at the vil- 
lage of Twin on the edge of the lake, the water of which was much dis- 
turbed for several minutes and subsided several feet, subsequently rising 
to its normal height, Shocks of earthquake are frequently felt in villages 
within a radius of eight miles of Twin. The water in the lake rises in the 
hot weather when the water in the Chindwin river falls, and falls six feet in 
the rains when that river is at its highest. 

A peculiar insect is found during the rains in its waters ; it is known as the 
Twin pj and is about an inch long and a tenth of an inch thick ; the villagers 
catch the Twin po in nets of coarse cloth, dry them in the sun, and finally 
after frying eat tlum with pickled tea, and consider them a great delicacy. 

The residents of Twin village and also cats, dogs and fowls suffer from a 
kind of skin disease which resembles leprosy, except that it is of a merely 
temporary nature, seldom lasting more than a few weeks. 

40 



3>4 



THB UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[twi 



TWIN.— A lake in the Upper Chindwin district. Vide Twin village. 

TWIN-BYU. — A revenue circle in the Kyaukpadaung township, Pagan 
subdivision, of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-gb the population numbered seven hundred and twenty-fiv; per- 
sons, and the thathameda amounted to Rs. i ,000. No land revenue was col- 
lected in the circle. 

TWIN-GYI. — A circle in the Nalmauk township of M.igwe district, in- 
cluding the villages of Thityadaing, Hpalanbin, Gwe-gyaung, Aingzaukand 
Twingvi. 

TWIN-GYI. — A village of twenty-one houses in the Kyaukyit township, 
Myinmu subdivision of Sagaing district, three miles from Kyaukyit. 

The villagers are chiefly cultivators, and the crops raised are maize, gram 
and wheat. 

TWIN-LAT. — A revenue circle in the Sa-le township, Pagan subdivision, 
of Myingyan district. 

In 1 895-1^ the population numbered six hundred and ninety persons, and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,320. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

TWIN-MA NORTH.^A village in the Oyin circle, Myaing township, 
Pakokku subdivision and district, with a population of two hundred and 
seventy-two persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,280 for 1897-98. 

TWlN-MA SOUTH. — A village in the Oyin circle, Myaing township, 
Pak6kku subdivision and district, with a population of three hundred and 
six persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs, 640, in- 
cluded in that of Twinnia North. 

TWIN'-NG£. — A circle in the Maymyo township and subdivision of 
Mandalay district, including three villages. 

Twinnge village is nine miles south-west of Maymyo, and has a popula- 
tion of two hundred and sixty-one persons, according to the census of 1891. 

It was formerly the headquarters of the old Twinng^ township. 

TWlN-NGfi. — Formerly the headquarters of the present Thabeikkyin 
township of Ruby Mines district. 

It has a population of eight hundred and seventy-five persons and is 
situated on the left bank of the Irrawaddy river, about a mile inland. The 
inhabitants are Burmans and Shans. 

TWIN-YWA. — A revenue circle in the Pagan township and subdivision 
of Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered five hundred and thirty persons, and 
the thathameda amounted to Rs. 644. No land revenue was collected in 
the circle. 

TWITUM.— A village of Chins of the Kanhow tribe in the Northern Chin 
Hills. It lies north of Tiddim and Tunzan, and is reached by a Chin path 
from Tunzan. 

In 1894 it had thirty houses. The resident chief was Lyindai. 

The people are Dims, subordinate to Howchinkup. Twitum has been 
disarmed. Water ia obtained in fair quantity from holes in a stream-bed 
east of the village, 



TZB-UOI] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



3»S 



TZERRT.— A village of Chins of the Yahcw tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills, It lies on the summit of a spur running southwards to the iunction 
of the Tlao and Klairfin streams, and can be reached via Shunkla and 
Yatlier, about nineteen miles. 

In i8g4 it had one hundred houses. The resident chief was Kotinboi. 

It is subordinate to Vannul and pays tribute to Falam. There is not 
much water and no good camping-ground near the village, but there are 
good camps anywhere along ihe stream to the east. 

U. — A revenue circle in the Taungdwing-yaung township, Mingin sub- 
division of Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes ten villages and paid Rs. 3,759 revenue in 1897. The 
whole of the land in the circle is State land. 

U village was the residence of a shwt-hmu in Burmese times and the 
circle thugyi is still given that title. The last shwe-hmu, Nga Bya, mur- 
dered an Assistant Commissioner. 

U-DAUNG. — A circle in ihe Madaya township and subdivision of Man- 
dalay district, on the Irrawaddy river, including hve villages. 

U-daung village, east of ihc Irrawaddy, had sixty-seven houses and a 
population in 1897 ^^ '^wo hundred and sixty-eight persons, approximately. 
The villagers are cultivators. 

U-DAUNG, — A village in the Indaing township, Tantabin subdivision 
of Shwebo district, on the Paungwa stream, fifty-seven miles from Ye-u. 

The population in 1891 numbered sixty-five persons, mostly paddy cul- 
tivators. The thathameda revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs, 1,0. 

U-DAYA.— A revenue circle in the Myingyan township, subdivision and 
district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered six hundred and twenty persons, 
and the thathameda amounted to Rs. 864. No land revenue was collected 
in the circle. 

U-DEIN.— A village in the Madaya township and subdivision of Mandalay 
district, north of Powa North. 

It had one hundred and twenty houses, with a population of four hundred 
and eighty persons, on an approximate calculation in 1897. The villagers 
are cultivators. 

U-DI. — A circle of a dozen small group of houses within the old city 
walls of what was once the city of Ava, in the Ava township of Sagaing 
district. 

Udi village has twenty-nine houses^ and the whole circle four hundred 
and two houses. The Udi thugyi has subordinate village headmen at 
Mi-thwe-daik, ihirty-four houses ; B6md, sixteen houses : Singyfin, thirty 
houses; Pyinsanya, twenty-nine houses; and Mingala or Gandagay.t, 
twenty-five houses. Mat-making is carried on in most quarters of Udi: 
limes are sold extensively. The ruins of the Laya-dat-kyi kyaung are of 
some antiquarian interest. 

Near Udi is a beautiful masonry iyaung, visible from the river. It is 
known as the " Maha-aungmye-bonyan." It was built by Me Nu, Queen 
of Bagyidaw, and restored by her daughter, MindSn AftJi's Queen and 
mother of Thibaw, in about 1236 B.E. (1874 AD.). It is now disused. 



3i6 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ODt— UMA 



Besides this iyaung there is the Lawka Thayanbu pagoda near the old 
.. Ava fort. This was used as a military signalling station 

Antiquities. j^ ^j,g g^^jy ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Occupation. 

UDIGIRI-RATA. — The classical or Buddhistic name of Mogaung (g.v.)- 

U-GYI — A revenue circle in the Mingin township and subdivision of 
Upper Chindwin district. 

It includes two villages and paid a revenue of Rs. 360 in 1897. 

U-HNAUK.— A revenue circle in the west of the Mintaingbin township 
of Lower Chindwin district, with two thousand two hundred and four in- 
habitants. 

There are sixteen villages in the circle : U-hnauk, Yeshin, Ywa-tha, 
Talainggan, Thayetkan, Nyaungyinlfln, Me-ywa, Thazi, Kandaing, Kobin, 
Yaungwin, Aungcliantha, Wa-gyi-davv, Kanyo, Padaukk6n and Winpin- 
chaing. Most of the people are cultivators, the main crops being paddy 
and jowar; a few make their living by the manufacture of bamboo mats. 

The revenue for 1896-97 amounted to Rs. 4,660, from tkathatneda, and 
Rs. 72 from State-land rent. 

U-LAUK. — A village on the left bank of the Irrawaddy river in Myitkyina 
district, containing in 1891 two houses of Shan-Burmese and fourteen 
of Kachins, of which one was of the N'kum, two of the Marip, three of the 
Lahtawng, four of the Singma Sadaw, and four of the Makaung Lahtawng 
tribe. 

The Kachins came down in 1887 from Makaung hill, three days distant 
to the east. They work taungya and lep6k ; the Shans work some ye-gya, 
and own ten buffaloes. 

An easy road leads to Katkyo over the plain, only one stream, the Nat!8n, 
near Maingmaw, intervening, and this is easily fordable. There is also a 
road to Nampaung on the Nantabet, from which it is half a day's march to 
Talaw. 

UMADYET. — A Palaung village of seventeen houses in the Kun Ha 
circle of Tawng Peng State, Northern Shan States. 

It has a population of thirty-five males, thirty-two females, twenty-three 
boys and sixteen girls ; they cultivate hill paddy and own forty-one cattle 
and two ponies. There are two sayats and a monastery. The villagers are 
of the Ruker Pa-le tribe. 

U MANG. — A village'in the Ho Ya circle of the South Hsen VVi, Northern 
Shan State, situated under the Loi Ling range, east of the main village of Ho 
Ya. 

There were in March 1892 nine houses, with a population of 61 persons, 
exclusively engaged in lowland rice cultivation. 

U MA SAWN. — A Palaung village of eighteen houses in the Kun Hai 
circle of Tawng Peng State, Northern Shan States. 

It had a population in 1897 of forty-two men, forty-seven women, twenty- 
two boys and thirty-three girls. They ctiitivated tea and a little hill paddy, 
and owned sixty-one cattle and ten ponies- The village has a large plank 
and brick monastery and four sayats. The villagers are of the Pa-le tribe. 



OML— •Pp] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



317 



U M LA.'^A Yang Lam village in the Man H pal circle of the Northern 
Shan State of South Hsen Wi. It lies north-west of the main village, at 
a distance of about two miles. 

There were twenty-four houses in March i8y2, with one hundred and 
seven inhabitants These were said to be Yang Lam, but there was certainly 
a strong admixture of Shan blood, if indeed some of the villagers were not 
pure Shans. The village is divided into two parts, east and west, at some 
little interval. Between them is a pongyi kyauttg, which had in 1892 seven 
officiants. The Shan affinities of the inhabitants appeared in the cultivation 
of some irrigated rice land, A considerable area of hill land was also 
cropped with rice and cotton. 

ONG TONG. — A township in the Karon Taii or South Riding of Mang 
Lon West, Northern Shan States. It lies between Manloi and Ho Nga and 
is in charge of a htantung. 

There were five villages in the township, with fifty-nine houses, in 1892. 
Hill rice is the chief crop, but some cotton and great quantities of pineapples 
are also grown. An entire village in 1892 left the township to settle in the 
Man Sfe township of Mdng Hsu, in^he Southern Shan Statis. The whole 
of the soil in the neighbourhood of Ung Tiing is said to be very poor, and 
until there is no room elsewhere, there is not much probability of an increase 
of the population in this or any other part of the South Riding. 

UNG TUNG. —A village in the South Riding of the Northern Shan State 
of Mang Ldn West. It is situated in the south-west of the State, a few miles 
from Man Loi and not far from the Mdng Hsu frontier. 

The village is the residence of a htamong, who has charge also of four 
other villages. There is a good deal of land available for paddy cultivation, 
but the people seem to prefer the more laborious system of dry up land fields. 
This seems to be due to the fact that, though they call themselves Shans, 
there is a strong strain of Yang Lam blood in them. In April 1892 there 
were twenty-one houses, with a population of one hundred and eleven 
persons. They cultivate a good deal of cotton and some fields _ of pine- 
apples. There is a monastery which had in 1892 eight inmates. Ung Tung 
stands at a height of three thousand feet, 

UNKWUN.— A village of Chins of the S6kte (Nwengal) tribe in the 
Northern Chin Hills. It lies eight miles west of Tiddim, north of Mwail, 
and can be reached by a road from Tiddim to Nawn village and thence to 
Nawn for<l and up the Mwel-haim spur. 

In 1894 it had ten houses. The resident chief was Naiyil. The inhabit- 
ants belong to the Hwelnum family of Soktes, but having moved into How- 
chtnkup's territory they are sul ordinate to him. The village has only re- 
cently been established. There is good water-supply from a stream on the 
west. 

UPAI. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 18, Myitkyina district, situated in 
24'' 56' north latitude and 97^53' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained tiveiUy-three houses; its population was unknown. 
The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of the 
Lepai tribe and Sadan sub-tribe and cultivate the pappy. 

UPPER CIIINDWIN.— A district in the Sagaing Division, lies approxi- 
mately between ^2*^*40' and 36^ north latitude and 94° and gb° east longi- 



3i8 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



\ytp 



Natural features. 



tude. It is bounded on the north by Myitkyina district and Hkamti Stale, 
on the south by Lower Chindwin and Pakdkku districts, on the east by 
Myitkyina, Katha, Shwebo and Lower Chindwin districts, and on the west 
by the Chin Hills. 

The approximate area of the district is nineteen thousand square miles, 

and the population, according to the preliminary census 

Area and ad' returns of 1891, was s'venty-nine thousand four hundred 

mmistrative divi* ^„fj seventy-five persons (p. in/'ra sub population). 

There are four subdivisions : Mingin, with headquarters 

at Mingin ; Kindat, with headquarters at Kindat ; Lega-yaing, with head< 

quarters at Honnalin ; and Ka-le, with headquarters at Ki-lewa. 

The district, in spite of its s'ze, does not seem to vary much in its main 
physical features. It is traversed throughout its length 
by the Chindwin river, which is joined in its downward 
course by numerous affluents, most of them of small size in the cold weather, 
but swelling to deep and rapid streams during the rains. The ground is 
exceedingly fertile, and most of the crops common in Burma flourish. The 
character of the scenery varies from rugged mountain tract'?, rising into 
peaks five or six thousand f(.et above the sea, covered with dense forest and 
cleft by fierce mountain torrents running in narrow rocky beds, in the 
northern part of the district, to low, open, rolling plains drained by quiet 
streams in the south. 

The chief mountains are the Taung-thon-lon, with a greatest altitude of 
five thousand six hundred and fifty-two feet ; the Ponya 
range, witit a greatest height of four thousand two hun- 
dred and seventy-five feet ; the Kubo valley range, rising to three thousand 
one hundred and two feet ; and the Thaung-thwut range, which reaches four 
thousand seven hundred and forty-five feet. 

The chief rivtrs are the Chindwin, the Yu, the Uyu, 
and the Myittha. 

The Chindwin rises near the Irraw.iddy watershed in about latitude 
25° 30' north and longitude 96° 30' east, and flows in a northerly direction 
for about sixty miles. It then traverses the Hu Kawng valley westwards, 
descending rapidly through a narrow channel shut in by rocks, with frequent 
rapids and waterfalls in its course, until it enters the Hkamti country ; it 
receives the Uyu at Ilomalin and flows southwards to its union with the 
Irrawaddy at Pak6kku. It is navigable throughout the year as far as 
Kyauksfe by boats drawing thr^e feet of water. 

Little as yet is known of the upper course of the Uyu. It is believed to 
rise somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Jade Mines, and it falls into the 
Chindwin at Homalin, after a course varying round from north to south- 
west. It is navigable during the rains as far as Haungpa by boats drawing 
three feet of water. 

The Yu river rises from the Thaung-thwut range and falls into the Chin- 
dwin at Yu-wa. Its course is at first from north to south and then cast. It 
is navigable throughout the year by Burmese boats as far as ChaungzSn. 
The navigation, however, is very dangerous, and boats often split in two in 
the rapids. 

The Myittha rivcf rises in the Chin Hills and falls into the Chindwin at 
Ka-le-wa.' It runs at first from south to north and then turns ea^t. In 



Mountains. 



Rivers. 



DPp] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



319 



(3) 
(4) 
(5) 

(6) 
(7) 
(8) 
(9) 



the rains ste.im-t.iunches can go up as far as Indin, about forty miles from 
its mouth. Country boats can go to Ka-le-myo, a distance of twenty-eight 
miles, throughout the year. 

Most villagos, at any rate where there is a big bend of the river, have 
hrge j'^eels behind them, which at the end of the rains 

Mars es. often turn into extensive shallow lagoons or broads: these 

gradually drain oil and are cultivated until the end of the hot season, by 
which time they have generally dried up except for a few pools. They are 
particularly characteristic of the district. 

The chief are — 

(i) Between Tun and Bansi, opposite Maukadaw: and at 
(a) Kan, near Mingin. 

Madaw (small)- 

Kindat. 

Kaiya. 

Paungbyin and opposite Pozondaung. 

Minya. 

Homalin. 

Maing-kaing. 

Largo quantities of waterfowl frequent these broads and afford capital 
sport. Wild geese and duck begin to come in large numbers about the end 
of October or beginning of November, and good shooting is to be got until 
the end of February, when the geese fly north. Duck still remain on in 
small numbers. Kaiya and Pozondaung are good grounds for the geese 
on their way south, as in November these are really largo lakes. Pozfln- 
daung will give a good grneral bag of geese, duck and tea! till the end of 
February. Snipe come in as soon as the paddy is ['lanted out, sometimes 
as early as September, and remain till the crop begins to grow thick, when 
they go off. They return again wht.n the field is reaped, if any water is 
let in. In large jhcels like Kaiya, Paungbyin, Kan, Kindat and others, 
where the ploughing and planting go on steadily as the waters recede, 
there are always a few snipe to be found, though they are never in very 
great numbers. 

Coal has been discovered in the district, but the richness and extent of 
„ . the field have not yet been ascertained [see Chapter XII 

'"'^^ of Introduction]. Gold is washed in some of the streams, 

but the amount found is utterly insignificant. Salt is worked, but only to 
a very small extent. In the north of the district jade and amber mines are 
said to exist, but their situation and value have not yet been ascertained. 
The denseness of the jungle growth, here as in many other districts, pre- 
vents any examination of the surface, except by those specially equipped 
ior the purpose. 

Within the Chindwin basin all the descriptions of forest hitherto met 
F est ^'"^^ '" Lower Burma are represented. Many varieties 

of valuable timber are plentiful, but for various causes, 
among them difficulties of transport, distance from large markets, and so 
forth, teak is the only wood of any practical value at present. The teak 
forests arc roughly estimated to cover an area of from six to seven thousand 
square milesi of which all but about Bve hundred square miles are situated in 



320 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tUPP 



Upper Chindwin district. They cover the slopes of all the higher ridges 
and hills up to the twenty-sixth parallel of latitude. Above this the place 
of the teak is gradually taken by the Indian-rubber tree [Ficus elnstiea). 

Before the British occupation in 1885 all forests, even in the Shan 
States, were considered to be Crown property and the right to work them 
was leased by the King. The earliest lease of which anything Is known is 
that granted to the Yanaung wund/iuk, which was probably in operation 
about the period 1870 — 75. I his wundauk appears to have had a few ele- 
phants, but he does not seem to have worked out large timber in any quan- 
tities and probably qonfined his attention to working small timber in the 
Mingin and Ka-le neighbourhoods. 

At one time he attempted to work the Uyu forests, but they were soon 
afterwards " closed by order," and the villagers of the 
yu ores s. (jigtrict were forbidden to work for liim. Ic is not certain 
whence the order came, but it has been suggested that it was due to 
jealousy. In those days a concession such as that given to the wundauk 
must have caused great envy in other less fortunate officials, and it is prob- 
able that a secret order was sent from Mandalay by some powerful minister 
to the local authorities to close the forests. Such an order was doubtless 
very much to the taste of the villagers, who complained of the way in which 
they were cheated by the -wundauk. From that date the forests have never 
been worked, and it has been and is still most difficult to obtain trustworthy 
information about them. 

In 1880 a lease of all the Chindwin forests was granted to the Bombay- 
Burma Trading Corporation, Limited, for a period of 
Forest adminis- eight years, with the option of renewal for a further 

Iw^^rnH^RnT^^^" period of twelve vears. When the first lease fell in, 

1080 and looo. r .^ , «„„ ' , 1 • . t.. . . , 

in October 1888, a renewal was granted by the Brit sh 

Government for twelve years. In this new lease it was stipulated — 

(1) that all girdling should be carried out by the Forest Department; 

(2) that payment should be made on the tonnage measurement of 

logs delivered at revenue stations on the Chindwin ; 

(3) that a minimum of ten thousand logs a year should be extracted, 

or a fine imposed ; and 

(4) that all timber required for Government purposes should be 

delivered at fixed rates. 

The following are the official returns of the timber extracted by the Cor- 
poration from the year 1886 on: — 



Year. 


Size. 


Logs. 


Tons estimated. 


1886-87 


Full sized 


30,725 


22,797 


1887-88 


Do. 


6.333 


7.49 1 




Under sized 


1.706 


1,174 


1888-89 


Full sized 


19.583 


34.5'3 




Under sized 


a.486 


2.840 


1889-90 


Full sized 


30.252 


36,033 




Undersized 


3,880 


«i977 



t;pp] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



331 



The Upper and Lower Chtndwin districts were formed into one Forest 
division in May 1887, under a Deputy Conservator with a small office and 
subordinate staff. Revenue stations were established at Kindat and A16n 
and duty levied on timber, bamboos, canes and rubber passing either 
place. An Assistant Conservator was attached to the division in March 
1888, with headquarters at Kindat. In November i88g the headquarters 
of the division were transferred to Kindat, and Alon became the head- 
quarters, of the flower Chindwin subdivision. A new subordinate staff was 
sanctioned in 1890. 

The amount of revenue collected at revenue stations from 1887 ^o 1889 
is given below. Timber exported to Lower Burma by the Corporation is 
measured at Pak6!iku and is therefore not included : — 



Source of revenue 


i. 1887-88. 


1888-89. 


1889.90. 


Teak timber .„ 

Other wood 

Bamboos ... 

Canes 

India-rubber ... 

Registration of hammers 

Ail other sources .„ 


Rs. 

71 

603 

2,978 

859 

75 

.'." '"30 


Rs. 

6.780 

3.253 
4.891 
2.584 
2,966 

345 
I.171 


Rs. 

»3.8S' 

3.>45 
9,260 
2,112 

3.837 
«.05S 
1,891 


Total Revenue 


.^.6^6 


20.989 


35.151 


The following table 
years : — 


givas the expenditure for the corresponding three 


Head of expend it u 


re. 1887-88. 


1888-89. 


1889-90. 


Girdling 

Drift 

l£Iephants 

Bmldinga 

Survey work ... 

Salaries ... .. 

Travelling allowances 

All other expenditure 


Rs. 

91 

26 
202 

3,621 
461 

7.149 
963 
176 


Rs. 

3.879 

605 
3.305 

327 

14.764 

3-998 

2,098 


Rs. 

7.90s 
896 

1.591 
2,410 

794 

» 8.347 

3,062 

'.567 


Total expenditure 


11.689 


26,976 


36.572 



All girdling work is done under the supervision of the Forest Department 
In 1888, as the Forest Officer could not superintend the work, permission 
was given to the Corporation to carry out the girdling themselves. The 
following statement gives the number of trees that have been girdled:— 
Year. Number. 



1888 
1889 
l8go 



26.500 
35.443 
37,757 



4» 



332 



THE UPPER BURMA G.\ZETTEER. 



[UPP 



When the Chindwin forest division was formed the whole of the teak areas 
were undetermined and unsurveycd. Survey work and the description of 
the forests was therefore of primary importance. The number of miles of 
traverse and the number of ."square miles of teak forest mapped out were — 



Year. 


Miles, 


Area. 


Remarks. 


t887-88 
1888-89 

1889-90 


47 
485 

330 


Not estimated 
780 39 miles 

305*39 miles 


Sketch maps only. 
Plus five hundred and twenty- 
eight acres valuation survey. 



The areas which had up till i8gi been proposed as teak reserves were — 



Division. 


Reserve. 


Area. 


Notification and 
dale. 


Upper Chindwin 
Ka-Ie ... 


... 


Taungdwin reserves... 
Matu . 


262 square miles . 
180 square miles. 


Preliminary n t i fi - 
cation of 23rd Nov- 
ember 1888. 


Pakftkku 

Upper Chindwin . 


• 

•1 


B6n ... 

Liunglaung 

Khampat 

Kindat ... ... 

Vu 
Mauk ... 

Total 


114 square miles. 
96 square miles. 
S square miles. 
[49 square miles. 
3IO square miles. 
112 square miles. 






1,128 square miles. 





No account of the forest administration later than 1891 is available. 

The climate of the district is healthy during the cold weather, but in the 

rains and hot season there is much fever, dysentery 

ima e. ^^^ diarrhcca and occasionally, at the commencement of 

the hot weather, there are outbreaks of cholera and small-nox. The most 

unhealthy portions of the district are the Ka-Ie and Kabaw valleys, which 

during the rains are fatal to Europeans. 

The rainfall as registered in Kindat was in — 

Year. 
1889-90 
1890-91 ... ... ... ... 

1891-93 

1893-94 ... ... ••• ... ■ 

1894.95 
1895-96 

The total population of the district, excluding the Native States, is esti- 
. ma'ed at 97,793 persons, of whom about iS,ooo are 

Popuaiion. Shans : this is a considerable increase on the figures ar- 

rived at by the census of 1891. The chief towns are Kindat, Mingin, 
Paungbyin and Ka-le-myo, 



Inches. 
85-8 1 
63-89 
Oi-97 
87-40 
7245 
6524 



UPP] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



323 



The ordinary staples are rice, beans, peas {sadaw f>e), sessamum, Indian- 
Cultivation and corn, pumpkins, brinjals, cucumbers, chillies and yams, 
parcels. The price of plough bullocks varies from Rs. 65 to Rs, 85 ; 

of buflalocs from Hs. 80 to 100 ; of cows from Rs. 25 to 50. Fowls are sold 
in Kindat at two ff>r the rupee, but in the outlying villages four to five are 
obtained for this sum. The average price of paddy may be taken at Rs. 70 
the hundred baskets. 

The unsettled condition of the Chindwin country for several years after 
„ , the Annexation and the want of effective means of com- 

munication have militated against any adequate develop- 
ment of trade in the district. Such trade as there is is carried on for the 
most part along the waterways, primarily, of course, the Chindwin river, 
by which produce is taken down to Monywa and the Irrawaddy. In some 
of the townships, notably Taungdwin-gyaung, want of roads leads to almost 
complete isolation ; and in others, as Lcga-yaing, there may ha said to be 
no cart traffic at all, trade communications relying entirely on such water- 
ways as are possible. There are two routes by which a certain amount of 
trade filters int 1 the district, besides the Chindwin river: (i) from Mogaung 
and Myitkyina and the Jade and Amber Mines Tracts, the Uyu river affords 
a passage into the Homalin subdivision, and further west still into Thaung- 
thwut ; (2) some trade is carried on between Wuntho and the Lega-yaing sub- 
divisions, the chief mart for it being Pauiigbyin on the Chindwin. Little 
trade is carried on between the Chins and Manipuris and the river villages, 
the people of the hills confining their trade relations for the most part to 
other hill tribes. 

• 

The imports of ihe district are jaggery, oil, salt, cocoanuts, piece-goods, 
cotton and silk, a little opium for the larger villages, and earthenware ves- 
sels,— whilst the exports are teak, bamboo, jade, wax, ebony, cane-mats, 
aniber, pickled tea, Indiv-rubber, and occasionally a little gold. 

In Burmese times a wun was stationed at Kindat who had charge of the 
. administration of the Upper Chindwin and was invested 

Bufme'bTumes." '" ^''^^ ^^e fullest military, political, and criminal powers. 
He was assisted by two sikie, two na-hkan, and two 
hotat'ye (clerks to the military officers). These were all appointed by the 
Hlutdaw, with the previous sanction of the king. There were five myo \a 
Indauktha, five principal villages in Mingin, the Tamu and Khampat myo, 
besidt s several places of importance on the banks of the upper reaches of 
the Chindwin, all under the contiol of this a-w//, who was styled the 
Khampat wun, A military post was kept up at Kindat to guard against 
raids by the neighbouring frontier tribes. The wun held by royal grant 
for his own use two stretches of land, one for iaui'gfi, the other for mayt'n 
paddy, each producing five thousand baskets. Each sikk^ bad assigned to 
him tracts producing three thousand baskets of each kind. Each na-hkan 
had similar pieces of land returning two thousand baskets. The botat-ye 
cultivated free lands, giving a yield of fifteen hundred baskets of each kind. 

In 1223 B.E. (i85i A.D.J these royal grants of land were withdrawn and 
in their place the myowitn received a salary of Rs. 3,600 yearly, the sikke 
Rs. 1,300, the na-hkan Rs. 900, and the botat-ye Rs. 600 a year each. Up 
to this date sometimes a bo or military commander, and sometimes a wun 
was appointed to administer the district. 



324 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[tjpp 



From II20 to 1223 B.E. (1758 — 1S61 A.D.) there were no cultivable 
lands at the disposal of the people and they were therefore exempted from 
house-tax, but in its place had to render military service. In 1223 B.E. 
the fAalhamcda-ta.Ti was instituted, at the rate of five rupees each family. 
It was subsequently raised to ten rupees and is still collected at that rate. 

The wun and st'ike had jurisdiction in civil suits, without limit as to the 
value of property in issue. The judgment of a siiit-, na-hkan^ ot botat-ye 
was final only if both parties agreed. In criminal cases the wun alone had 
the power of the death sentence. While on deputation on military duties 
alone in the district the sikke, na-hkan or botat-ye had the same powers 
as the wun. At headquarters in Kindat a sikke, na-hkan, and a botat-ye 
sitting as a bench could pass a sentence of death. 

Such thugyis as were under the direct orders of the shive-tatk wun were 
called sliwe-hmu, as a distinction from the ordinary thugyis, who were 
under the orders of the wun and his subordinates, the sitxe and na-hkan. 
A thugyi or shive-hmu became a myothiigyi when he acquired jurisdiction 
over one or more other thugyis. Under the thugyi there were only the ^jipa- 
gaung and ywO'dk. 

Accounts of the history and revenue administration of 
the Ka-le State in Burmese times will be found under the 



Revenue and his- 



^^' Ka-le Township head. 

Nat worship is universal in the district and takes occasionally very curi- 
^ . . , . ous forms. Mingin is guarded by the Thomaing nat on 

5>pint worship. ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ Nwayfe nat on the south, and the Maha-giri 

nat on the north, and each has a four-post shrine. Simillrly the Maungma- 
gfyun nat is enshrined in the middle of the town. In Tabaung (March) of 
each year the image of this nat is carried through the streets to an accom- 
paniment of drums and gongs, and in Wagaui]g{]\i\y) is placed on a ho.it and 
rowed up and down the river. The penalty for omission of these observan- 
ces will be famine, drought or disease. 

Maukkadaw is guarded by the KoniyoShin Aungzwa Magyi natt who lives 
in a large shrine on the bank of the Chindwin river near the Thelataung 
hill. The story of the building of the shrine is that in 54 B.E. (692 A.D.) 
Nara-padi Sithu, one of the fifty-five rulers of Faukkan, ordered the execution 
of his old servant Maung Aungzwa for a certain crime. He became a ttat 
immediately after death and appeared to his lord in person and manifested 
his innocence. Narapadi Sithu then ordered the nine Sawbwas of the 
Kambawsa Shan States with their people to build a splendid shrine for his 
greater glory and to offer their dutiful homage to him every year. 

In 1 113 B.E. (1751 A.D.) the Talaings of the Yamanya province rose and 
destroyed the city of Ratanapura (-Ava). One Maung .'Kung Zaya of Shwebo 
attacked and defeated them and in 11 18 B.E. advanced toSiam at the head 
of his army. The nine Sawbwas of the Kambawsa Shan States with their 
troops, and the Komyo Shin Aungzwa Magyi nat accompained him in the 
invasion. The nat was seen mounted on a white horse and commanded 
the attack, which ended in a great victory. After the war many shrines 
were erected to him, among them one by the people of Maukkadaw. 

Baing village is guarded by four chief nats, the Ywa dawyin nat, the 
Shwe-nanyin nat, the Kindawyin nat and the Indaw Shinma nat, and for 



UPR-UYl] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



3^^ 



all four shrines have been built. In Tabaung (March) of each year booths 
are erected and a festival and pwes held in their honour. The expenses 
incurred are defrayed by the village from a collection apportioned to the 
means of each family. 

UPRA. — A Kachin village in Tract No. l8, Myitkyina district, situated in 
24° 57' north latitude and 97^ 52' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained forty houses; its population was unknown. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of the 
Lepai tribe and Sadan sub-tribe and cultivate the poppy. Fodder and water 
are not plentiful. There is good camping-ground below the village. 

URAPUM or WALAPUM.— A Kachin (Lahtawng) village in North Hsen 
Wi Northern Sban State, in Na Ti district. 

It contained Fifteen houses in 1 894, with a population of thirty-seven 
persons. The revenue paid was one rupee per household and the people 
were paddy cultivators and traders by occupation, and owned ten bullocks, 
five buffaloes and fifteen pigs. The price of paddy was eight aimas the 
basket. 

U-YIN. — A revenue circle in the Sa-le township, F'agan subdivision of 
Myingyan district. 

In 1895-96 the population numbered one thousand three hundred and 
forty persons. The thathameda-t^x amounted to Rs. 2,333, the State land 
revenue to Rs. 1,336-7-1, and the gross revenue to Rs. 3,669-7-1. 

U-YIN. — A circle in the Nalmauk township of Magwe district, including 
the villages of U-yin South, U-yin North, Kyigan, Myindfe-gyi, Thaycttaw, 
Kyauktan and Saing-aung. 

U-YIN. — A village in the Tfiayettabin revenue circle, Pathein-gyi to^vnsliip, 
Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district seven miles north of head- 
quarters. 

It had a population of two hundred and sevc nty-nine persons at the census 
of 1891, 

U-YIN. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Yc-u subdivision of 
Shwebo district, with three square miles of attached lands. 

The population in 1891 numbered one hu-idred and fifteen persons and 
there were forty four and a half acres of cultivation. Paddy, t hit si, and 
jaggery arc Ihr chief products. The re\tnac\jom i/iat/tar/icda for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 350. The village is under the Lema.thugyi and is eighteen 
miles from Ye-u. 

U-YIN. — A village in the Palano circle, PakSkku township, subdivi- 
sion and district, with a population of three hundred and ten persons, ac- 
cording to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 740, included in that of 
Nyaungbin. 

U-YIN. — A village in the LIngadaw circle, Myaing township, Pak6kku 
subdivision and district, with a population of eighty-seven persons, accord- 
ing to the census of 1891. 

The ihathamcda amounted to Rs. 190 for 1897-98. 

U-YIN-DAW. — A revenue circle in the Amarapura township and sub- 
division of Mandalay district, including four villages, and a bazaar. 



326 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



tUYI-'JVU 



The land revenue amounted to Rs. i,i i6 in 1891. 

U-YIN-DAW. — A village in Madaya township and subdivision of Man- 
dalay district, east o( Myinzi. 

It has twenty-five houses, and its population numbered in 1897 °"^ ^^a' 
dred persons approximately. The villagers are cultivators. 

U-YIN-DAW. — A village in the revenue circle of the same name in the 
Amarapura tmvnship and subdivision of Mandalay district, six miles south- 
south-east of headquarters, 

It had a population of nine hundred and seventy persons at the census 
of 1891 and paid Rs, 1,730 tkathamcda-iax. It grows excellent mangoes, 
and the old State gardens were in this village. 

U-YIN-GA-LE.— A village in the Nyaung-wun revenue circle, Pathcin* 
gyi township, Amarapura subdivision of Mandalay district, cight-and*a-batf 
miles east of headquarters. 

It had a population of one hundred and forty persons at the census of 
1891, and paid Rs. 210 thathameda-i^x. 

U-YIN-MA. — A village in the AUgan circle, Myaing township, Pakokku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and seventy-three 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The revenue from thalhameda amounted to Rs. 300 for 1897-98. 

U-VU. — A township of the Lcga-yaing subdivision of Upper Chindwin 
district, is bounded on the north by Myitkyina district; on the south by the 
Lega-yaing township; on the west by the Thaungthwut State and the 
Homalin township ; and ou the cast by Myitkyina district. 

Ihe area is estimated at four thousand (our hundred and seventy-two 
square miles. The township takes iis name from the Uyu river, which 
issues fiom the hills in M) itkyina district to the north, traverses the township 
throughout its length, and iinally joins lUe Chindwin just below Homalin. 

The country north of Homalin, between the Uyu and Chindwin rivers, is 

^ XT a lonfused mass of hill ranges falling abruptly as they 

approach the valleys of the two rivers. Open places are 
met with at distant intervals. Close to Shwe-dwin and along the Nanp6k 
chaung, a few miles north of Shwe-dwin, there are large kaing levels, and 
opposite to Haungpa there is a similar plain stretching south for some 
seven miles. The Uyu river has many tributaries, the largest being the 
Chaunggyi. It risei in the eastern range and after traversing a wide tract 
of country, covered with teak and heavy jungle, flows into tht- Uyu sixty miles 
from the mouth of the latter. There are extensive reserved forests on the 
Uyu chaung. 

Jade is found in the Uyu clauttg to the north of Haungpa. It is reported 
j^. I tliat jade was formerly obtained in the Nantarit chaung, 

but the place is not worked now, probably because the 
output did not repay the labour expended. 

Salt is found in ihe Ycbawmi circle, but is inferior in quality to that 
brought up from the lower country, and the quantity obtained by boiling is 
not enough even for local consumption. 

Traces of gold dust are discoverable almost anywhere in the hilly parts 
of the township. In the Leiksaw, Hfenu, Maingkaing and Se-ywa circles 



VAN-VOK ] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



3«7 



gold-washing is carried on regularly during Lhe rains. The results obtained 
from the industry are not er.cou/aging. If a man gets from four to five 
ticals a year lie is considered lucky. One tical of gold fetches locally Rs, 30 
to Rs. 35. The only village which entirely depends on gold-washing as a 
means of livelihood is Natsan in the Leiksaw circle. It has about twenty 
houses. 

Some rubies and ether precious stones have been found in the drainage 
of the Yfikkazo chaung, which runs into the Uyu river ten miles below 
Maingkaing, but no large stones have been obtained. 

Revenue. The township paid Rs. 41,610 revenue in 1891. 

VANGLAI. — A village of Chins of the Kanhow tribe in the Northern Chin 
Hills. It lies east by a little north of Tiddim, and is reached by a Chin path 
leading east and by north from the rifle-range. 

In 1894 it had seven houses. There was no resident chief. The people 
are Kanhows, subordinate to Howchinkup. The village has been disarmed. 
Water is obtainable from a stream. • 

VANGVA. — A village of Chins of the Whenoh tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies south-west of Botung and south-east of Taunghwc, and is 
reached by a Chin path from Botung. 

In 1894 it had twenty houses. Kweg-sin was its resident chief. It pays 
tribute to Falam. Water is available from a stream about a mile east of the 
village. 

VANHNA. — A village of Lai Chins in the Southern Chin Hills. It lies 
seventeen miles east of Haka and can be reached by the Haka road. 

In 1894 it had one hundred houses. The resident chief was Vanhnyin- 
The village is fenced. There is good camping-ground, with a plentiful water, 
supply. The villagers formerly worked iron, but the industry is now dying 
out. The Burmese call the place Wunhla. 

VANKLANG. — A village of Chins of the Yfikvva tribe in the Southern 
Chin Hills. It lies eight miles east of Rawvan and can be reached from 
Y6kwa, fifteen miles. 

In 1894 it had twenty houses. The resident chief was Hkankwe. The 
village is under the protection of Seopwa of Y6kwa, and has plenty of water 
and good camping-ground. 

VANYIM. — A village of Chins of the Tashfin tribe in the Central Chin 
Hills. It lies two miles north east of Songkwa and can be reached viA 
Hmunli. 

In 1894 it had forty houses Yakwe was its resident chief. Vanyim is a 
Kweshin village and pays tribute to Falam. Very little water is available. 

VOKLA. — A village of Chins of the Siyin tribe in the Northern Chin 
Hills. It lies six miles south-west of Fort White, and is reached by various 
paths leading south-west through old Tavak and old Nashwin, across the 
stream south of these villages and thence over a spur to the village. There 
is abundant water-supply from the Haitsaik and Saimwell streams. 

In 1894 it had sixty-five houses. The resident chief was Rowkali. 

Vokla is inhabited by the Bweman clan of Siyins. The clan formerly lived 

History. ^" Bweman near Toklaing, but when their village was burnt 

in 1889 ihcy moved to Vokla and Nalpi. In 1893 Nalpi 

was demolished and all the Bwemans collected into Vokla. The chief Lin- 



328 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[ VOM-WAB 



kam was killed in the fight at Tatan in 1889 and the people then elected 
Powkai as their chief. They were disarmed in 1893, 

VOMKWA. — A village of Chins of the Haka tribe in the Southern Chin 
Hills. It lies fifty miles west of Haka and ten rniles west of Wantu, and can 
be reached via Wantu or Twagam. 

In 1S94 it had sixty houses. Nisum, Shwekar and Shadu were the resi- 
dent chiefs. It has no stockaded entrances. There is good camping-ground 
on the south. 

Vonikwa pays tribute to Tatsim of Haka and Is also under Klangklang 
influence. 

VYENG LAN. — A village of the Mong Lin district of the Southern Shan 
State of Keng Tong. It is one mile east of Mong Lin town and occupies 
the site of an old fortified place, of which the earthen rampart can still be 
traced. 

There are sixty-six houses and a good monastery in Vyeng Lan village, 
and forty-two houses and a monastery in Lawn Hsai, which immediately 
adjoins Vyeng Lan and is under the same headman. [^Sce Mong Lin.] 

WA-BA.— A village in the Mayagan township of Shwebo district, ten 
miles from headquarters. 

Rice cultivation is the chief industry. Rs. 380 ikathameda revenue was 
paid for 1896-97. 

WABAUNG. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 8, Bhamo district, situated 
in 24" 10' north latitude and 97° 25' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses, with a population of eighty-nine 
persons. The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabilants 
are of the Lepai tribe and Kaori sub-tribe and own no cattle. Camping- 
ground is bad, but there is a fair supply of water. 

WABAW or WABAWLONKAT.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 8, 
Bhamo district, situated in 24° 5' north latitude and 97° 33' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty houses, with a population of eighty-one per- 
sons. The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants 
are of the Lepai tribe and Hpunkan sub-tribe, and own nine bullocks and 
three buffaloes. 

WABAWGAP. — A Kachin villafife in Tract No. 3, Bhamo district, situat- 
ed in 33° 55' north latitude and 97° a6' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-six houses, with a population of sixty-seven 
persons. The headman has two others subordinate to him. The inhabit- 
ants are of the Lepai tribe and Hpunkan sub-tribe, and own twenty bullocks 
and ten buffaloes. Four hundred baskets of paddy are grown yearly. 
Water is available from a small stream. 

WA-BIN. — A village in the Kyaw circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, Gangaw 
subdivision of Pak6kku district, with a population of one hundred and 
twenty-two persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 130 for 1897-98. 

WA-BIN. — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of two hundred and twenty-six persons, according 
to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 950. 



WAB-WAC] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



339 



WA-BIN.— A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision of Pak6kku 
district, with a population of one hundred and fifty-six persons, according 
the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 330. 

^ WA-BO.— A village in the Wabo circle, Yeza-gyo township, Pakfikku sub- 
division and district, with a population of two hundred and eight persons, 
according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs. 630 for 1897-98. 

WA-BO-CHAUNG, — A village in the Tilin township, Pauk subdivision 
of Pai<6kku district, with a revenue of Rs. 190. 

WA-BO'GYAUNG. — A circle in the Ti-gyaing township, Katha subdivi- 
.«;ion and district, including three villages with one hundred and fifteen 
houses. 

The inhabitants are Burmans and Shans and cultivate mayin, kaukkyi 
and taungya. 

WABONG (PUMKATONG).— A Kachin village in Tract No. 19, 
Myitkyina district, situated in 25° 20' north latitude and 97° 16' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twenty-two houses, with a population of sixty-five 
persons. The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants 
are of the Lepai tribe and Sadan sub-tribe, and own twelve bullocks and ten 
buffaloes. There is a single rubber tree. Water is obtainable from two 
springs below and to the east of the village and thsre is fair camping- 
ground ; bamboo fodder is obtainable. 

WA-BO-YE. — A circle in the Pyintba township, Maymyo subdivision of 
Mandalay district. 

Wabo-ye is the only village in the circle and is situated one and-a-half 
miles west of Kangyi-g6n, and had a population of seventy persons at the 
census of 1891 ; the thathameda paid in 1896 amounted to Rs. 140. The 
villagers are Danu. 

WA-CHET. — A village of one hundred and sixty-six houses in the Sagaing 
township and district, five miles north-east of Sagaing town. 

It is of interest for the number of monasteries in the neighbourhood, 
built in the valleys that run down from the crest of the Sagaing hills, at 
the foot of which the village lies. They are said to number twenty-four 
and the austerity of the lives of the monks who live in them has made them 
famous throughout Burma Buddhist pilgrims to Upper Burma visit them 
as a matter of course. The view from the hill behind Wachet over these 
sequestered valleys and peaceful monasteries is extremely pleasing. The 
pagodas are the Baddamya-sedi, the Onhmin-thAnsfe, and the Shinbyu 
Shinla. 

WACHONGTUMBANG.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 14, Bhamo 
district, situated in 24° 44' north latitude and 97° 38' east longitude. 

ft contained in 1S92 fifteen houses, with a population of seventy-three 
persons. The headman has one village subordinate to him. The inhabit- 
ants are of the Lepai tribe and Szi or Asi sub-tribe, and own three buffa- 
loes only. 

VVA-CHU-TZE.— A village o! three houses on the east side of the Sal- 
ween river, in the Ko Kang circle of the Northern Shan State of North Hsen 
Wi (Theinni). It is situated at a height of five thousand feet on the 
eastern slope of the Mo Htai ridge, in the extreme north of the circle. 

4a 



3oQ 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[WAD-WAG 



The inhabitants are Myen (Shan-Chinese from the MQng Ting State) 
and cultivate maize and opium, the latter in considerable quantities for 
the size of the village. In j8g2, owing to failure of rain in the preceding 
season, their number had dwindled t^» fourteen, the remainder having moved 
into Chinese territory, which is only a few miles distant. 

WA-DAT. — A village in the Myiiitha circle, Ku-hna-ywa township, Gan- 
gaw subdivision of PaitAkku district, with a population of two hundred and 
seventy-seven persons, according to the census of 1891, and a revenue of 
Rs. 45b. 

WA-DAW-MA, — A revenue circle in the Budalini circle of Lower Chind- 
win district, including the villages of Wadawma, Hmawdaw, Aung-chantha, 
Uyin and Kantha, with two thousand four hundred and twenty-four inhabi- 
tants. The circle lies about fourteen miles south-east of Dudalin. 

The village of Wadawma has one thousand and seventy inhabitants. 
It was formerly the headquarters of the Wadawma township, which a few 
years ago was an^algamated with the present M6nywa and Budalin town- 
ships. It is locally reputed for its jaggery, obtained from what are supposed 
to be the finest toddy- palms in the district. The revenue for 1896-97 
amounted to Rs. 419, from thaihameda. 

WA-DIN. — A village in the Pauk township and subdivision of Pakflkku 
district, with a population of two hundred and twenty-six persons, according 
to the census of 1891, and a revenue of Rs. 460. 

WAGA. — A Kachin village in Tract No. 28, Myitkyina district, situated 
in 25° 39' north latitude and 97° 58' east longitude, 

In i8q2 it contained seventeen houses, with a population of fifty-six per- 
sons. The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants 
are of the Maru tribe and own seven buffaloes. 

WAGAKA. — A Kumlao Kachin village in Tract No. 39, Myitkyina dis- 
trict, situated in 26° 25' north latitude and 97° 38' east longitude. 

In 1893, it contained fourteen houses; its population was not known. 
The inhabitants are of the Marip tribe. The headman has no others subor- 
dinate to him. There are no cattle in the village. 

WA-GAN. — A village in the Paikthin circle, Myaing township, Pakftkku 
subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and seventy-one 
persons, according to the census of 1891 ; the thaihameda amounted to 
Re. 270 for 1897-98. 

WA-GIN-GON. — A revenue circle in the Pathein-gyi township, Amara- 
pura subdivision of Mandalay district. 

Wagingon is the only village in the circle and is situated twelve miles 
north-east of headquarters. It had a population of one hundred and five 
persons at the census of 1891, and paid Rs. 230 thathameda and Rs. 180 
land revenue. 

WA-GYI-AING. — A circle in the Myothit township of Magvve district, 
including the villages of Wa-gyi-aing, Manawgdn, Y6ndaw and A-we-gyo. 

WA-GYI-DAW. — A village in the Kunlat circle, Myaing township, Pa- 
k6kku subdivision and district, with a population of one hundred and fifty 
persons, according to the census of 1891. 

The thathameda amounted to Rs, 300 for 1897-98. 



WAH-WAL] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



WA HKEP. — A Kachin village in North Hsen Wi, Northrrn Shan States, 
in Nam Hkam circle. 

It contained thirty houses in 1894, with a population of eighty-five per- 
sons. The revenue paid was Re. i per household and the pf'ople were 
paddy-cuhivators by occupation, and owned thirty bullocks, fifteen bufTaloes 
and forty-five pigs. 

VVAILEKVVA or KWUNGLYIN.— A village of Chins of the Whenoh 
tribe in the Central Chin Hills. It lies between the Tuipi and Tyao rivers, 
ten miles from the former, and is reached by a path running south-east 
and ascending steeply. 

In 1894 it had thirty houses. Wail^ was its resident Chief, The people 
are Whenohs, tributary to Falam. Water is obtainable in a nullah. 

WAING-CHO. — A village in the Shwe-gyin township, Ye-u subdivision 
of Shwebo district, with twelve square miles of attached land. 

The population in i8gi numbered one hundred and three persons, and 
there were two acres of cultivation. Thitsi and paddy are the chief pro- 
ducts. The village is thirty miles from Ye-u and paid Rs. 270 thathamcda 
revenue lor ib«i6-97. It is under the Tawgyin thugyi. 

WAING-MAW. — A village on the IrrawadHy river south of Myitlcyina 
in Myitkyina district, containing thirty- four houses, of which three are of 
Lepai-Kachins. The village is healthy and above the reach of the highest 
floods: the villagers are mostly employed as brokers between the Kachins 
and the down country traders. 

Before the Annexation about a thousand Chinese merchants came down 
yearly from Maingia and Santa with live hundred mules carrying pots, 
kawsazvs, cloth, opium and spirits, but did not usually break bulk here, 
jr. passing on with their goods to the Jade Mines. Waingmaw 

was in iSr-o th'i headquarters of a Kayaing-6k whose 
jurisdiction was bounded on the ncirth by Maingna, on the south by the 
Nantapet chaung, and on the west by the Irrawaddy, The village then 
owned five buffaloes and ten bullocks. 

In 1890 there were to the east of Waingmaw the following Shan-Tayok 
villages, "protected" by the Sadon Kachins and paying no allegiance to 
the British Government. 

Houses. 

(i) \Va San ... ... 20") ».„ ._ . . • .. 

(2) Nat .Myin ... ... ,oj About one day s journey distant 

(3) F>w'e Saw ... ... 30 About two if <j«'«^5 cast. 

(4) Na Kfiiaw ... Two <f^ii'n^f east of Katkyo. 

In 1239 B.E. (1877 A. D.) U Tak. then Myauk Atwt'n Wu», on a visit of 
inspection to Bhamo was given presents by the villages of Natmyin and 
Lwesaw. 

^ WALAW (A). — A Kachin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyina district 
situated in 25° 46' north latitude and 97" 39' east longitude. 

In 1892 it contained twelve houses; its population was not known. The 
headman has no others subordinate to him. The Inhabitants are of the 
Lahtawng tribe. 

WALAW (B).— A Kachin village in Tract No. 38, Myitkyina district 
situated in 25° 48' north latitude and 97^ 39' east longitude. ' 



332 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



[WAL— WAN 



In 1892 it contained twenty-eight houses; the population was not known. 
The headman has no others subordinate to him. The inhabitants are of 
the Lepai tribe. 

WALLAWUN. — A village of Chins of the Kanhow tribe in the Northern 
Chin Hills. It lies seven miles east of Tiddim, and is reached by a Chin 
path through Nginnon village. 

In 1894 it had fourteen houses ; the resident Chief was Powpum. The 
people are Kanbows, subordinate to Howchinkup, 

Wakawun has been disarmed. It was destroyed in 1889, and the people 
then rebuilt it near its former site. 

WA MU. — A Lahtawng Kachin village in North Hsen Wi Northern Shan 
State, in Mong Ya circle. 

It contained thirty houses in 1894, with a population of one hundred and 
sixty persons. The revenue paid was rupees three per household and the 
people were paddy and tobacco cultivators by occupation, and owned fifty 
bullocks, ten buffaloes and five ponies. 

The headman of the Mong Ya circle lives in this village, which is situat- 
ed at a height of about five thousand five hundred feet, on the saddle of a 
high ridge running down to the Salween. 

WAMUNGATONG or MAMUNGATONG.— A Kachin village in Tract 
No. 35, Myitkyina district, situated in 24° 32' north latitude and 97° 3' east 
longitude. 

In 1892 it contained thirteen houses, with a population of seventy-seven 
persons, who owned nineteen buFEalnes The headman has no others sub- 
ordinate to him : the inhabitants are of the Lepai tribe and Kara subtribe. 

WANG MA HAW.— A tributary of the Salween river, which it joins in 
about 24° 10' north, in the extreme north-cast of the Northern Shan State of 
North Hsen Wi (Theinni). 

For about a mile above its junction with the Salween it formed in 1892 the 
boundary line between the Mang Ka circle of North Hsen Wi and the 
Shan-Chinese State of Mang Shik (Mong Hkawn), in the sub-prefecture of 
Lungling. 

The Wangma flows due east for about three miles before joining the 
Salween and rises to the north in Mang Shik or Chcfan. 

WAN HKAM.— A village and small circle of the Southern Shan State 
of Keng TQng. It is situated in the hills, fiileen miles north east of the 
capital town. 

The village is built in a dell, and is surrounded by fine bamboos and timber 
trees, interpersed with small tea plantations. It has a very handsome mon- 
astery. The people are Tai Loi. There are eighteen houses, most of 
which are occupied by several families. Three Kaw villages are attached 
to Wan Hkam for revenue purposes. 

The village is said to have been one of those founded by the Wa, after 
their expulsion from the valley of Keng Tung by the conquering Hkon, 
The head men take part in the investiture of each new Sawbwa of Keng 
Tung handing over the State as the old lords of the soil. 



iTAN] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



333 



WAN HKAM.— A village of the Mong Wa district of the Southern Shan 
State of K6ng Tung. 

It has fifty-three houses and a monastery, and is on the Nam Lwc. See 
Mong VVa. 

WAN HKAr.— The chief village of the Mong Wa district of the 
Southern Shan State of Keng Tung. It has thirty-seven houses and a mon- 
astery. 

A bazaar is held here See Mong, Ma. 

WAN HOK. — A village of the Mong Wa district of the Southern Shan 
State of Keng Tong. 

It has two hamlets (East and West), together numbering thirty-seven houses 
and a monastery. See Mong Wa. 

WAN HOK. — A village of. the Mong Yang district of the Southern 
Shan Stale of Keng Tung. 

It has forty houses and a monastery. See M5ng Yang. 

WAN HOK. — A T/Jt Lot village in the Southern Shan State of Keng 
Tung. It lies in the hills between the valley of the Nam Maandlhc vallevs 
of Mong Lwe and Mong Yang, and is a stage on the Mong Ma-Mong Yang 
road, being nineteen miles from the former and twelve miles from the latter 
place. 

There are twelve houses and two monasteries and three small sayats in- 
side tire village. 

WAN HSAl. — A village of the Southern Shan State of Keng Tung. It is 
situated in the hills, fifteen miles north-cast of Keng Tung town and of the 
main road from there to Mong Yawng, at a height of about five thousand feet. 

It is surrounded by trees and bamboo groves, and the view of the Keng 
Tung valley from the village is one ol much natural beauty. There are 
several pagodas and thcins and a good brick monastery. The houses, of 
which there are sixteen, .ire well built and tomfor table. The people are 
Tnf Lot and, as several families live together in one house, the population 
IS probably not less than two hundred and fifty persons. In the hill fields 
rice and sugarcane are grown, and the people also descend to work small 
irrigated fields in narrow valleys of the range. A noteworthy product 
is tea, of which a considerable quantity is gathered from plantations near 
the village. Water is excellent and the streams perennial, but these are 
at a little distance from the village, and do not yield a very large supply. 
Good roads connect Wan Hsai with Keng lung plain, and with other Tat 
Lot villages, of which there are five in the vicinity. For 1897 the village 
was assessed at f<s. 70 revenue. 

WAN HSEN KIAU.— A village of the Southern Shan State of Keng 
Tiing. It lies in the hills between Mong Lwe and the Mfekhong river, and 
is a stage on the road from Mong Lwe to the ferry at Lawn Hsai. 

1 here are nineteen houses and a small monastery. The people are Hkamu 
by origin, but they have been Buddhists for mauy years. 

WAN HSEO. — A village of the Mong Ma district of the Southern Shan 



State of Keng Tang. 



334 



THE Ut»PER BURMA GAZETTEKR. 



[WAN 



The village has sixty houses and a monastery. Sec Mcng Ma. 
WANKATAUNG or WUNKATAUNG.— A Kachin village in Tract No. 
7, Bhamo district. 

In i8q2 it contained thirty houses, with a population of eighty-six per- 
sons. The headman has no otlicrs subordinate to him. The inhabitants 
are of the Lepai tribe and Hpunkan sub-tribe, and own ten bullocks and five 
buffaloes. The village has a fair water supply. 

WAN KAWNG-PENG TaWNG.— A township of the Southern Shan 
State of Keng Tung. It lies along the upper waters of the Nam Lwe Sai, a 
tributary of the great Nam Lwe, directly north of Keng Tung town and 
south of the districts of .Mtjng Lwe and Mong Yang. 

By the State records it contains one hundred and fifty houses, paying a 
revenue of Rs. 226. The population is Lem and Lii. 

WAN KWAl. — A Chinese village in North Hsen Wi, Northern Shan 
States, in Nam Kyek circle of Mong Si. 

It contained twelve houses in 1^94, with a population of one hundred and 
twenty persons. T he revenue paid was three rupees per household and 
the people were paddy, maize and opium cultivators by occup.ition, and 
owned fifteen bullocks, eight buffaloes and eighty pigs. The price of paddy 
was eight annas the basket. 

WAN KYE. — .\ village of the M6ng Yang district of the Southern Shan 
Stale of Keng Tung. It has thirty-nine houses and a monastery. See 
Mong Yang. 

WAN LAW. — A fcrry-villagc of the Southern Shan State of- Keng Tung, 
on the Mekhong ri\er, about twenty-five miles south of the point where the 
river enters British territory from the north. 

1 he crossing is fairly eat-y, and is used by traders from Keng Tung by the 
northern route to Mong Hsing, and by people from the cis-Mikhong Panna 
of Keng Tung. Mong Hsing is distant twenty-five miles. 

The village has eigl.t houses and is surrounded by betel-palms, and there 
are some clearings for hill rice. 'J wo Kaw villages in the hills are under 
Wan Law. The hamlet on the opposite side of the river (Wan San) has 
seven houses. 

WAN LEK. — A circle of the Hsam Tao district of the Southern Shan 
State of Keng Tung. 

The gun-making villages of WSn Pang Yung and Wan Pyu are in this 
circle. See Hsam Fao. 

WAN LEK. — A village in the north-cast of the Southern Shan State of 
Keng Tung, on the M&khong river, seven miles south of the mouth of the 
Nam Nga, where the former river enters British territory from the north. 

It has thirty-three houses and a monastery. The people arc Lii. Wjin 
Lek was a direct-paying village, or circle of Keng Cheng, and passed to 
Keng Tung in May 1896, with the other cis-Mckhong Keng Cheng districts. 
There is a considerable Kaw population in the hills. Before the 15th 
January 1896, a hilly tract on the left bank of the Mfekliong was occupied by 
Kaw villages subordinate to Wan Lek and used by the Lu of that village 



WAN] 



THE UPPER BURMA GAZETTEER. 



33S 



for hill cultivation. Though scarcely a regular ferry, the crossing is not 
difficult and a (ew dup-outs and rafts are usually obtainable. A road runs 
to Keng Tawng opposite Wan Lek, by which M5ng HpCng and M6ng La 
in the XII Panna can be reached. Boats descend the Mfekhong as far as P5 
Hka. A htll road connects Wan Lek with M6ng Htan, where the route to 
Mong Hfe is joined. 

WAN LEM. — A village of the MSng Ma district of the Southern Shan 
State of Keng Tung. 

It has forty-two houses and a monastery. See Mong Ma. 

WAN MAW. — A village in the Kawn Kang ox Mid Riding of the North- 
ern Shan State of Mang Liin West. It is situated about a mile north-east 
of Man Peng, the capital of the State, and some distance below it. 

In April i8g2 there were nineteen houses, with eighty-nine inhabitants. 
Wan Maw is in the hsang hke hpdn^, and the inhabitants render service to 
the Chief instead of paying tribute, and also pay in a tithe of the grain they 
grow. The village is in two groups of thirteen and six houses respectively; 
paddy cultivation is the chief industry. A great deal of sugar-cane was, 
however, also